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Instructional Focus Document
Economics with Emphasis on the Free Enterprise System and Its Benefits
TITLE : Unit 01: Fundamentals of Economics SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address basic economic concepts and the types of economies. This unit is primarily a study of economic systems and fundamental economic principles. Economic systems developed because resources are limited, which forces individuals and societies to make choices. An examination of fundamental economic concepts and a study of the various economic systems is necessary for students to understand how socities manage the production, consumption, and distribution of good and services.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, in previous social studies courses, students were introduced to the concepts of scarcity, goods, services, needs, and wants in the elementary grades. Additionally, students have studied about various economic systems in World Cultures, World Geography, and World History courses and the free-enterprise system has been emphasized in both previous U.S. History courses.  

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about basic economic principles, such as scarcity and opportunity cost and about how economic decisions are made in various economic systems, specifically examining the features of a free enterprise system. Additionally students learn about the circular flow model of economic activity.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about markets and trade.


Economies develop to manage limited resources.

  • How have different economic systems addressed people’s wants and needs?

In a free enterprise system the individual has choices as a producer and consumer.

  • What motivates the economic choices of the individual?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Economic choices are influenced by scarcity and opportunity costs.

  • What are the basic economic questions faced by societies?
  • What are the factors of production?
  • What can be learned from examining a production possibilities curve?
  • How do scarcity and opportunity costs affect economic choices?

Economic Patterns

  • Scarcity/Choices
  • Resources
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

A variety of economic systems developed to manage the production, distribution, and consumptions of limited resources.

  • What basic characteristics are shared by economic systems?
  • How are economic decisions made in socialist, communist, and capitalist economic systems?
  • What is characteristic of the U.S. free enterprise system?
  • How have the economic philosophies of Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman, John Maynard Keynes, and Adam Smith affected the free enterprise system in the United States?
  • In what ways is the U.S. free enterprise system changing?

Economic Patterns

  • Economic Systems
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The circular flow model diagrams the movement of resources in an economy.

  • What role do resource owners and firms play in the circular flow model?
  • How can governmental actions and current events affect the circular flow model?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may not recognize that there is a cost for everything.

Unit Vocabulary

free enterprise system – economic system characterized by private ownership of businesses operated for profit with economic freedom for both consumers and producers
scarcity – condition in which there are not enough resources available to produce everything that individuals demand
opportunity cost – the value of goods and services that are given up in order to obtain an alternative good or service
factors of production – the resources needed to produce goods and services, including land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship
resources – supplies of something of value
economic system – process created to manage the production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services
circular flow model – a visual representation showing the relationship between the factor market and the product market

Related Vocabulary

  • choice
  • competition
  • firms
  • incentives
  • consumers
  • producers
  • socialism
  • communism
  • capitalism
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewE.1 Economics. The student understands the concepts of scarcity and opportunity costs. The student is expected to:
NewE.1A Explain why scarcity and choice are basic economic problems faced by every society.

Explain

SCARCITY AND CHOICE AS BASIC ECONOMIC PROBLEMS FACED BY EVERY SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Scarcity refers to a condition in which there are not enough resources available to produce everything that individuals demand. Scarcity is the single most important problem addressed by an economic system.
  • Because resources are limited and demands are unlimited, societies and individual must make choices about what to produce and what to consume. Economics is basically a study of how individuals, businesses and governments make choices about what to produce and what to consume.
NewE.1B Describe how societies answer the basic economic questions: what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce.

Describe

HOW SOCIETIES ANSWER THE BASIC ECONOMIC QUESTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • What to produce? – This is a production choice influenced by consumer demand. What are you going to make with scarce resources?
  • How to produce? – This is a resource choice. How much of each resource will be used? Will it be labor intensive or will it be capital intensive?
  • For whom to produce? – This is an allocation choice. Who gets the products after they are produced? How is this decided, by the government or in the marketplace?
  • How much to produce? – This is a production choice influenced by consumer demand. How much will you make with scarce resources?
NewE.1C Describe the economic factors of production: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship.

Describe

ECONOMIC FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Factors of production – refers to the resources needed to produce goods and services.
    • Land – all natural resources used to produce goods and services, such as oil, water, air, timber, animals, and minerals
    • Labor – any human effort, physical or mental, that goes into producing goods and services, including marketing, distribution, and selling
    • Capital – tools, machinery, buildings used in the production of goods and services, sometimes called capital goods (e.g., sewing machine used to make jeans); in and of itself money is not a factor of production but is generally used to buy capital goods
    • Entrepreneurship – individuals who combine the other factors of production to create businesses; many entrepreneurs introduce new ideas for creating new products or new ways to produce products
NewE.1D Interpret a production-possibilities curve and apply the concepts of opportunity costs and scarcity.

Interpret

A PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY CURVE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Production possibility curve – economic model that shows various output combinations of two goods and demonstrates the concept of opportunity cost

Apply

CONCEPTS OF OPPORTUNITY COSTS AND SCARCITY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Opportunity cost– opportunity cost refers to the value of goods and services that are given up in order to obtain an alternative good or service
  • Every choice has an opportunity cost. In economic terms, the opportunities forgone in the choice of one expenditure over others. The concept of opportunity cost allows economists to examine the relative monetary values of various goods and services. Economic choices of what to consume or produce are influenced by opportunity cost.
  • Scarcity – fundamental economic problem caused by unlimited wants, but limited resources
NewE.4 Economics. The student understands free enterprise, socialist, and communist economic systems. The student is expected to:
NewE.4A Explain the basic characteristics of economic systems, including property rights, incentives, economic freedom, competition, and the role of government.

Explain

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

Economic systems are intended to manage resources for the production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services. Ever economic system has varying degrees of property rights, incentives, economic freedom, competition and management from government entities.

  • Property rights – the concept that people have the right and privilege of owning and controlling their possessions
  • Incentives – an expectation that encourage certain economic choices
  • Economic freedom – the right to make your own economic decisions, such as choosing your own career
  • Competition – the struggle among producers for consumers’ business
  • Role of government –governments adopt various policies and actions intended to manage resources  
NewE.4B Contrast current and historic examples of the free enterprise system, socialism, and communism using the basic characteristics of economic systems.

Contrast

EXAMPLES OF THE FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM, SOCIALISM, AND COMMUNISM USING THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • In a free enterprise system the factors of production are owned privately. Goods and services are distributed based on supply and demand. The owners of resources (natural resources/skills/entrepreneurship/capital goods) operate in the economy through companies/business. Companies are motived to make profit and income is paid to owners and laborers from the income of the companies/business. Examples of societies that operate economies that are mostly characteristic of free enterprise include; United States, Hong Kong, Singapore, New Zealand, Switzerland, Australia, Ireland, Estonia, United Kingdom, Canada, United Arab Emirates. Many countries including Ireland, France, Great Britain, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Belgium provide high levels of social support to their citizens, yet most businesses are privately owned.
  • A key feature of socialism is collective ownership of the factors of production by everyone in society. Ownership may be made through elected governmental entities or through public corporations. Resources are allocated through central planning to address greater social needs, such as transportation, defense, education, and health care. There are no countries that operate purely socialist economic systems and countries that are identified as socialist have chosen to call themselves socialist. Countries that have stated they are socialist in their constitutions include; Algeria, Angola, Bangladesh, Guyana, India, Mozambique, Portugal, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. Many countries such as Norway, Sweden, and Denmark provide health care, education, and pensions to their citizens, yet most other economic activities are conducted in a free market system, hence there arises much confusion about countries which provide large scale social welfare programs as being economically socialist.
  • Communism is distinguished by state ownership of the factors of production along with central planning to distribute goods and services and to assign where people will work. Communism is very similar to socialism. China, Cuba, Laos, North Korea, and Vietnam are countries most often associated with communism, yet each of them has instituted reforms that have moved them towards mixed economies or at the very least taken steps to allow for some free market practices. The most historic example of communism was the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
NewE.4C Analyze the contributions of various economic philosophers, including Friedrich Hayek, Milton Friedman, John Maynard Keynes, and Adam Smith, and their impact on the U.S. free enterprise system.

Analyze

CONTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS ECONOMIC PHILOSOPHERS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE U.S. FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • FriedrichHayek – Austrian economist who believed very strongly in free markets. Best known as an advocate of what is now called Austrian Economics. In his book The Road to Serfdom, he defended classical liberalism and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought, expressing the idea that socialism and communism did not work. He was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1974. In 1988, Hayek published his final book The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism, in which he laid out how socialism had to fail. This became reality when events in the next few years confirmed Hayek’s theories. Hayek is considered one of the most important economists and political philosophers of the twentieth century.
  • MiltonFriedman – economist who held a political philosophy that extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with little intervention by government. Believed in the Monetarist view of the economy that holds that the supply of money in the economy is important, but it should be allowed to grow at the same rate as the economy without the Federal Reserve Bank increasing or decreasing the money supply. He felt that the government should not play a large role in the economy and that many times the cause of instability was the interference by the Federal Reserve Bank or the government.
  • JohnMaynard Keynes – British economist who wrote during the Great Depression and whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments. He greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles and advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. In his book The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money, Keynes laid out what he felt caused the depression and the role the government should take to correct this instability. His idea about the increased role of government in the economy was very radical for the times and it changed popular thinking regarding the role of government.
  • Adam Smith – known as the father of capitalism, he expressed his theories in the book Wealth of Nations and is credited with being the first to examine the importance of the division of labor and worker productivity and for advancing the idea that free markets thrive on the basis of mutual self-interest (the idea of self-interest and the invisible hand). Smith believed the government should play a very small role in the economy; he believed in the idea of laissez-faire.
NewE.5 Economics. The student understands the basic characteristics and benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system. The student is expected to:
NewE.5A Explain the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system, including individual freedom of consumers and producers, variety of goods, responsive prices, investment opportunities, and the creation of wealth.

Explain

BENEFITS OF U.S. FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Freedom of consumers – consumers have the ability to purchase the goods and services they choose, making their wishes known to producers through voluntary transactions.
  • Freedom of producers – can produce what they want in order to respond to consumer demand and make a profit.
  • Variety of goods – the free enterprise system produces a wide variety of goods and services to meet consumers’ wants and needs.
  • Responsive prices – prices in a free enterprise system respond to changes in supply and demand, thus signaling producers and directing resources to respond to consumer demand.
  • Investment opportunities – businesses can redirect resources from being consumed today in order to create benefits in the future.
  • Creation of wealth sale of goods and services along with investment allows for profit and accumulation of wealth.
NewE.5B Analyze recent changes in the basic characteristics, including private property, incentives, economic freedom, competition, and the limited role of government, of the U.S. economy.

Analyze

RECENT CHANGES IN THE BASIC CHARACTERISITICS OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Outsourcing labor
  • Tax policies/ incentives
  • Healthcare reform
  • Tariffs / Free trade policies
NewE.7 Economics. The student understands the circular-flow model of the economy. The student is expected to:
NewE.7A Interpret the roles of resource owners and firms in a circular-flow model of the economy and provide real-world examples to illustrate elements of the model.

Interpret

ROLES OF RESOURCE OWNERS AND FIRMS IN A CIRCULAR-FLOW MODEL OF THE ECONOMY

Provide

REAL-WORLD EXAMPLES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Circular-flow model– a visual representation showing the relationship between the factor market (where income is obtained) and the product market (where income is used to make purchases). The model is used to show the interdependent relationship of buyers and sellers within a market and the flow of money.
  • Resource owners and firms play the role of producing and selling in the model in order for income to be generated for households.
  • Real world examples
    • Daniel applies for an after-school job at a restaurant. This is the supplying of labor in the factor market; his wages will be a cost to a business, and income to a household.
    • Daniel uses some of his earnings to buy tennis shoes at the mall. This is the purchase of goods in the product market; the payment for the shoes is revenue to a business, and consumption spending for a household.
    • A farmer sells his crop of corn in the factor market. A processing company buys it and turns it into packages of frozen corn. The packages of corn are then purchased by households to feed their families.
NewE.7B Explain how government actions affect the circular-flow model.

Explain

HOW GOVERNMENT ACTIONS AFFECT THE CIRCULAR-FLOW MODEL

Including, but not limited to:

  • Government can be added to the circular-flow model as both a producer and consumer.
  • Purchases goods and services in the product market
  • Purchases factors of production in the product market
  • Furnishes goods and services
  • Collects taxes from both households and businesses
  • Transfers money to households and businesses
NewE.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewE.21A Analyze economic information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewE.21B Create economic models, including production-possibilities curves, circular-flow charts, and supply-and-demand graphs, to analyze economic concepts or issues.

Create

ECONOMIC MODELS TO ANALYZE ECONOMIC CONCEPTS OR ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Production-possibilities curves
  • Circular-flow charts
  • Supply-and-demand graphs
NewE.21C Explain a point of view on an economic issue.

Explain

POINT OF VIEW

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses
NewE.22 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewE.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

NewE.22B Create written, oral, and visual presentations of economic information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION USING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Written, oral, visual presentations
  • Effective Communication Skills
    • Correct grammar and punctuation
    • Accurate spelling
    • Clear diction and sentence structure
    • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewE.21 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewE.21D Analyze and evaluate the validity of economic information from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Propaganda refers to information that is intended to promote a particular position, claim, or point of view; may include misleading information
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Frame of reference refers to a particular set of ideas/beliefs which influences an individual’s judgements; in historical analysis relates to the conditions the individual experienced that influences his/her points of view
NewE.21E Evaluate economic data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

Evaluate

ECONOMIC DATA

NewE.23 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewE.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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