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Instructional Focus Document
Economics with Emphasis on the Free Enterprise System and Its Benefits
TITLE : Unit 02: The Market and Trade SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address how the market works and trade as a market.  This unit is primarily a study of markets. Markets are places, arrangements and situations that bring buyers and sellers together. Markets vary in scale from a sale of an item between two individuals to trade between global partners. It is important for students to study about the factors that influence markets, market structures and trade to understand the operation of markets. 

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, the students examined basic economic concepts of scarcity and opportunity cost, and compared the different economic systems with an emphasis on free enterprise and the right to private property.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about how markets are affected by supply and demand, various market structures, the concepts of absolute and comparative advantage, and free trade in the global market.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students learn about the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth.


Economies develop to manage limited resources.

  • How have different economic systems addressed people’s wants and needs?

In a free enterprise system the individual has choices as a producer and consumer.

  • What motivates the economic choices of the individual?Humans are both consumers and producers.
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

In a competitive market the interaction between supply and demand affects the price and quantity of goods and services.

  • What is different about supply and demand and quantity supplied and quantity demanded?
  • How do price changes impact quantity supplied and quantity demanded?
  • How is an equilibrium price determined?
  • What non-price determinants affect supply and demand?

Economic Patterns

  • Scarcity/Choices
  • Competition
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Market structures are based on the degree of competition and impact a firm’s ability to control price of a product.

  • What is characteristic about the degree of competition, the number and similarity of products, and the ease of entry in a pure competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly?
  • What examples are there of pure competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly today?

Economic Patterns

  • Competition
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Absolute and comparative advantage results in specialization in the production of goods and facilitates trade.

  • How does absolute and comparative advantage lead to specialization?
  • How does specialization improve productivity?
  • How does specialization facilitate trade between individuals and nations?
  • How does importing and exporting affect the economy in the United States and the trading partners of the United States?

Economic Patterns

  • Scarcity/Choices
  • Trade
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The development of global trade markets have resulted in the elimination of some trade barriers.

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of having trade barriers?
  • What are the costs and benefits of participation in international free trade agreements?
  • How do changes made to the exchange rate impact imports and exports?
  • How does trade affect economic growth?

Economic Patterns

  • Trade
  • Competition
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students often have difficulty distinguishing between change in quantity demanded and a change in demand; and between a change in quantity supplied and a change in supply.
  • Students often think that if a country can produce more of a given product, that country should produce it. In consideration of economic principles, a country should produce what it can produce more efficiently or at a lower opportunity cost.

Unit Vocabulary

market – an arrangement that bring sellers and buyers together for economic transactions
supply – the total amount of goods and services offered for sale at various prices 
demand – the total amount of goods and services consumers are willing to buy at various prices
equilibrium price – the price at which the quantity supplied in the market matches the quantity demanded in the market
absolute advantage – condition that occurs when someone can produce goods and services cheaper than another other producers
comparative advantage – condition that occurs when someone can produce at a lower opportunity cost than other producers
specialization – the development of skills and knowledge associated with one job or one area of expertise
pure competition – a market structure characterized by many producers supplying the same product and very few barriers to entry in the market
monopolistic competition – a market structure characterized by many producers supplying similar but varied products with few barriers to entry to the market
oligopoly – a market structure characterized by very few producers supplying similar products with high barriers to entry in the market
monopoly – a market structure characterized by one producer with a unique product and very high barriers to entry in the market

Related Vocabulary

  • quantity demanded/ quantity supplied
  • imports/exports
  • free trade
  • trade barriers
  • production possibilities curve
  • supply schedule
  • demand schedule
  • market structure
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewE.2 Economics. The student understands the interaction of supply, demand, and price. The student is expected to:
NewE.2A Understand the effect of changes in price on the quantity demanded and quantity supplied.

Understand

EFFECT OF CHANGES IN PRICE ON QUANTITY DEMANDED AND QUANTITY SUPPLIED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Price is the most important factor affecting a change in quantity demanded or quantity supplied
  • Quantity demanded – amount of a product is demanded at a particular price- higher the price the lower the quantity demanded
  • Quantity suppliedamount of a product supplied at a particular price; higher the price the higher quantity supplied
NewE.2B Identify the non-price determinants that create changes in supply and demand, which result in a new equilibrium price.

Identify

NON-PRICE DETERMINANTS THAT CREATE CHANGES IN SUPPLY AND DEMAND, AND PRICE WHICH RESULT IN A NEW EQUILIBRIUM PRICE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Determinants of supply and demand
    • Non-price determinants of demand– consumer income, consumer taste or preference, number of buyers, expectations of future prices or availability, and price changes of related goods (substitutes and complements)
    • Non-price determinants of supply– productivity, expectations of future price, taxes, subsidies, technology, cost of inputs, number of sellers, and government regulations
    • Changes in supply or demand will change the equilibrium price.
NewE.2C Interpret a supply-and-demand graph using supply-and-demand schedules.

Interpret

SUPPLY-AND-DEMAND GRAPH USING SUPPLY-AND-DEMAND SCHEDULE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Supply-and-demand graph – visual representation of the relationship between price and quantity demanded
    • Price is measured on the vertical axis and quantity on the horizontal axis.
    • The demand curve has a negative slope that explains the relationship between price and quantity demanded. The supply curve has a positive slope that explains the relationship between price and quantity supplied.
    • The intersection of the demand and supply curves shows the equilibrium price and quantity.
  • Supply schedule – a table that contains a column of prices and a column of quantity of a good, showing the relationship between the price and the quantity supplied at that price
  • Demand schedule atablethat contains a column for prices and a column of quantity demanded, showing the relationship between price and quantity demanded
NewE.3 Economics. The student understands the reasons for international trade and its importance to the United States and the global economy. The student is expected to:
NewE.3A Explain the concepts of absolute and comparative advantages.

Explain

ABSOLUTE AND COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Absolute advantage– given the same amount of resources, one country can produce more of a product than another country can. A country has an absolute advantage when it can produce more of a given product than other countries using a given amount of resources.
  • Comparative advantage– given the same amount of resources, one country can produce a product with a lower opportunity cost than another country can. A country has a comparative advantage in the product that it can produce most efficiently given all of the products it could choose to produce.
  • Absolute and comparative advantage– international trade is based on resources or products whichone country needs and another can provide. Each country must determine if it is reasonable to try to produce the product. To do so, the country assesses the opportunity cost, and if it is low, it may choose to produce instead of import. Therefore, countries specialize in the goods they can produce most efficiently.
NewE.3B Compare the effects of free trade and trade barriers on economic activities, including the benefits and costs of participating in international trade.

Compare

EFFECTS OF FREE TRADE AND TRADE BARRIERS ON ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Effects of free trade on economic activity
    • Free trade – the free flow of goods and services between countries without any barriers or restrictions
    • Allows for access to more markets.
    • Increased competition and elimination of businesses that are not competitive.
    • Lowers prices for consumers, because the cost of tariffs in not passed on to consumers.
    • Shift of jobs to cheaper labor markets, resulting in possible job losses and gains depending on the labor market.
    • By allowing each country to specialize in the goods it can produce cheaply and efficiently relative to other countries, free trade arrangements enable all countries to achieve higher real incomes.
  • Effects of trade barriers on economic activity
    • Trade barriers – anything that prevents the free flow of goods and services coming into a country
    • Tariffs and quotas raise the prices of imported goods.
    • Subsidies lower the price of exported goods.
    • Trade barriers guide consumers toward domestically produced goods, which allows for protection of workers in those industries.
    • Trade barriers raise prices for consumers. By shielding industries from some foreign competition, trade barriers may slow improvements or innovations to lower costs.
NewE.3C Analyze the effects of changes in exchange rates on imports and exports.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATES ON IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Balanceof trade– nations seek to maintain a balance of trade with values of imports equal to exports. By balancing trade, a nation can protect the value of its currency on the international market. If a trade imbalance continues, with one country importing more than it is exporting, the value of its currency falls.
  • Exchangerates– in international finance, foreign currency is called foreign exchange, and the currency is bought and sold on a foreign exchange market. The rate of exchange is based on the amount of foreign currency in circulation.
  • If the American dollar appreciatesagainst a foreign currency, the dollar gains purchasing power, making foreign goods less expensive at home and American goods more expensive overseas. American imports would increase.
  • If the American dollar depreciatesagainst a foreign currency, the dollar loses purchasing power, making foreign goods more expensive at home and American goods less expensive overseas. American exports would increase.
  • Ex: In the 1980s, the United States imported considerably more than it exported, and the foreign exchange market was glutted with dollars. As the value of the dollar fell, the prices of imports increased and consumers paid more for the goods. The imbalance can be corrected by limiting imports or increasing the number and/or quality of exports. Both of these actions affect trading partners which may retaliate by raising tariffs. Maintaining a balance of trade requires international cooperation and fair trade. (from The Social Studies Center Glossaries)
  • Ex: If the United States seeks to import Volvos from Sweden, the importer pays for the automobile with U.S. dollars. If the car costs 35,000 kroner (Swedish currency) but the U.S. dollar is worth six Swedish kroner, the Volvo costs approximately $5,100. As more U.S. currency enters the Swedish market, and as the demand for Volvos increases, the Swedish kroner become more valuable when compared to the U.S. dollar. Thus the foreign exchange rate changes from $1.00 = 6 K to $1.00 = 4.5 K. The car now costs an American importer approximately $7,000. (from The Social Studies Center Glossaries)
NewE.8 Economics. The student understands types of market structures. The student is expected to:
NewE.8A Describe characteristics and give examples of pure competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, and monopoly.

Describe, Give examples

PURE COMPETITION, MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION, OLIGOPOLY, MONOPOLY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Purecompetition–there are no examples of a pure competition, although market gardeners and truck farmers operate in a market which is close to it. Pure (perfect) competition is characterized by four conditions:
    • Large number of independent buyers and sellers
    • Identical products
    • Buyers and sellers are well-informed
    • Buyers and sellers are free to enter or get out of business
  • Monopolisticcompetition – many competing producers sell products that are differentiated from one another; the products are substitutes, but, with differences such as branding, are not exactly alike (e.g., breakfast cereal, fast food industry, grocery chain, bubble gum). Monopolistic competition is the closest to pure competition. It has four conditions:
    • A large number of sellers
    • Low barriers to entering the market
    • Little control by sellers over price
    • Some ability of firms to differentiate their products
  • Oligopoly– ex: automotive industry (GM, Ford, Chrysler), airline industry (American, Southwest), soft drink industry (Coca-Cola, Pepsi). Conditions of an oligopoly are:
    • A few sellers
    • High barriers to entering the market
    • Some control over price
    • Some product differentiation
  • Monopoly– ex: producers of electricity are close to monopolizing the market. Conditions of monopoly are:
    • One seller
    • Complete barriers to entering the market
    • Complete control over price
    • No product differentiation
  • Types of monopolies
    • Naturalmonopolies
    • Technological monopolies
    • Government-created monopolies
NewE.8B Identify regulations that apply to the establishment and operation of various types of market structures.

Identify

REGULATIONS THAT APPLY TO THE ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF MARKET STRUCTURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Anti-trust laws, prohibition against cartels and prohibition of production and price collusion are intended to protect free competition 
  • Patents and copyrights may create a temporary monopoly
  • Public franchise, which allow a monopoly for public benefit
NewE.10 Economics. The student understands key components of economic growth. The student is expected to:
NewE.10C Analyze how trade relates to growth.

Analyze

HOW TRADE RELATES TO GROWTH

Including, but not limited to:

  • International trade allows a nation to shift their production possibility curve outward and have more goods and services without adding additional resources (without new technology), simply using resources more efficiently.
NewE.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewE.21A Analyze economic information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewE.21B Create economic models, including production-possibilities curves, circular-flow charts, and supply-and-demand graphs, to analyze economic concepts or issues.

Create

ECONOMIC MODELS TO ANALYZE ECONOMIC CONCEPTS OR ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Production-possibilities curves
  • Circular-flow charts
  • Supply-and-demand graphs
NewE.21C Explain a point of view on an economic issue.

Explain

POINT OF VIEW

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses
NewE.22 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewE.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

NewE.22B Create written, oral, and visual presentations of economic information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION USING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Written, oral, visual presentations
  • Effective Communication Skills
    • Correct grammar and punctuation
    • Accurate spelling
    • Clear diction and sentence structure
    • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewE.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewE.21D Analyze and evaluate the validity of economic information from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Propaganda refers to information that is intended to promote a particular position, claim, or point of view; may include misleading information
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Frame of reference refers to a particular set of ideas/beliefs which influences an individual’s judgements; in historical analysis relates to the conditions the individual experienced that influences his/her points of view
NewE.21E Evaluate economic data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

Evaluate

ECONOMIC DATA

NewE.23 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewE.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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