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Instructional Focus Document
Economics with Emphasis on the Free Enterprise System and Its Benefits
TITLE : Unit 04: Public Policy and the Economy SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the role the government plays in the operation of the U.S. economy. This unit is primarily a study of economic policies. A goal of the free enterprise system is to limit government interference in the economy, yet public policies specifically aimed at the money supply in the economy affect the free enterprise system. It is important for students to examine public policies to understand how government interacts with the economy in the United States.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students studied about the relationship between businesses and economic growth.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the functions of money, the operations of the Federal Reserve System, monetary policy as instituted by the Federal Reserve, and governmental fiscal policy.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students learn about personal financial decision-making.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Monetary units were created to make operations in the market easier.

  • What function does money serve in an economy?
  • What is characteristic of commodity money, fiat money, and representative money?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of bartering, using currency, and credit and debit cards for exchanges?
  • How has the abandonment of the gold standard affected the value of the U.S. dollar?

Economic Patterns

  • Trade

Historical Processes

  • Ideas/Innovation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The Federal Reserve regulates the supply of money in the economy through monetary policy that increases the supply of money during contractionary periods or decreases the money supply during expansionary periods.

  • What is characteristic of the structure of the Federal Reserve System?
  • How does the Federal Reserve use the reserve requirement, the discount rate, and the federal funds rate target to regulate the money supply?
  • What are the costs and benefits of regulating the money supply through monetary policy?

Economic Patterns

  • Monetary Policy/ Fiscal Policy
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Fluctuations in the business cycle or in the level of economic activity influence governmental fiscal policy decisions.

  • What is characteristic of the economy during contractionary and expansionary periods?
  • What types or taxes are collected to generate revenue for the government?
  • What revenues and expenditures are accounted for in the U.S. federal budget?
  • How does fiscal policy affect employment, investment, and economic growth?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students often confuse the different interest rates and the discount rate. The Federal Reserve can only change the discount rate, but target the federal funds rate.
  • Students often do not fully understand the impact of supply and demand on the money supply. They often ask, “Why don’t they just print more money?”
  • Sometimes students do not understand the different levels and types of taxes.

Unit Vocabulary

monetary policy – strategy taken by a central banking system to regulate the supply of money
fiscal policy – strategy taken by public officials regarding taxing and spending
reserve requirement – the amount of money banks are required to keep and not lend out
federal funds rate – the interest rate banks charge each other on loans
discount rate – the interest rate the Federal Reserve Bank charges commercial banks for loans
open market operations – a Federal Reserve practice of purchasing and selling government bonds intended to take money out or put money into the economy quickly
currency – a physical item, such as bills and coins, use as a medium of exchange
barter – the exchange of goods and services for goods and services
revenue – money raised by the government or money received by a firm doing business
expenditure – a payment, cost, or the amount of money spent

Related Vocabulary

  • Federal Reserve System
  • taxes/ tariffs
  • commodity money
  • representative money
  • fiat money
  • easy money policy
  • tight money policy
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewE.11 Economics. The student understands the role of money in an economy. The student is expected to:
NewE.11A Describe the functions of money.

Describe

FUNCTIONS OF MONEY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Medium of exchange – what people are willing to accept in exchange for goods and services
  • Standard of value or measure of value – allows people to compare the values of goods and services using prices
  • Store of value – allow people to save for future consumption
NewE.11B Describe the characteristics of money, including commodity money, fiat money, and representative money.

Describe

CHARACTERISTICS OF MONEY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Commodity money – items that value in themselves other than being used as a monetary unit (e.g., gold, tobacco, salt)
  • Representative money – items that have no value in themselves, but can be exchanged for something of value (e.g., gold certificates, silver certificates, checks)
  • Fiat money – money that has value simply because the government has decreed it to be an acceptable means to pay debts (e.g., Federal reserve Notes)
NewE.11C Analyze the positive and negative aspects of barter, currency, and debit cards.

Analyze

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF BARTER, CURRENCY, AND DEBIT CARDS

Including, but not limited to:

 
Positive Aspects
Negative Aspects
Barter
No cash needed, trade
Limited by what is available and by what is desired
Currency
Most widely accepted
Limited amount
Credit Cards
Can purchase without having enough cash
Can overextend, repayment problems
Debit Cards
Same as cash
Limited to what you have in the bank
NewE.12 Economics. The student understands the role of the Federal Reserve System in establishing monetary policy. The student is expected to:
NewE.12A Explain the structure of the Federal Reserve System.

Explain

STRUCTURE OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Board of Governors – 7-member board that oversees the Federal Reserve System, appointed by the President and approved by the Senate for 14-year terms; headed by the Chairman.
  • Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) – the Federal Reserve committee oversees the buying and selling of government securities. This affects the interest rates and the supply of money in the economy.
  • Federal Reserve Districts – the 12 banking districts created by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913. Each district has a Federal Reserve Bank; they operate semi-independently of each other.
NewE.12B Analyze the three basic tools used to implement U.S. monetary policy, including reserve requirements, the discount rate and the federal funds rate target, and open-market operations.

Analyze

BASIC TOOLS USED TO IMPLEMENT U.S. MONETARY POLICY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reserve requirement – the percentage of deposits that the Federal Reserve requires banks to hold back and not lend out
  • Discount rate – the interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges commercial banks for loans
  • Federal funds rate – the interest rate that banks charge other banks for loans, usually overnight loans
  • Federal funds rate target – the rate the FOMC sets as a target or guideline for the federal funds rate
  • Easy money policy – policy used by the Federal Reserve to counteract unemployment; decrease reserve requirement, decrease discount rate, and buy securities on the open market
  • Tight money policy – policy used by the Federal Reserve to counteract inflation; increase reserve requirement, increase discount rate, and sell securities on the open market
NewE.12C Explain how the actions of the Federal Reserve System affect the nation's money supply.

Explain

HOW THE ACTIONS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AFFECT THE NATION'S MONEY SUPPLY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reserve requirement – if the reserve requirement is raised, banks must keep more money in reserves, and less money is available to be loaned out. If the reserve requirement is lowered, the nation's money supply increases. Of the three tools of the Fed for monetary policy, this is used least often.
  • Open market transactions – the selling of securities reduces the money supply, the buying of securities raises the money supply. This is the most commonly used tool of the Fed for monetary policy.
  • Discount rate – raising the discount rate will reduce the money supply; lowering the discount rate increases the money supply.
NewE.12D Describe the current role of the U.S. dollar in trade in the world market and analyze how that has changed over time, in particular since departing from the gold standard in 1971.

Describe

THE CURRENT ROLE OF THE U.S. DOLLAR IN TRADE IN THE WORLD MARKET

Analyze

HOW ROLE OF THE U.S. DOLLAR HAS CHANGED OVER TIME

Including, but not limited to:

  • The U.S. dollar is considered a global currency, as it is accepted for trade throughout the world. As the world’s most popular global currency it has been adopted as currency for several other countries.
  • A large percentage of the world’s debt is issued in dollars, so banks around the world need dollars.
  • The 1944 Bretton World Agreement established exchange rates of all currencies to the U.S. dollar. This allowed other countries to back their currencies with dollars. When countries started wanting gold for their dollars, President Nixon was prompted to abandon the gold standard.
  • The initial abandonment of the gold standard created stagflation, but over the strength of the U.S. economy has resulted in a strong dollar.
  • Periodic economic crisis in the United States, such as in 2008 affect the dollar’s value in international markets, most significantly with banks.
NewE.13 Economics. The student understands the role that the government plays in the U.S. free enterprise system. The student is expected to:
NewE.13A Describe the role of government in the U.S. free enterprise system and the changes in that role over time.

Describe

ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN THE U.S. FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM AND THE CHANGES IN THAT ROLE OVER TIME

Including, but not limited to:

  • Role of government:
    • Promote and encourage efficient competition by:
      • Preventing monopolies and stopping anticompetitive practices
      • Ensuring that market participants have access to truthful information
      • Resolving the effects of externalities, such as environmental conditions
      • Fulfilling the need for public goods, such as highways, military
    • Regulate industries for the health and safety of the public
    • Minimize the effects of business cycles in an effort to achieve stable economic growth
  • Changes over time:
    • New regulations
    • Deregulation
    • Consumer protection
NewE.13B

Analyze the costs and benefits of U.S. economic policies, rules, and regulations related to the economic goals of economic growth, stability, full employment, freedom, security, equity (equal opportunity versus equal outcome), and efficiency.

Analyze

COSTS AND BENEFITS OF U.S. ECONOMIC POLICIES, RULES, AND REGULATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Policies, rules, and regulations are intended to protect consumers, workers, and businesses, yet these rules also affect many economic goals.
  • The costs and benefits of policies, rules, and regulations would need to be assessed in the context of a particular policy, rule, or regulation.
NewE.14 Economics. The student understands the economic impact of fiscal policy decisions at the local, state, and national levels. The student is expected to:
NewE.14A Identify types of taxes at the local, state, and national levels and the economic importance of each.

Identify

TYPES OF TAXES AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF EACH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Taxes – local, state, and national governments generate revenue by charging taxes. A tax levied on a person’s earnings is an income tax. Income taxes provide the largest source of revenue to the national government. A general revenue tax levied on the manufacture or sale of items such as cigarettes, gasoline, or alcohol is called an excise tax. Property tax is levied on property owners in local communities to pay for expenses of providing services, including street construction or maintenance. School tax is also collected on the local level to help pay for public education.
    • Progressive tax – the tax rate (or the percentage of income) increases as the income increases (e.g., Federal Income Tax)
    • Regressive tax – the tax rate (or the percentage of income) decreases as income increases (e.g., sales tax, Social Security tax)
    • Proportional tax – the tax rate stays the same for all income levels (e.g., proposed flat tax)
    • Tariffs are another form of tax levied against importers of goods.
    • Some goods and income are tax-exempt (not subject to a local, state, or federal tax)
  • Types of local taxes – property taxes, sales taxes, franchises taxes, hotel taxes, fines, licenses, and permits
  • Types of state taxes – sales tax, vehicles sales/rental tax, motor fuels tax, franchise tax, insurances taxes, oil and gas production tax
  • Types of national taxes – individual income tax, Social Security and Medicare taxes, corporate income taxes, excise taxes
  • Economic importance of taxes
    • Local– taxes provide the local governing bodies the money necessary to operate and provide needed goods and services (government, education)
    • State – for every dollar a state spends, it must take in a dollar in revenue (a balanced budget is required in Texas and most other states). Taxes give the state government the money necessary to operate and provide needed goods and services.
    • National – taxes provide the federal government the money necessary to operate and provide needed goods and services.
NewE.14B Explain the categories of revenues and expenditures in the U.S. federal budget.

Explain

CATEGORIES OF REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES IN THE U.S. FEDERAL BUDGET

Including, but not limited to:

  • Revenue categories
    • individual income taxes
    • Social Security/Social Insurance
    • corporate income taxes
    • excise taxes
  • Expenditure categories (from The Budget for Fiscal Year 2010, Historical Tables, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/)
    • General government
    • Defense and international
    • Net interest
    • Federal payments for individuals (Social Security, Medicare, other)
    • Other federal expenditures
    • State and local
NewE.14C Analyze the impact of fiscal policy decisions on the economy.

Analyze

IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICY DECISIONS ON THE ECONOMY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Fiscal policy – the government policy of taxing (revenue) and spending to correct an instability in the economy
  • Two branches of fiscal policy- demand side and supply side
    • Demand side
    • Expansionary fiscal policy – used in the recession phase of the business cycle to deal with the problem of unemployment; involves increasing government spending or decreasing taxes, or a combination of the two
    • Contractionary fiscal policy – used in the expansion phase of the business cycle when inflation is the problem; involves decreasing government spending or increasing taxes, or a combination of both
    • Supply side – developed in the 1980’s to deal with problem of stagflation; sometimes called Reaganomics. The goal is to increase aggregate supply or production, decrease taxes, and decrease government spending, especially on entitlements; overall less government in the economy
NewE.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewE.21A Analyze economic information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewE.22 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewE.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

NewE.22B Create written, oral, and visual presentations of economic information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION USING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Written, oral, visual presentations
  • Effective Communication Skills
    • Correct grammar and punctuation
    • Accurate spelling
    • Clear diction and sentence structure
    • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewE.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewE.21B Create economic models, including production-possibilities curves, circular-flow charts, and supply-and-demand graphs, to analyze economic concepts or issues.

Create

ECONOMIC MODELS TO ANALYZE ECONOMIC CONCEPTS OR ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Production-possibilities curves
  • Circular-flow charts
  • Supply-and-demand graphs
NewE.21C Explain a point of view on an economic issue.

Explain

POINT OF VIEW

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses
NewE.21D Analyze and evaluate the validity of economic information from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Propaganda refers to information that is intended to promote a particular position, claim, or point of view; may include misleading information
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Frame of reference refers to a particular set of ideas/beliefs which influences an individual’s judgements; in historical analysis relates to the conditions the individual experienced that influences his/her points of view
NewE.21E Evaluate economic data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

Evaluate

ECONOMIC DATA

NewE.23 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewE.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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