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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 4 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 05: The Empresario System SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to Mexican colonization of Texas through the implementation of the empresario system. Early in the nineteenth century, events in Europe affected the Spanish colonies in the New World. In the course of these events, colonists in Mexico fought and gained independence from Spanish rule. Mexican officials made the control of Texas a priority and instituted a system to bring permanent settlers to the region.  During the early nineteenth century Texas became the home to many settlers from the United States, who brought with them a different culture than that of the Mexicans. Eventually these cultural differences gave rise to growing tensions between colonists and Mexican officials. A study of the empresario system is fundamental to understanding how Texas was successfully populated and to understanding the eventual differences that resulted in revolt in Texas.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about Spanish exploration and the establishment of missions and presidios in Texas. During this unit, students learn about how Mexican independence brought changes to Texas, including the land grant empresario system instituted by the Mexican government. Students also learn about how the empresario system shaped settlement patterns and culture in Texas. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources. The social studies skill TEKS 4.21A included in this unit supports the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources. The social studies skill TEKS 4.21A included in this unit supports the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about the conflict between Mexican officials and Texans that manifests in a revolution.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

After gaining independence from Spain, Mexican officials instituted a land grant policy to colonize Texas.

  • Why did Mexicans fight for independence from Spain?
  • How was government different in Mexico after gaining independence from Spain?
  • Why were land grants given to empresarios?
  • How did the empresarios and land grant system affect the settlement of Texas?

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems
  • Revolution
  • Colonization

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders
  • Migration
  • Population Distribution
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The empresario system brought cultural and social changes to Texas.

  • How and why did settlers in the land grants adapt to the environment of Texas?
  • What was characteristic of life for the early settlers to Texas?
  • How was Texas culturally changing because of the empresario system?

Cultural Patterns

  • Demographics
  • Ethnicity

Spatial Patterns

  • Human-Environment Interaction

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students often struggle with the distinction between Spanish control of Texas and Mexican control of Texas.
  • Students often believe that relationships between Anglo settlers and the Mexican government were always contentious. Yet, early Anglo settlers to Texas supported the Mexican government until officials abandoned the democratic constitution and Santa Anna became a dictator.

Unit Vocabulary

empresario – an agent who makes all the arrangements to bring settlers to a colony
agriculture – the industry of growing crops or raising livestock, also known as farming
land grant – an area of land given to individuals by the government
Tejano ­– the unique cultural blending of Spanish and American traditions in Texas

Related Vocabulary

  • colonization
  • settlement patterns
  • culture
  • migration

 

Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
4 History.
4.2 History. The student understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of Texas and North America. The student is expected to:
4.2D Identify Texas' role in the Mexican War of Independence and the war's impact on the development of Texas.

Identify

TEXAS’ ROLE IN THE MEXICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE AND THE WAR’S IMPACT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Texas’ role in the Mexican War of Independence
    • Many Americans who had a relationship with Spanish Mexico were inspired by the speeches of Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1810. He demanded equality for all people in Mexico. He led an uprising against the Spanish government. Those involved were Indians, mestizos, and priests living in missions all across Mexico.
  • The war’s impact on the development of Texas
    • When Mexico gained independence, a new constitution was written and approved in 1824. The establishment of a federal democratic government, much like that of the United States influenced many Americans to move to Texas. The Mexican government created a land grant system, giving land to some Americans, who established colonies populated by many migrants from the United States.
4.2E Identify the accomplishments and explain the economic motivations and impact of significant empresarios, including Stephen F. Austin and Martín de León, on the settlement of Texas.

Identify, Explain

ACCOMPLISHMENTS, ECONOMIC MOTIVATIONS AND IMPACT OF SIGNIFICANT EMPRESARIOS

Including, but not limited to:
Stephen F. Austin

  • Known as the “Father of Texas;” brought 300 families of Anglo settlers into Texas; fought for Texas independence
  • First American empresario to colonize Texas
  • Gained economically as he developed empresario grants

Martin de León

  • Tejano empresario who started a colony in 1824 with 200 Mexican families
  • First Mexican empresario who colonized Texas
  • Developed the city of Victoria and created a trade center in South Texas
4 Geography.
4.6 Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
4.6A Apply geographic tools, including grid systems, legends, symbols, scales, and compass roses, to construct and interpret maps.

Apply

GEOGRAPHIC TOOLS TO CONSTRUCT AND INTERPRET MAPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Grid systems – a network of horizontal and vertical lines used to locate points on a map or a chart by means of coordinates
  • Legends – an explanatory list of the symbols appearing on a chart or map. Sometimes, this is called a key
  • Symbols – a symbol is something which stands for or suggests something else. It can be a visible sign of something which is intangible.
  • Scales – a scale indicates the relationship between the distances on a map, chart, or plan and the corresponding actual distances. Examples include “1 inch equals 1 mile.”
  • Compass rose – a compass rose is a circle or similar design which includes graduated degrees or quarter points and shows compass directions
  • Other elements of maps
    • Title
    • Date of map
    • Author of map
  • Suggested maps students could construct
    • Land grants, towns in Texas 1820-1830
4.8 Geography. The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:
4.8A

Identify and explain clusters and patterns of settlement in Texas at different time periods such as prior to the Texas Revolution, after the building of the railroads, and following World War II.

Identify, Explain

CLUSTERS AND PATTERNS OF SETTLEMENT IN TEXAS AT DIFFERENT PERIODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • During the early 1800’s the population of Texas grew significantly as the Mexican government promoted colonization of the region by giving land grants to Anglo and Mexican settlers. The vast majority of the new settlement in Texas during the 1800’s was by immigrants coming from the United States, some bringing enslaved Africans with them to Texas. Most land grants were located in South and East Texas where physical geography was more favorable to settlement.
4.8B Describe and explain the location and distribution of various towns and cities in Texas, past and present.

Describe, Explain

LOCATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS TOWNS AND CITIES IN TEXAS, PAST AND PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Prior to 1845 most towns were located along waterways and in colonies established by empresarios, such as San Antonio, San Felipe, Nacogdoches, and Victoria.
4.9 Geography. The student understands how people adapt to and modify their environment. The student is expected to:
4.9A Describe ways people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as timber clearing, agricultural production, wetlands drainage, energy production, and construction of dams.

Describe

WAYS PEOPLE HAVE ADAPTED TO AND MODIFIED THEIR ENVIRONMENT IN TEXAS, PAST AND PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Building dams, windmills, levees, railroads, bridges, highways
  • Energy production by installing solar panels and creating windmill farms
  • Dredging, irrigation, and wetlands drainage. Galveston Bay was dredged and sand used to elevate the city of Galveston. Wetlands around Houston have been drained to create stable land. Bayous and wetlands have been drained and redesigned to create the Port of Houston.
  • Timber clearing, mining, oil extraction, desalination, overgrazing, overhunting
  • Burning fossil fuels
  • Creating advanced warning systems for earthquakes, tornados, and hurricanes
  • Planting seasonal and/or drought resistant crops and using fertilizers to increase agricultural output
4.9B Identify reasons why people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as the use of natural resources to meet basic needs, facilitate transportation, and enhance recreational activities.

Identify

REASONS PEOPLE HAVE ADAPTED TO AND MODIFIED THEIR ENVIRONMENT IN TEXAS, PAST AND PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Using natural resources to meet basic needs
    • Lumber, stone, and adobe bricks used as building materials
    • Buckskin clothing was made from animal skins
    • Building dams for flood control and to generate hydro-electric power
  • Using resources to facilitate transportation
    • Settlers used rivers for transportation when possible. Rivers in Texas tend to be shallow and flood easily.
    • Railroads were used to transport people and goods.
  • Using natural resources to enhance recreational activities
    • Creating of reservoirs allowed for boating and water recreational activities
4 Economics.
4.10 Economics. The student understands the basic economic activities of early societies in Texas and North America. The student is expected to:
4.10B Explain the economic activities early immigrants to Texas used to meet their needs and wants.

Explain

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES USED BY EARLY IMMIGRANTS TO TEXAS TO MEET THEIR NEEDS AND WANTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Old Three Hundred and other early colonists
    • Farming (agriculture), ranching, and small businesses
    • Colonists farmed corn and cotton
4 Government.
4.14 Government. The student understands how people organized governments in different ways during the early development of Texas. The student is expected to:
4.14B Identify and compare characteristics of the Spanish colonial government and the early Mexican governments and their influence on inhabitants of Texas.

Identify, Compare

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOVERNMENTS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON INHABITANTS OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Spanish colonial Texas was ruled by a monarchy in Spain with appointed viceroys administering in New Spain. Spanish colonial leaders were instrumental in introducing the presidio and mission system to Texas, as it had been previously used in New Spain. Additionally these Spanish leaders introduced a civilian settlement pattern to Texas that physically involved the plotting of land with a central town square surrounded by perpendicular streets.
  • Following Mexico’s war for independence, Texas was administered under the Mexican Constitution of 1824, which created three branches of government, a representative government, and required the Roman Catholic faith as the accepted religion of the colony. The Mexican government adopted the land grant policy that resulted in Anglo colonization of Texas.
4 Culture.
4.19 Culture. The student understands the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas. The student is expected to:
4.19A Identify the similarities and differences among various racial, ethnic, and religious groups in Texas.

Identify

SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Similarities
    • Maintained culture through celebrations, food, music, and language
    • Came to Texas for economic opportunities and freedom
  • Differences
    • Reasons for migration to Texas
    • Came from Europe, Mexico, Asia, and the United States
4 Social studies skills.
4.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
4.21A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; documents; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT THE UNITED STATES AND TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Computer software
  • Interviews
  • Biographies
  • Oral, print, and visual material
  • Documents
  • Artifacts
4.21B Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • By using skills of:
    • Sequencing
    • Categorizing
    • Identifying cause-and-effect relationship
    • Comparing
    • Contrasting
    • Finding the main idea
    • Summarizing
    • Making generalizations and predictions
    • Drawing inferences and conclusions
4.22 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
4.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

4.22D Create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
4.22E Use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

Use

STANDARD GRAMMAR, SPELLING, SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND PUNCTUATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Grammar
  • Spelling
  • Sentence structure
  • Punctuation
  • Proper citation of sources
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 05/24/2018
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