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Instructional Focus Document
World Geography Studies Regional
TITLE : Regional Unit 01: Physical Patterns and Processes SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

Geography is foremost a spatial study of Earth’s surface and an examination of the spatial relationship between the physical environment and humans.  The goal of this course is for students to gain knowledge about places in the world by examining the natural and human characteristics of various regions along with examining the connections made between places. Additionally, it is a goal to develop the spatial reasoning of students, and their knowledge of the location of places.

The course begins with this foundation unit that bundles student expectations related to the physical geographic patterns in the world and the physical processes that affect those patterns.  Knowledge about the earth’s physical patterns and processes is necessary for making informed decisions about managing resources, evaluating locations, and predicting future physical changes.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, in all social studies courses since Kindergarten, students have been applying geography skills to a variety of content areas and developing spatial reasoning skills. Students have also learned about physical geographic content in science courses. For example, weathering, erosion, and deposition have been covered in-depth since Grade 4 in science. The Earth-Sun relationship has been studied since Kindergarten, and in Grade 8 science students studied plate tectonics extensively. Additionally in middle school science, students studied physical processes which affect the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. In both science and social studies, students have looked at the human-environment interaction and the formation of landforms.

During this Unit

During this unit, students learn about maps as a medium of spatial information, about the geographic processes which create landforms, and about the physical processes that create the climate patterns in the world. Additionally, students learn about the effect of climate on the distribution of biomes.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about human geographic systems that have developed to manage resources as well as studying about regions conceptually. 


Maps are created to visualize the spatial world.

  • How do maps reflect and shape perceptions of the world?

Physical and human processes shape the patterns of the Earth’s surface.

  • In what ways is the Earth’s surface constantly being changed?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Geographers use maps to relate spatial information.

  • What common features are included on all maps?
  • Why are maps not always completely an accurate representation of Earth’s surface?
  • What are the most commonly used thematic maps?
  • How can maps be controversial?
  • How has the invention of GPS and GIS affected mapmaking?

Historical Patterns

  • Ideas/Innovation

Spatial Patterns

  • Location
  • Region/Borders
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Earth’s physical geography patterns are shaped by physical processes and human modification.

  • What physical processes affect the lithosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere?
  • How are landforms created?
  • In what ways have humans modified the physical geography of Earth?
  • What technologies have been used to modify the physical geography of Earth?
  • What changes in societies have resulted in the diverse uses of physical features?

Spatial Patterns

  • Physical Geographic Processes/Landforms
  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Annual changes in the Earth-Sun relationship create seasonal changes.

  • How does the Earth-Sun relationship create the seasons?
  • How does the Earth-Sun relationship differ between the Northern and Southern hemispheres?

Spatial Patterns

  • Physical Geographic Processes/Landforms
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Temperature and precipitation patterns influence the distribution of climate regions and biomes.

  • What does the pattern of climate distribution on the earth look like?
  • What factors affect the temperature and precipitation of regions?
  • How does the combination of temperature and precipitation create a climate region?
  • What is characteristic of climate graphs? What is characteristic of the relationship between climate and the distribution of biomes?
  • What does the pattern of biome distribution on the Earth look like?

Spatial Patterns

  • Climate
  • Ecosystems/Biomes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • An underdeveloped concept is geography itself. Many believe that geography is only about the location of places on maps and globes. There is a lack of understanding that geography is about the study of spatial patterns and the processes that create those patterns.
  • Students may have underdeveloped spatial reasoning skills as well as lack mental maps of the world.
  • Students may lack an understanding of the Earth-Sun relationship in regards to the Southern Hemisphere and the seasonal differences in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Some confuse the physical process of weathering with weather. The two are different processes.
  • Students may have underdeveloped understandings of physical geography, including misinformation such as islands float, or that all rivers flow south.

Unit Vocabulary

geography – study of the Earth’s people, places, features, and environment from a spatial perspective
patterns – an observable model, style or trend, generally observed on maps in geography
processes – a particular method that brings changes to the physical or human geography
human geography – study of human activities related to interaction with the environment and control of the Earth’s surface
physical geography – study of the patterns and process related to the Earth’s surface
geographic factors – physical and human conditions that impact the environments of places and regions
landforms – a specific physical feature of the Earth’s surface
biomes – large ecosystems characterized by common climate, common vegetation, and common animal life
lithosphere – the solid surface of Earth, including the soil and landforms
hydrosphere – the water areas of Earth, including oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water, glaciers and water vapor
biosphere – the areas of Earth that support plant and animal life
atmosphere – the gaseous area of air surrounding Earth
tectonic forces – physical process involving the movement of the Earth’s crust
erosion – the wearing away of the Earth’s surface caused by the movement of water, ice, or wind 
soil building process – the creation of organic matter formed from weathered rock, air, and water
climate –a pattern of  the combination of precipitation and temperature over time

Related Vocabulary

  • spatial
  • linguistic
  • climate
  • interactions
  • Humboldt current
  • vertical climate
  • cartography
  • dikes
  • Global Positioning System
  • Geographic Information System
  • rain-shadow effect
  • terrace farming
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWG.2 The student understands how people, places, and environments have changed over time and the effects of these changes. The student is expected to:
NewWG.2B Explain how changes in societies such as population shifts, technological advancements, and environmental policies have led to diverse uses of physical features over time such as terrace farming, dams, and polders.

Explain

HOW CHANGES IN SOCIETIES HAVE LED TO DIVERSE USES OF PHYSICAL FEATURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Increased demand for agricultural production, new technologies introduced to produce energy, and policies to deal with flooding are just a few examples of societal changes that have resulted in diverse uses of physical features over time. Population increases along with the spread of industrialization has also resulted in various diverse uses of physical features.  Examples include, terrace farming, building of dikes, levees, dams, and polders.
NewWG.3 The student understands how physical processes shape patterns in the physical environment. The student is expected to:
NewWG.3A Explain weather conditions and climate in relation to annual changes in Earth-Sun relationships.

Explain

WEATHER CONDITIONS AND CLIMATE IN RELATION TO ANNUAL CHANGES IN EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Earth-Sun Relationship
    • The Earth-Sun relationship is responsible for annual changes in the seasons. The earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5°. As the earth revolves around the sun not all areas of the globe receive the same amount of sunlight because of this tilt.  The polar areas received the least amount of direct sunlight making these regions colder than other places on the globe. The equator receives the most direct sunlight causing this area of the globe to be the warmest.
    • Sunlight hits directly over the equator on the Equinox. The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn mark the farthest northern and southern points where the sun’s rays hit Earth directly.  The summer solstice occurs in the northern hemisphere when the sun’s rays hit directly above the Tropic of Cancer, this is the longest day of the year in the northern hemisphere. The winter solstice in the northern hemisphere is the shortest day of the year and happens when the sun’s rays shine directly over the Tropic of Capricorn.
    • In the southern hemisphere the most direct rays of the sun hit in November, December, and January, causing these to be the warmest months. The coldest months are May, June and July when the sun’s light is less direct. The opposite is true for the northern hemisphere when the most direct sunlight is in the months of May, June and July and the least direct sunlight is in the months of November, December and January.
NewWG.3B Describe the physical processes that affect the environments of regions, including weather, tectonic forces, erosion, and soil-building processes.

Describe

PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT AFFECT THE ENVIRONMENTS OF REGIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Weather – refers to the day to day condition of the atmosphere and is affected by solar energy, pressure systems and cloud cover.
  • Tectonic forces – refer to the plates that make up the earth’s crust. Plate movements cause earthquakes and volcanic activity, as well as affecting the physical features of the earth. Divergent plate boundaries refer to areas where tectonic plates have moved apart. Convergent boundaries refer to areas where one tectonic plate is forced under another tectonic plate. Transform boundaries refer to areas where tectonic plates slide past each other. Tectonic plate movement results in earthquakes, volcanic activity and the formation of mountains and rift valleys.
  • Erosion – refers to the movement of weathered material by wind, water or ice. Water erosion is evident in rivers and along coastlines. Wind erosion is responsible for the movement of particles from one location to another, creating such physical features as sand dunes. Ice erosion occurs when large ice structures, generally glaciers, transport and deposit materials.
  • Soil-building – refers to the physical creation of weathered rock, organic matter, air and water. Erosion is generally a part of the soil-building process.
NewWG.3C Describe how physical processes such as hurricanes, El Niño, earthquakes, and volcanoes affect the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

Describe

PHYSICAL PROCESSES AFFECT THE LITHOSPHERE, ATMOSPHERE, HYDROSPHERE, AND BIOSPHERE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Hurricanes – causes high winds and large amounts of rainfall affecting the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere; can uproot plants, stones, or other loose materials affecting the lithosphere; can cause loss of plant, animal and      human life affecting the biosphere
  • El Nino – impacts precipitation levels causing periods of drought and flooding affecting all spheres
  • Earthquakes – causes fractures in the lithosphere; possible damage to lives in the biosphere; tsunamis are created in the hydrosphere and threaten the lithosphere
  • Volcanoes – releases gases and ash into the atmosphere; released ash affects lithosphere and hydrosphere; lava flows affect the lithosphere; eruptions can create craters in the lithosphere
  • Lithosphere – the outermost shell of the earth
  • Atmosphere – the layer of air that surrounds the earth
  • Hydrosphere – comprised of all the water that is on earth including lakes, rivers, oceans and underground supplies
  • Biosphere – refers to the living plants and animals that inhabit the land and water on the earth, also known as ecosystems
NewWG.4 The student understands the patterns and characteristics of major landforms, climates, and ecosystems of Earth and the interrelated processes that produce them. The student is expected to:
NewWG.4A Explain how elevation, latitude, wind systems, ocean currents, position on a continent, and mountain barriers influence temperature, precipitation, and distribution of climate regions.

Explain

HOW ELEVATION, LATITUDE, WIND SYSTEMS, OCEAN CURRENTS, POSITION ON A CONTINENT, AND MOUNTAIN BARRIERS INFLUENCE TEMPERATURE, PRECIPITATION, AND DISTRIBUTION OF CLIMATE REGIONS

Including, but not limited to:
Elevation

  • Locations in higher elevations experience cooler temperatures and high amounts of precipitation in the form of snow. Thin air in higher elevations lacks ability to hold heat causing both cooler temperatures and precipitation.

Latitude

  • Latitude has a significant impact on temperature with locations nearest the equator experiencing high temperatures and those near the poles experiencing cold temperatures. Average yearly temperatures decrease in progression from north and south of the equator.  Latitude has a slight influence on precipitation, mostly near the equator where rising hot air contributes to the humidity.

Wind systems

  • Wind systems serve to move warm or cool air across the earth’s surface and to distribute precipitation around the globe. Wind systems can bring moist air from across an ocean or dry air from across land. Monsoons are an example of a wind pattern that brings moist air across areas of South Asia causing heavy rainfall. Temperatures in coastal locations are affected by the temperature of the water nearby and the winds that cross over the water.

Ocean currents

  • Ocean currents help to distribute heat away from the equator. Warm water at the equator circulates toward the tropics. Water from the tropics circulates to the poles where the water cools and then circulates back towards the equator.  Wind systems have an effect on ocean currents and like wind systems, ocean currents also transfer precipitation around the world.

Position on continent

  • Locations that are located nearer coastlines tend to experience more moderate temperatures as opposed to locations that are further inland. Locations that are further inland generally experience greater daily and seasonal temperature variations.  Locations near coastlines also tend to experience greater amounts of precipitation. Position on continent is most evident in the middle latitudes and it along with latitude has the greatest effect on climate.

Mountain Barriers

  • Mountain barriers have a great effect on precipitation. As air rises to pass over a mountain barrier it releases moisture as the air cools.  This creates a wet side or windward side and a dry side or leeward side to mountain barriers. The windward side of a mountain is generally on the side closest to ocean.  This process is referred to as orographic precipitation or the rain shadow effect. Windward sides of mountain ranges receive higher average precipitation and leeward sides of mountain ranges tend to receive lower average precipitation.

Distribution of Climate Regions

  • Climate regions are characterized by a combination of average temperatures with average amounts of precipitation. There are five major categories of climate; polar, temperate, tropical, arid, and highland along with many sub categories within these larger groups.
  • The polar climate region is located in the higher latitudes and is characterized by generally low temperatures, low precipitation, long winters and short summers. Within the polar climate region are the sub regions of subarctic, tundra, and ice cap.
  • The temperate climate region is located in the mid latitudes and is characterized by seasonal temperature variations and seasonal precipitations variations. Within the temperate climate region are the sub regions of marine west coast, Mediterranean, humid subtropical and humid continental. Humid subtropical climates vary around the globe.
  • The tropical climate region is located in the low latitudes and characterized by warm temperatures year round and abundant rainfall.  Within the tropical climate region are the sub regions of tropical rainforest and savanna.
  • The arid/dry climate region is characterized by variations in temperatures and low rainfall. This climate zone is most commonly sub divided into desert or steppe.
  • Highland climate regions are located in higher elevations no matter the latitude.
NewWG.4B Describe different landforms such as plains, mountains, and islands and the physical processes that cause their development.

Describe

DIFFERENT LANDFORMS AND THE PHYSICAL PROCESSES THAT CAUSE THEIR DEVELOPMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mountains, islands, rifts, volcanos – tectonic forces
  • Plains – erosion from water, ice or wind; flowing lava
  • Atolls – growth of coral reefs around a volcano
  • Valleys – glacial erosion and tectonic forces
  • Deltas – soil building and water erosion
  • Canyons – water erosion
  • Fjord – glacial erosion
  • Sand dunes – wind erosion
NewWG.4C Explain the influence of climate on the distribution of biomes in different regions.

Explain

THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF BIOMES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Biomes or ecosystems are defined by a specific community of plants and animals that inhabit that region. Biomes are classified into four main categories: forests, grasslands, deserts, and tundra.

Forests

  • Temperate Deciduous Forest – found in the mid latitudes where the climate is characterized by plentiful rainfall, moderate temperatures, and cool winters. Characterized by trees that lose their leaves after changing colors in the fall.
  • Temperate Coniferous Forest – found in temperate climate zones where the summers are warm and the winters are cool and rainfall is adequate. Evergreens predominate and these forests can be found in coastal areas that experience mild winters and heavy rainfall as well as inland in mountainous areas.
  • Taiga or Boreal Forest – the world’s largest biome is located in the highest northern latitudes where average temperatures and average precipitation are low and are characterized by evergreen coniferous forests.  Animals living in this biome must adapt to very cold temperatures.
  • Tropical Rainforests – found in tropical areas near the equator where the climate is characterized by plentiful rainfall and warm year round temperatures. This biome is home to a great variety of plant and animal life. 

Grasslands

  • Steppes – found in climates that are experience low levels of rainfall, therefore there is an absence of trees. This biome is home to large grazing animals.
  • Savannas – found in climates that experience low levels of rainfall, yet have a little more than steppes and therefore have some trees. Also home to a variety of large animal species.

Deserts

  • Deserts are distinguished by a lack of rainfall, usually less than ten inches per year and can be hot or cold. These climate conditions require the plants and the animals in this biome to adapt to the extreme conditions.

Tundra or Arctic Biome

  • Found almost entirely in the Northern Hemisphere near the Arctic Ocean, it is characterized by low amounts of precipitation and extremely cold temperatures. Permafrost or frozen subsoil makes it difficult to sustain plant life in this biome; therefore this biome lacks trees and is distinguished by small shrubs and low growing plants. These plants have adapted to the colder climate conditions and thrive in the short summer and spring. Animals in this region are few and must adapt to the extreme climate conditions.
NewWG.19 The student understands the impact of technology and human modifications on the physical environment. The student is expected to:
NewWG.19A Evaluate the significance of major technological innovations in the areas of transportation and energy that have been used to modify the physical environment.

Evaluate

SIGNIFICANCE OF MAJOR TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS THAT MODIFY THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

Innovations in Transportation

  • Railroads have allowed for faster transportation of goods to market and the settlement of people to varied locations, examples include the Trans-Siberian Railroad, the Trans-Canadian Railroad and the Transcontinental Railroad
  • Highways and roads have facilitated the transportation of goods to market and allowed for economic activities to move from city centers such as the Interstate Highway System in the United States and the Interoceanic Highway in South America
  • Canals facilitate the faster  transportation of goods to market promoting economic development
  • Dredging allows for the creation of deeper ports and creation of land such as the Hong Kong airport

Innovations in Energy

  • Wind/Solar Power allow for the renewable creation of energy
  • Dams/Hydroelectric Power provide for widespread access to electricity and control of flooding
  • Oil drilling/Hydraulic fracturing increase the amount of oil extracted; may have environmental implications
  • Nuclear power provides an alternative source of energy, but poses a risk for human exposure to radiation
NewWG.20 The student understands how current technology affects human interaction. The student is expected to:
NewWG.20A Describe the impact of new information technologies such as the Internet, Global Positioning System (GPS), or Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

Describe

IMPACT OF NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Internet has allowed information to be easily accessible worldwide.
  • Global Positioning System (GPS) allows for the transmission of location and weather information. Has facilitated precision in location and aided in navigational systems. Application of GPS technology has been used by the military as well as businesses and individuals.
  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have integrated data to produce charts, maps, and globes allowing for the visualization of geographic data that can be used to analyze relationships and patterns.
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21A Analyze and evaluate the validity and utility of multiple sources of geographic information such as primary and secondary sources, aerial photographs, and maps.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF MULTIPLE SOURCES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Primary sources
  • Secondary sources
  • Aerial photographs
  • Maps
NewWG.21C Create and interpret different types of maps to answer geographic questions, infer relationships, and analyze change.

Create, Interpret

TYPES OF MAPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examples of types of maps: physical, topographical, political, climate, population, economic, cultural trait (e.g., religion), road
  • Examples of types of map projections: Mercator, Robinson, Mollweide, broken equal area (interrupted), polar
  • Use maps to
    • Answer geographic questions
    • Infer relationships
    • Analyze change
NewWG.21D Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
  • Developing connections over time involves the examination of how political, economic, social, and geographic factors have change over time or how those factors have remained the same over time.
NewWG.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWG.22A Create appropriate graphics such as maps, diagrams, tables, and graphs to communicate geographic features, distributions, and relationships.

Design, Draw

APPROPRIATE GRAPHICS TO COMMUNICATE GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES, DISTRIBUTIONS, AND RELATIONSHIPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Diagrams
  • Tables
  • Graphs
NewWG.22B Generate summaries, generalizations, and thesis statements supported by evidence.

Generate

SUMMARIES, GENERALIZATIONS, AND THESIS STATEMENTS SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Summaries are a concise version of information.
  • Generalizations are broad statements based on the evidence presented by patterns.
  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay.
NewWG.22C Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

GEOGRAPHIC TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWG.22D Create original work using effective written communication skills, including proper citations and understanding and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

ORIGINAL WORK

Use

EFFECTIVE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWG.21 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWG.21B Identify places of contemporary geopolitical significance on a map.

Locate

PLACES OF CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE ON A MAP

NewWG.21E Identify different points of view about an issue or current topic.

Identify

POINTS OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
NewWG.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWG.23A Plan, organize, and complete a research project that involves asking geographic questions; acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information; answering questions; and communicating results.

Plan, Organize, Complete

RESEARCH PROJECT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Asking geographic questions
  • Acquiring, organizing, and analyzing information
  • Answering questions
  • Communicating results
NewWG.23B Use case studies and GIS to identify contemporary challenges and to answer real-world questions.

Use

CASE STUDIES AND GIS

Identify

CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES

Answer

REAL-WORLD QUESTIONS

NewWG.23C Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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