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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 2 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 04: Interacting with the Environment SUGGESTED DURATION : 20 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address geography and the interaction of humans with the physical environment of the community. Communities can be defined by a physical spatial locale as well as by the people inhabiting that locale. It is important for students to practice spatial reasoning skills using maps and globes for understanding the geography of communities.  Additionally studying the nature of human environmental interactions is important for understanding how geography affects communities.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the history of the community, the nature of citizenship in a community, and how communities are governed.

Since Kindergarten, students have been developing spatial reasoning skills by creating maps and using maps and globes. Additionally students have studied about the geographic concept of human environmental interaction by learning about the impact physical geography has on human geography.

During this Unit

During this unit, students further develop their spatial reasoning skills by creating and analyzing maps to locate major bodies of water, continents, the local community, and other locations. Students also learn about how the physical environment affects the location of communities, and how people interact with the environment through adaptation and modification.  

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about how the economy of a community operates. 


Maps are created to visualize the spatial world.

  • How do maps reflect and shape perceptions of the world?

Humans have a complex relationship with the environment

  • What is characteristic of the interactions between humans and the environment?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Geographers use maps and globes to show the physical characteristics of communities.

  • What map elements help us to read a map?
  • What major landforms and regions are shown on maps and globes?
  • How are important places located on a map or on a globe?

Spatial Patterns

  • Location
  • Physical Geographic Processes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

 

Spatial Patterns

  • Location
  • Physical Geographic Processes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The physical environment affects where communities are located.

  • What sources help us to learn about different communities?
  • How do weather patterns, location of natural resources, and natural hazards affect where communities are located?
  • How is the physical environment of rural, suburban, and urban communities different?

Spatial Patterns

  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

People adapt to the physical environment and shape the physical environment through modification.

  • How do communities use natural resources to meet their needs?
  • What are some ways that people have adapted to the physical environment?
  • What happens when the physical environment is modified?
  • How can communities protect their natural resources?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students generally have underdeveloped spatial reasoning skills and need practice using the title, orientation, and legend to interpret maps.
  • Students have generally only experienced life in one setting therefore may lack context for rural, urban, and suburban.

Unit Vocabulary

continents – large landmasses
weather patterns – the combination of precipitation and temperature that are common to a place
natural resources – things found in nature that are used to produce other things
natural hazards –natural events that causes damage or loss of lives
settlement patterns – the design that is made by looking at where people settle and where people do not settle
adapt – making adjustments because of existing conditions
modify – making changes to the existing conditions

Related Vocabulary

  • landforms
  • maps
  • globes
  • irrigation
  • conserve
  • urban
  • suburban
  • rural
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
2 Geography.
2.5 Geography. The student uses simple geographic tools such as maps and globes. The student is expected to:
2.5A Interpret information on maps and globes using basic map elements such as title, orientation (north, south, east, west), and legend/map keys.

Interpret

MAPS AND GLOBES USING MAP ELEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Title
  • Orientation (cardinal directions: north, south, east, west)
  • Legend/map key
    • Symbols(symbols depend on map’s theme)
2.5B Create maps to show places and routes within the home, school, and community.

Create

MAPS TO SHOW PLACES AND ROUTES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Map of home
  • School map – map to various school locations
  • Community map – map to various community locations
  • Possible examples:
    • Map from one student’s house to another
    • Map to historical landmark
    • Map of historical interest
    • Map from school to home
    • Map of escape route for a fire drill at home and school
2.6 Geography. The student understands the locations and characteristics of places and regions in the community, state, and nation. The student is expected to:
2.6A Identify major landforms and bodies of water, including each of the continents and each of the oceans, on maps and globes.

Identify

MAJOR LANDFORMS AND BODIES OF WATER ON MAPS AND GLOBES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Major landforms - features of the Earth’s surface
    • Mountains – a part of the earth’s surface that naturally rises to very high elevations
    • Hills – a part of the earth’s surface that naturally rises up but not as high as mountains
    • Valleys – a area of low land between mountains or hills
    • Plains – a part of the earth’s surface that is mostly flat and treeless
    • Coastal plains – low, flat land along an ocean
  • Physical maps may indicate major landforms with color variations, legends, and/or labels; bodies of water are generally colored blue and may be identified by shape and/or label
  • Continents – landmasses identified by geographers as, North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica in order to study common characteristics
  • Oceans – large bodies of water on the Earth’s surface identified by geographers as the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Arctic Ocean. Together the oceans form one huge body of salt water which covers the globe. The largest and deepest is the Pacific Ocean. (In 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization named a fifth ocean, the Southern Ocean, surrounding Antarctica and comprised of southern portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The National Geographic Society does not officially recognize the Southern Ocean, and there is no international agreement on the name and the extent of a fifth ocean.)
2.6B

Locate places of significance, including the local community, Texas, the state capital, the U.S. capital, major cities in Texas, the coast of Texas, Canada, Mexico, and the United States on maps and globes.

Locate

PLACES OF SIGNIFICANCE ON MAPS AND GLOBES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Local community
  • Texas
  • State capital  Austin
  • U.S. capital- Washington D.C.
  • Major cities in Texas- Amarillo, Austin, Dallas, El Paso, Ft. Worth, Houston, San Antonio
  • Coast of Texas
  • Canada
  • Mexico
  • United States
2.6C Examine information from various sources about places and regions.

Examine

INFORMATION FROM VARIOUS SOURCES ABOUT PLACES AND REGION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Oral sources – conversations, interviews, music
  • Visual sources – maps, pictures,  artifacts)
  • Print sources – books, articles, letters, journals, newspapers, literature, reference sources)
2.7 Geography. The student understands how physical characteristics of places and regions affect people's activities and settlement patterns. The student is expected to:
2.7A Describe how weather patterns and seasonal patterns affect activities and settlement patterns.

Describe

HOW ACTIVITIES AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS ARE AFFECTED BY GEOGRAPHY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Weather and seasonal patterns affect how people adapt to the environment. This affects clothing choices, types of shelters built, and daily life and recreational activities.
  • People settle near water in areas with most favorable climates. Settlements tend to concentrate in areas with land for growing crops or in areas with available jobs, such as cities.
2.7B Describe how natural resources and natural hazards affect activities and settlement patterns.

Describe

HOW NATURAL RESOURCES AND NATURAL HAZARDS AFFECT ACTIVITIES AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Natural resources – natural resources are materials derived from the environment which people use to produce goods. Some examples of natural resources include water, soil, and vegetation, as well as minerals and metals such as gold and iron ore.
    • Settlements must be near water to survive.
    • People settle in areas where they can meet their basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter.
    • Natural resources affect goods people produce and activities they participate in (e.g., fishing operations near the coast; tourism near the beach; surfing, wind-surfing, and scuba diving instruction and shops near the coast)
  • Natural hazard – natural events which result in destruction of the environment and threaten human life, including earthquakes, tornados, volcanos, hurricanes, drought, floods and insect infestation.
    • Some people make personal choices about where to live based on the threat of natural disasters, such as not living along a coastline to avoid hurricanes.
2.7C Explain how people depend on the physical environment and natural resources to meet basic needs.

Explain

HOW PEOPLE MEET BASIC NEEDS USING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • People use the natural resources in their physical environment to meet the basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter, including growing food, making clothing from natural fibers and furs and building shelter using lumber, rock, sod. Water is the most primary resource need by humans.
  • Physical environment – the natural conditions in a particular place, characterized by physical geographic features, plants, and animals.
  • Natural resources – materials derived from the environment which people produce goods. Some examples of natural resources include water, soil, and vegetation, as well as minerals and metals such as gold and iron ore. Even an abundance of fish can be a natural resource.
2.7D Identify the characteristics of different communities, including urban, suburban, and rural, and how they affect activities and settlement patterns.

Identify

CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNITIES AND HOW THEY AFFECT ACTIVITIES AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Urban – constituting a city, characterized by high population density housing, businesses, higher education institutions, museums, and entertainment venues. People migrate to urban areas in search of employment and access to services, higher education and entertainment.
  • Suburban – a residential district located on the outskirts of a city characterized by residential neighborhoods and some shopping areas.
  • Rural –  areas of country side characterized by small communities generally surrounded by farms or ranches  of farming or country life,  low population density and access to fewer services
  • People make decisions about where to settle based on the availability of employment, quality of life, access to services, and cost of living.
2.8 Geography. The student understands how humans use and modify the physical environment. The student is expected to:
2.8A Identify ways in which people have modified the physical environment such as building roads, clearing land for urban development and agricultural use, and drilling for oil.

Identify

WAYS PEOPLE MODIFY THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Build roads – involves grading and paving long stretch of land for transportation
  • Clear land for urban development and agricultural use – involves transforming open lands by tilling into farmlands or constructing residential and commercial buildings
  • Drill for oil – involves subterranean exploration with wells and piping to extract oil from the ground for energy
  • Mining
  • Building dams – done to control flooding and/or provide hydro-electric power
  • Irrigation – moving water to arid regions to provide for crops
2.8B Identify positive and negative consequences of human modification of the physical environment such as the use of irrigation to improve crop yields.

Identify

CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN MODIFICATION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

Positive consequence of human modification of the environment

  • Access to needed resources
  • Production of energy
  • Increased production of food supply
  • Allowed for faster movement of goods and people

Negative consequences of human modification of the environment

  • Urban sprawl
  • Pollution
  • Depletion of  resources
  • Introduction of non-native species
2.8C Identify ways people can conserve and replenish natural resources.

Identify

WAYS PEOPLE CONSERVE AND REPLENISH NATURAL RESOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reduce electricity use
  • Reduce water use
  • Recycle items
  • Reuse items
  • Avoid being wasteful
  • Replant lost vegetation
2 Social studies skills.
2.18 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
2.18E Interpret oral, visual, and print material by identifying the main idea, predicting, and comparing and contrasting.

Interpret

ORAL, VISUAL, PRINT MATERIAL

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identifying the main idea
  • Predicting an outcome
  • Comparing and contrasting media and media messages
2.19 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
2.19A Express ideas orally based on knowledge and experiences.

Express

IDEAS ORALLY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Based on knowledge
  • Based on experiences
2.19B Create written and visual material such as stories, poems, maps, and graphic organizers to express ideas.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL TO EXPRESS IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Stories
  • Poems
  • Maps
  • Graphic organizers
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 05/23/2018
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