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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 4 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 10: Economic Development and Urbanization in Texas SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to the economic development and urbanization of Texas in the early twentieth century. At the beginning of the twentieth century the Texas coast was devastated by a hurricane. Rebuilding after the hurricane brought political and economic changes to Galveston and Texas. It is also during the early decades of the twentieth century that the oil industry in Texas began. While Texas’ economy was affected by the Great Depression during the 1930s the devastating effects were not as bad in Texas. Many Texans did not invest in the stock market and thereby avoided the effects of the crash of the stock market. However, many Texans were affected by the severe drought and devastation that brought about the Dust Bowl, especially Texans living in the Panhandle. The Second World War brought the Great Depression to an end. Many Texans and Texas played a significant role in the Second World War. Texas was home to training bases for women pilots and to internment camps during the war. Texans were part of the war effort and the Second World War contributed to economic growth in Texas during the 1940s and 1950s. An examination of these developments is necessary for understanding what is characteristic of Texas' economic and population patterns today. 

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the development of the cattle industry along with the expansion of railroads in Texas and the resulting changes in the way of life for American Indian groups in Texas.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the development of the oil industry in Texas and the economic conditions of the Great Depression and Dust Bowl. Students also study about the impact of the Second World War in Texas, especially examining the economic impact and the impact on urbanization of Texas. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources. The social studies skill TEKS 4.21A included in this unit supports the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students learn about the economic interdependence of Texas as it developed in the latter half of the twentieth century.


Humans have a complex relationship with the environment.

  • What is characteristic of the interactions between humans and the environment?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

 

In the early twentieth century Texas became a leader in the oil and gas industry facilitating increased urbanization and changes to the environment.

  • Who was responsible for the early discovery of oil in Texas and where?
  • What new industries were created along with the development of the oil/gas industry in Texas?
  • How were urbanization and economic development interdependent in Texas during the early twentieth century?

Economic Patterns

  • Resources

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

During the 1930s Texans experienced an economic depression that was worsened by the Dust Bowl.

  • What was characteristic of the economy in Texas during the Great Depression?
  • How did the U.S. government deal with the economic problems brought about by the Great Depression?
  • What caused the Dust Bowl?
  • How did some Texans respond to the conditions of the Dust Bowl?

Economic Patterns

  • Resources

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution
  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

During the Second World War Texans participated in the war effort and following the war Texas continued to urbanize.  

  • In what ways did Texans sacrifice and produce for the war effort?
  • How did industries in Texas support the war effort?
  • What cities in Texas experience growth following the end of the Second World War?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/ Cooperation

Economic Patterns

  • Resources

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

economic depression – economic situation where there is a lack of jobs and wages are lowaffecting a lot of people
petroleum – a liquid resource that is taken from the ground and used to make gasoline and other products
ration – to limit the amount of a good someone can have at one time
urbanization – the growth of towns and cities

Related Vocabulary

  • industry
  • Dust Bowl
  • fossil fuel
  •  non-renewable resource
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
4 History.
4.5 History. The student understands important issues, events, and individuals of the 20th century in Texas. The student is expected to:
4.5A Identify the impact of various issues and events on life in Texas such as urbanization, increased use of oil and gas, the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II.

Identify

IMPACT OF VARIOUS ISSUES AND EVENTS ON LIFE IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Impact of urbanization
    • The population of Texas grew in urban areas
    • Increased number and size of major cities
    • New types of jobs created, lifestyles dependent on the automobile developed
  • Impact of increased use of oil and gas
    • New products and economic growth
    • A major industry in Texas
  • Impact of the Great Depression
    • Relief programs – CCC, PWA, WPA
    • Loss of jobs and farms
    • Prices for food and other products fell
  • Impact of the Dust Bowl
    • Eventually developed programs to address need for soil conservation
    • Migration of people from Texas
  • Impact of World War II
    • Texans went to war by becoming soldiers, working in factories, and contributing to the war efforts
    • Raised money for bonds
    • Rationing
    • Improved economy in Texas
    • Establishment of military bases in Texas, including Ft. Hood and Avenger Field where Women Airforce Service Pilots were trained
4.5B Explain the development and impact of the oil and gas industry upon industrialization and urbanization in Texas, including important places and people such as Spindletop and Pattillo Higgins.

Explain

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPACT OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY ON INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Development and impact of the oil and gas industry upon industrialization and urbanization
    • Oil and gas created new products and helped other industries grow
    • Factories began using oil instead of coal to run their machines
    • Demand for workers in these new industries increased the population of urban areas
  • Spindletop
    • Produced more oil than any other oil field in the United States
    • Boomtowns – oil towns that grew due to the need of oil workers, goods, and services
    • Beginning of significant exploration and production in Texas
  • Pattillo Higgins
    • Believed that there was oil at Spindletop and his determination helped lead to its discovery
4.5C

Identify the accomplishments of notable individuals such as John Tower, Scott Joplin, Audie Murphy, Cleto Rodríguez, Stanley Marcus, Bessie Coleman, Raul A. Gonzalez Jr., and other local notable individuals.

Identify

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF NOTABLE INDIVIDUALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Audie Murphy – most decorated soldier during World War II
  • Cleto Rodríguez – a Mexican American Texan who grew up in San Antonio and was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor during World War II
4 Geography.
4.6 Geography. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
4.6A Apply geographic tools, including grid systems, legends, symbols, scales, and compass roses, to construct and interpret maps.

Apply

GEOGRAPHIC TOOLS TO CONSTRUCT AND INTERPRET MAPS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Grid systems – a network of horizontal and vertical lines used to locate points on a map or a chart by means of coordinates
  • Legends – an explanatory list of the symbols appearing on a chart or map. Sometimes, this is called a key
  • Symbols – a symbol is something which stands for or suggests something else. It can be a visible sign of something which is intangible.
  • Scales – a scale indicates the relationship between the distances on a map, chart, or plan and the corresponding actual distances. Examples include “1 inch equals 1 mile.”
  • Compass rose – a compass rose is a circle or similar design which includes graduated degrees or quarter points and shows compass directions
  • Other elements of maps
    • Title
    • Date of map
    • Author of map
  • Suggested maps students could construct
    • Dust Bowl
    • Major cities in Texas
4.6B Translate geographic data, population distribution, and natural resources into a variety of formats such as graphs and maps.

Translate

GEOGRAPHIC DATA, POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, AND NATURAL RESOURCES INTO A VARIETY OF FORMATS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Examples including - landforms, climate, distance, population numbers, demographics, location and quantities of natural resources
4.8 Geography. The student understands the location and patterns of settlement and the geographic factors that influence where people live. The student is expected to:
4.8A

Identify and explain clusters and patterns of settlement in Texas at different time periods such as prior to the Texas Revolution, after the building of the railroads, and following World War II.

Identify, Explain

CLUSTERS AND PATTERNS OF SETTLEMENT IN TEXAS AT DIFFERENT PERIODS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In 1900 population of Texas was over 3 million. By 1930 the population of Texas has just about doubled, making Texas the fifth largest state in the United States. Immigration accounts for most of the population increase in the early 1900s with many immigrants coming from Mexico during this time period. The population of Texas remained primarily concentrated in rural areas, yet by the 1920’s the size of cities in Texas was increasing.
  • By 1950 more Texans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Houston and Dallas became the state’s largest cities. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century suburban areas of Texas also increased as the urban areas of Dallas/ Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and Brownsville experienced significant population increases from 1970-2000.
4.9 Geography. The student understands how people adapt to and modify their environment. The student is expected to:
4.9A Describe ways people have adapted to and modified their environment in Texas, past and present, such as timber clearing, agricultural production, wetlands drainage, energy production, and construction of dams.

Describe

WAYS PEOPLE HAVE ADAPTED TO AND MODIFIED THEIR ENVIRONMENT IN TEXAS, PAST AND PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Adapting to the environment almost always results in a modification of the environment. Humans have generally modified the environment in order to have shelter and food, access resources, protect against natural disasters, and transport people and goods.
  • In order to farm in some areas of Texas, timber needed to be cleared. Timber was also cut to use for building shelter.
  • The Texas frontier was modified by the building of railroads.
  • Windmills were introduced into western regions of Texas to allow for ranching in the arid climate.
  • Galveston Bay was dredged and sand used to elevate the city of Galveston to protect against tropical storms and hurricanes.
  • Wetlands around Houston have been drained to create stable land.
  • Bayous and wetlands were drained and redesigned to create the Port of Houston.
  • Dams have been built throughout the state, significantly along the Colorado River, to control flooding and to generate energy.
  • As Texas urbanized highways were built to meet growing transportation needs. .
  • Drilling for oil and the creating of windmill farms came about as a modification to meet the demand for energy.
4.9C Compare the positive and negative consequences of human modification of the environment in Texas, past and present, both governmental and private, such as economic development and the impact on habitats and wildlife as well as air and water quality.

Compare

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN MODIFICATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT, PAST AND PRESENT, BOTH GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE

Including, but not limited to:

Positive consequences of human modifications of the environment

  • Dams have controlled flooding and provided hydro-electric energy and recreational reservoirs.
  • Development of oil/gas industry created jobs and faster transportation.
  • Development of alternative energy sources promotes economic growth and provides for the energy needs of a growing state.
  • Building of cattle trails, roads, and railroads facilitated trade between markets.
  • Fences used to close the open range, changed ranching practices.
  • Creating suburban and urban residential areas provides property tax base to support education.
  • Planting trees and natural vegetation to prevent erosion.

Negative consequences of human modifications of the environment

  • Overhunting of buffalo resulted in the loss of resource which supported American Indian tribes in Texas and altered lifestyles.
  • Establishment of wind farms has impeded migrating birds.
  • Oil spills threaten ecosystems. Possible seismic activity from hydraulic fracturing techniques used to extract oil.
  • Burning of fossil fuels contributes to pollution.
  • Building of roads and railroads contributed to urbanization which altered wildlife habitats and displaced animals and resulted in pollution of ecosystems. 
  • Creating suburban and urban residential areas increases demand for water
4 Economics.
4.13 Economics. The student understands how Texas, the United States, and other parts of the world are economically interdependent. The student is expected to:
4.13B Identify oil and gas, agricultural, and technological products of Texas that are purchased to meet needs in the United States and around the world.

Identify

PRODUCTS OF TEXAS THAT ARE PURCHASED TO MEET NEEDS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Oil and gas products
    • Crude oil to develop products that are oil-based (e.g., gasoline, plastics)
  • Agricultural products
    • Ex: corn, wheat, cotton, fruit, cattle, goat, sheep
  • Technological products
    • Ex: computers, computer software, aerospace, medical products
4 Social studies skills.
4.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to:
4.21A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software; interviews; biographies; oral, print, and visual material; documents; and artifacts to acquire information about the United States and Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT THE UNITED STATES AND TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Computer software
  • Interviews
  • Biographies
  • Oral, print, and visual material
  • Documents
  • Artifacts
4.21B Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • By using skills of:
    • Sequencing
    • Categorizing
    • Identifying cause-and-effect relationship
    • Comparing
    • Contrasting
    • Finding the main idea
    • Summarizing
    • Making generalizations and predictions
    • Drawing inferences and conclusions
4.22 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
4.22B Incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication.

Incorporate

MAIN AND SUPPORTING IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In verbal communication
  • In written communication
4.22D Create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 05/24/2018
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