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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 4 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 08: Texas During the Civil War and Reconstruction SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to changes taking place in Texas during the mid-nineteenth century, including increasing immigration, the Civil War, and Reconstruction. Prior to the civil war, the availability of cheap land fueled an influx of immigrants from Europe to Texas. Those immigrant benefited economically from the free enterprise system in the United States and many established businesses in Texas. In 1861, Texans voted to secede from the United States and join the Confederate States of America. Many Texans had emigrated from the southern United States and some Texans were slaveholders, especially in East Texas where enslaved African Americans worked on plantations. Texans served in the Confederate Army and some battles of the American Civil War were fought in Texas. The Texas coast was blockaded by the Union for the entire war. After the end of the war, Texans began the process of Reconstruction eventually writing a new constitution for Texas and reestablishing institutions in Texas. Studying about the various immigrant groups that have come to Texas is important for understanding the cultural mosaic of Texas. An examination of the Civil War and Reconstruction in Texas is important for understanding the debates that continue about the nature of federalism.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the establishment of the Republic of Texas and about the annexation of Texas to the United States.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about early nineteenth century immigration to Texas, about the involvement of Texas in the Civil War, and about the political, economic, and social changes that resulted with Reconstruction. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources. The social studies skill TEKS 4.21A included in this unit supports the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students learn about the settlement of the Texas frontier, with the development of the cattle industry and the building of railroads.


In a free enterprise system the individual has choices as a producer and consumer.

  • What motivates the economic choices of the individual?

Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Many immigrants came to Texas in the early 1800s and benefited from the free enterprise system in Texas.

  • Why did a large number of immigrants come to Texas in the early 1800s and from where?
  • How did the free enterprise system benefit those in Texas and those who immigrated to Texas?
  • What types of businesses were started by Texans during the early 1800s?

Economic Patterns

  • Economic Systems

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Texas joined the Confederacy during the Civil War and was political, economically, and social changed by Reconstruction following the war.

  • Why did Texas secede from the Union and join the Confederacy?
  • How did fighting the Civil War affect the economy of Texas?
  • How was Texas changed politically, economically, and socially during Reconstruction?
  • Why is Juneteenth a significant celebration in Texas?

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/ Cooperation

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

free enterprise system – economic system characterized by freedom for consumers and producers
civil war – war between groups living with a country
confederacy – an alliance formed for a common purpose
secede – to withdraw from a nation or state to be independent
Reconstruction – process of rebuilding the Union with the readmission of the southern states

Related Vocabulary

  • supply
  •  demand
 
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
4 History.
4.4 History. The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in Texas during the last half of the 19th century. The student is expected to:
4.4A Describe the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Texas.

Describe

IMPACT OF THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION ON TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Impact of Civil War on Texas
    • Texas seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy, despite the opposition by Sam Houston
    • Weakened Texas economy because of Texas’ association with the South
    • Disruption in agricultural and business sectors
    • 60,000-70,000 Texas men joined the Confederacy
  • Impact of Reconstruction on Texas
    • Constitution of 1876 was written, remains in effect to the present
    • Emancipation granted to enslaved people, most of which were of African American descent
    • Shortage of labor on plantations and farms led to the practice of sharecropping, generally among former enslaved people
    • Freedmen’s Bureau created
    • Black Codes – state imposed laws that restricted African Americans, such as curfews
    • Segregation as well as the eventual removal of American Indian tribes from western Texas
    • Increased immigration primarily from Europe
    • Texas rejoined Union (United States)
4 Geography.
4.8 Geography. The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:
4.8A

Identify and explain clusters and patterns of settlement in Texas at different time periods such as prior to the Texas Revolution, after the building of the railroads, and following World War II.

Identify, Explain

CLUSTERS AND PATTERNS OF SETTLEMENT IN TEXAS AT DIFFERENT PERIODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • During the mid1800s Texas experience a large wave of immigration from many European nations. This wave including the immigration of Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. By 1850 Texas’ population was well over 200,000 and by 1860 the number of people living in Texas reached more than 600,000, yet in 1836 it had been approximately 50,000. Enslaved African-Americans were also brought to Texas in large numbers during this time period and mostly settled on cotton plantations in East Texas. More than 2,000 families settled in the Peters Colony in North Texas near present-day Dallas during the 1840s. Many small towns were established by immigrants and most people lived in rural areas with settlements concentrated in the eastern and central portions of the state.
4 Economics.
4.10 Economics. The student understands the basic economic activities of early societies in Texas and North America. The student is expected to:
4.10B Explain the economic activities early immigrants to Texas used to meet their needs and wants.

Explain

ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES USED BY EARLY IMMIGRANTS TO TEXAS TO MEET THEIR NEEDS AND WANTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • European immigrants
    • Agriculture and small businesses – the same economic activities as in the home countries
4.11 Economics. The student understands the characteristics and benefits of the free enterprise system in Texas. The student is expected to:
4.11A Describe the development of the free enterprise system in Texas.

Describe

HOW PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF TEXAS EARN THEIR LIVING, PAST AND PRESENT, THROUGH A SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY AND PROVIDING GOODS AND SERVICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Texans have always been free to own and operate businesses.
4.11B Describe how the free enterprise system works, including supply and demand.

Describe

HOW THE FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM WORKS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The Free Enterprise System is characterized by economic freedom, voluntary exchange, private property ownership and profit motive. In this economic system individuals are free to own and operate businesses which produce goods and services to sell for the purpose of making a profit. The amount of goods and services supplied is determined by the amount demanded by consumers.
4.11C Give examples of the benefits of the free enterprise system such as choice and opportunity.

Provide

EXAMPLES OF THE BENEFITS OF THE FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examples of Benefits
    • Producers have choice about what they wish to produce.
    • Consumers have choice about what they wish to buy.
    • Profits from well-managed business.
    • Sense of control over one’s destiny.
    • Competition generally results in innovative products and low prices.
    • Consumer demand determines prices and supplies.
    • Opportunity to choose different types of the same product.
4.12 Economics. The student understands patterns of work and economic activities in Texas. The student is expected to:
4.12C Analyze the effects of exploration, immigration, migration, and limited resources on the economic development and growth of Texas.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF EXPLORATION, IMMIGRATION, MIGRATION AND LIMITED RESOURCES ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Over the course of time, as more people moved to Texas the demand for resources increased. The economy developed from a primarily agricultural-based economy to a diversified economy, based on the production of a variety of goods and services.  Economic innovation has allowed the economy in Texas to adapt to the growing demand for resources, such as the development of windfarms to meet energy demands.
4.12F Explain the impact of American ideas about progress and equality of opportunity on the economic development and growth of Texas.

Explain

IMPACT OF AMERICAN IDEAS ON PROGRESS AND EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • American ideas about progress and equality of opportunity promote innovation and entrepreneurship.

4 Government.
4.15 Government. The student understands important ideas in historical documents of Texas and the United States. The student is expected to:
4.15A

Identify the purposes and explain the importance of the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Texas Constitution, and other documents such as the Meusebach-Comanche Treaty.

Identify, Explain

PURPOSES, IMPORTANCE OF DOCUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Meusebach-Comanche Treaty – an agreement between German settlers and American Indians living near Fredericksburg to share land, report on any wrong doing, and survey the area. This agreement opened 3 million acres of land to settlement.
4 Citizenship.
4.16 Citizenship. The student understands important customs, symbols, and celebrations of Texas. The student is expected to:
4.16D

Describe the origins and significance of state celebrations such as Texas Independence Day and Juneteenth.

Describe

ORIGINS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF STATE CELEBRATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Juneteenth
    • June 19, 1865; the day enslaved people in Texas were informed about the Emancipation Proclamation.  Gen. Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston and announced that enslaved people were free and that the civil war was over. The order freeing enslaved people in slavery states took effect Jan. 1, 1863.
4 Social studies skills.
4.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
4.21B Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • By using skills of:
    • Sequencing
    • Categorizing
    • Identifying cause-and-effect relationship
    • Comparing
    • Contrasting
    • Finding the main idea
    • Summarizing
    • Making generalizations and predictions
    • Drawing inferences and conclusions
4.21A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; documents; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT THE UNITED STATES AND TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Computer software
  • Interviews
  • Biographies
  • Oral, print, and visual material
  • Documents
  • Artifacts
4.22 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
4.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

4.22B Incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication.

Incorporate

MAIN AND SUPPORTING IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In verbal communication
  • In written communication
4.22C Express ideas orally based on research and experiences.

Express

IDEAS ORALLY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Based on research
  • Based on experiences
4.22D Create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
4.22E Use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation.

Use

STANDARD GRAMMAR, SPELLING, SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND PUNCTUATION 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Grammar
  • Spelling
  • Sentence structure
  • Punctuation
  • Proper citation of sources
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 05/24/2018
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