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Instructional Focus Document
United States Government
TITLE : Unit 06: The Political Process: We the People SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to participation in the political process. This unit is primarily a study of civic engagement. The democratic process established in the United States is dependent on the participation of citizens. After examining the structures and functions of the U.S. government it is important to examine the role individuals play in the government. An examination of the political process is important for students to understand how to participate in the government.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students have learned about the making of governmental policies in the United States.

During this Unit

During this unit, students complete their study of U.S. government with an examination of how individuals and groups participate in the political process. Students learn about the role of political parties in the political process, about the how individuals and groups go about influence the political process, about how political geographic divisions are created, and about the rights, responsibilities, duties and obligations of citizens in the political process. Additionally, students continue to practice inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

This unit completes the U.S. Government course of study.


Civically engaged citizens take informed action to improve the quality of life in the community.

  • What are the ways to effectively bring about change?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Political parties the United States provide a venue for citizens to initiate change, express a point of view, and transform public policy.

  • What is characteristic of the political parties in the United States?
  • What role do political parties play in elections?
  • How have third parties affected the political process in the United States?
  • How do citizens become involved in political parties?

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies

Civic Engagement

  • Civic Institutions

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The political process is influenced by political parties, individuals, interest groups and the media in a variety of ways and using a variety of methods.

  • What are all the ways an individual can become involved in the political process?
  • In what ways do interest groups and the media affect the political process?
  • What methods are used by individuals and groups to influence the political process?
  • In what ways have technological advances affected the political process?

Civic Engagement

  • Laws, Rules, Political Processes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Geographic political divisions are intended to fairly distribute power in the political process.

  • Why and how are political districts created?
  • What is characteristic of the distribution of political power in the United States?

Spatial Patterns

  • Regions/Borders

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Citizens in a democracy are expected to be civically engaged in the political process.

  • What rights, responsibilities, obligations and duties do American citizens have in the political process?
  • What criteria are in place in Texas for citizens to be able to vote?
  • How do you register to vote?

Civic Engagement

  • Rights/Responsibilities
  • Citizenship
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students often have the misconception that only two political parties exist in the United States and are not aware of the many political parties that have existed throughout the history of the United States.

Unit Vocabulary

apportionment – the process of determining how many representatives will be in the U.S. House of Representatives based on state’s population
census – a counting of the population conducted every ten years
judicial activism – the practice of issuing judicial rulings that affect national policies
judicial restraint – the practice of refraining from making judicial rulings related to social or political issues
lobbying – the process of working to influence the decisions of political leaders
gerrymandering – the process of creating political districts that give one political party a majority in that territory, sometime resulting in very oddly-shaped districts

Related Vocabulary

  • civic responsibility
  • redistricting
  •  civics
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewG.2 The student understands the roles played by individuals, political parties, interest groups, and the media in the U.S. political system, past and present. The student is expected to:
NewG.2A Describe the processes used by individuals, political parties, interest groups, or the media to affect public policy.

Give examples

PROCESSES USED TO AFFECT PUBLIC POLICY

Including, but not limited to:

  • By individuals –voting, campaigning, contributions to campaigns, boycotts, sit-ins, demonstrations, contacting policy makers
  • By political parties – nominate candidates, support candidates financially, inform and activate supporters, give a seal of approval, party that is out of power criticizes the policies and behavior of party in power
  • By interest groups – provide a framework for political participation though lobbying, providing information, , organizing people, running media campaigns
  • By media – report on news, provide a venue for debates and voicing of political views, advertisement of views, influence the public discourse, investigate corruption
NewG.2B Analyze the impact of political changes brought about by individuals, political parties, interest groups, or the media, past and present.

Analyze

IMPACT OF POLITICAL CHANGES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Impact of changes brought about by individuals:
    • Third-party candidates bring about change by drawing attention to issues and causes (i.e., Ross Perot, Ralph Nader). Policies of third-party candidates have often become planks in mainstream party platforms.
    • Individuals can organize and lead movements to bring about legislative change addressing social issues.  Examples include leaders of the Civil Rights Movement. Other examples include individuals who have worked to pass legislations such as the Brady Bill, or promoted legislation associated with a cause such as Mothers Against Drunk Drivers.
    • Individuals can file lawsuits that can result in legislation be overturned or may highlight the need for new legislation
  • Impact of changes brought about by political parties:
    • Assist the electoral process, nominate candidates
    • A “plank” in the party platform can become policies when the party in power can get legislation enacted
    • Third parties bring about change by getting issues known. Policies of third-party candidates have often become planks in mainstream party platforms (Prohibition, women’s suffrage).
  • Impact of changes brought about by interest groups:
    • Organize people, provide a means of participation, provide information to both public and policy makers, fundraise for candidates via political action committees
    • Possible examples: “Swift Boat” ads, political action committees, churches, environmentalists
  • Changes brought about by the media:
    • Inform the public, serve as watchdog, act as gatekeeper (screen what is publicized); possible examples: “yellow journalism” of Spanish-American War; Edward R. Murrow and McCarthyism; David Frost/ Richard Nixon interview; Vietnam war (“bringing the war to America’s dinner tables”); Watergate (Woodward and Bernstein); radio and TV talk shows, investigative journalism; blogs and “social media” raise awareness and interest on issues and candidates
NewG.3 The student understands how geography can influence U.S. political districts and policies. The student is expected to:
NewG.3A Explain how population shifts affect voting patterns.

Understand

HOW POPULATION SHIFTS AFFECT VOTING PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Geographic shifts of population
    • Ongoing and constant internal migrations of citizens within the United States
    • Immigration to the United States
    • Population growth within the United States
    • “Greying” of America as retirees resettle in retirement
  • Voting patterns are affected by shifts in population primarily through the decennial census and the redistricting of congressional districts. As population grows within a state, the legislative power of the state may increase in the U.S. House of Representatives through the addition of new representatives. State elections can be similarly affected by shifts within the state. Additionally, the location of retirement communities can have a high impact on local elections since older Americans are much more likely to vote.
NewG.3B Examine political boundaries to make inferences regarding the distribution of political power.

Examine, Infer

POLITICAL BOUNDARIES TO MAKE INFERENCES REGARDING DISTRIBUTION OF POLITICAL POWER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Power in the House of Representatives has shifted as a result of more rapid population growth in the South and Southwest.
  • The number of elected officials who are minorities has increased in the South and Southwest due to an increase in minority population in those areas.
  • Examination of recent voting patterns in national elections reflects a concentration of Republican political party support in the South and a concentration of Democratic political party support along the West coast and in the Northeast.
NewG.3C Explain how political districts are crafted and how they are affected by Supreme Court decisions such as Baker v. Carr.

Explain

HOW POLITICAL DISTRICTS ARE CRAFTED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Census – the United States Constitution mandates that a census be taken every ten years in order to apportion the number of members of the United States House of Representatives among the several states. Census statistics are also used in order to apportion federal funding for many social and economic programs. The first U.S. Census was conducted in 1790.
  • Apportionment – the process of allocating the number of members of United States House of Representatives each state will have in Congress. Seats are assigned to the states based on their relative population to the total population of the United States. States can gain or lose representatives at each decennial census.
  • Redistricting – once the number of U.S. Representatives a state will have is determined, each state creates districts from which representatives will be elected. Districts must be redrawn after each census to reflect shifts of population within the state.
  • Criteria for creating districts – in addition to equalizing the population of districts and complying with Federal requirements requiring non-discrimination against minorities, criteria may include attempting to create compact, contiguous districts and trying to keep political units and communities within a single district.
  • Role of state legislatures – each state has its own standards for creating districts within the state. In 36 states, including Texas, the state legislatures determine the new political boundaries. This often results in districts created for partisan advantage.
  • Redistricting other electoral districts within a state – state legislative districts are also re-drawn after each Census, as are county and municipal government districts.
  • Gerrymandering – the deliberate manipulation of political boundaries for electoral advantage, usually of incumbents or a specific political party

Explain

HOW POLITICAL DIVISIONS ARE AFFECTED BY SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Baker v. Carr (1962) – a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that federal courts could intervene in and decide reapportionment cases. The Court formulated the famous "one-person, one-vote" standard for legislative redistricting, holding that each individual had to be weighted equally in legislative apportionment. The case originated with Charles Baker’s complaint that Tennessee had not redistricted its state legislative districts since the census of 1901. By the time of Baker's lawsuit, the population had shifted such that his district in Shelby County (Memphis) had about ten times as many residents as some of the rural districts. Representationally, the votes of rural citizens were worth more than the votes of urban citizens, thus depriving Baker of the "equal protection of the laws" required by the Fourteenth Amendment. The defendants unsuccessfully argued that reapportionment of legislative districts is a "political question", and hence not a question that may be resolved by federal courts.
  • Consequences of Supreme Court decisions on redistricting – Baker v. Carr and subsequent cases fundamentally altered the nature of political representation in America, requiring not just Tennessee but nearly every state to redistrict during the 1960s, often several times. This reapportionment increased the political power of urban centers and limited the influence of more rural, conservative interests that had benefited from earlier Supreme Court rulings that such "political" questions as those of apportionment were not justiciable.
NewG.9 The student understands the processes for filling public offices in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:
NewG.9A Identify different methods of filling public offices, including elected and appointed offices at the local, state, and national levels.

Identify

METHODS OF FILLING PUBLIC OFFICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Elected Officials
    • Potential candidates must file for an elected office usually by paying a fee or submitting a petition of registered voters
    • Elections for state and national offices are conducted on a partisan basis, requiring a candidate to win a party primary election or to be nominated at a party convention.
    • Executive officers of local, state, and national executive branches – mayor, governor, president. Other executive officers may have elections depending on the state such as the Attorney General and Lt. Governor in Texas.
    • Legislative officers of local, state, and national legislative branches – commissioners, town councils, representative, senators,
    • Judicial officers of some local and state judicial branches are elected – justices of the peace, state supreme courts (like Texas)
  • Appointed Officials
    • Vacancies – if an officeholder leaves office or dies during an unfinished term, another may be appointed to finish the term. The appointment requirements vary depending on state and local laws, the length of the unfilled term, and the office. Some situations may require a new election.
    • Executive officers of local, state, and national executive branches – Secretary of State, city manager, Secretary of Defense (vary by state)
    • Legislative officers are exclusively elected unless a term is left unfinished
    • Some judicial officers such as federal judges are appointed as well as some state judges depending on state law.
  • Local offices
    • Elected offices file at City Hall and pay a fee or submit a petition signed by registered voters.
    • Appointed office positions are filled by appointment by the mayor or city council.
NewG.10 The student understands the role of political parties in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:
NewG.10A Analyze the functions of political parties and their role in the electoral process at local, state, and national levels.

Analyze

FUNCTIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ELECTORAL PROCESS AT LOCAL, STATE, AND NATIONAL LEVELS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Function of political parties:
    • Put forth a set of core beliefs (party platform)
    • Nominate candidates for office who support those beliefs
    • Conduct primary elections to select nominees
    • Raise money to support candidates
NewG.10B Explain the two-party system and evaluate the role of third parties in the United States.

Explain

TWO-PARTY SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • The two major political parties in the United States today are the Republican and Democratic parties. In a typical election, only candidates of these two parties have a reasonable chance of winning public office.
  • The two-party system is rooted in the beginnings of the nation, when the fight over the ratification of the Constitution saw the birth of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. In the more than two centuries, the  parties have developed with different names, but the two party tradition has remained
  • Most election law is written to discourage non-major party candidates, particularly in the procedures for getting names on the ballot.
  • The two major parties are each conglomerates of voters with many different interests.
  • Multi-party systems exist in most European countries, with various parties based on particular interests (economic, religious, sectional, or ideology). One party usually has difficulty winning the support of a majority of the voters, so the power to govern must be shared by a number of parties who form coalitions, which are often shifting.

Evaluate

ROLE OF THIRD PARTIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Role of third parties – historically, third parties have promoted concepts and policies that have then been incorporated into mainstream political parties and U.S. social and political policies. Often a third party splits the vote. Examples include:
    • Women’s right to vote (Prohibition and Socialist parties)
    • Child labor laws (Socialist party)
    • Immigration reforms (Populist party)
    • Fair labor practices – work week (Socialist and Populist parties)
    • Income tax (Socialist and Populist parties)
  • Sometimes third parties emerge when a faction splits from one of the major parties, usually led by a dominant personality (Theodore Roosevelt’s Bull Moose Party; George Wallace’s American Independent Party)
  • Modern third parties: Libertarian, Reform, Green, Constitution
  • Impact of third party candidates:
    • Bring about change by getting issues known (e.g., Ross Perot- Reform Party, Ralph Nader- Green Party)
    • Can impact the results of an election by splitting the vote (as in Humphrey/Nixon/Wallace in 1968, Bush/Clinton/Perot in 1992, Bush/Gore/Nader in 2000)
NewG.13 The student understands the difference between personal and civic responsibilities. The student is expected to:
NewG.13A Describe scenarios where good citizenship may require the subordination of personal desire for the sake of the public good.

Describe

SCENARIOS WHERE GOOD CITIZENSHIP MAY REQUIRE SUBORDINATION OF PERSONAL DESIRES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Paying taxes that will be spent on programs you may not support
  • Serving in the armed forces when Congress orders a draft
  • Eminent domain requires the sale of private property for public good
  • Submitting to personal searches for security reasons
  • Simply being a law-abiding citizen may require subordinated personal desire for the public good
NewG.13B Explain the responsibilities, duties, and obligations of citizenship such as being well informed about civic affairs, serving in the military, voting, serving on a jury, observing the laws, paying taxes, and serving the public good.

Explain

RESPONSIBILITIES, DUTIES, AND OBLIGATIONS OF CITIZENSHIP

Including, but not limited to:

  • Being well informed about civic affairs
  • Serving in the military
  • Observing the laws
  • Paying taxes
  • Serving the public good
NewG.13C Describe the voter registration process and the criteria for voting in elections.

Describe

THE VOTER REGISTRATION PROCESS AND THE CRITERIA FOR VOTING IN ELECTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Each state sets its own requirements for registering and voting, subject to limitations placed on it by the U.S. Constitution (Amendments 15, 19, 24, and 26), the Voting Rights Acts (passed originally in 1965 and extended in 1970, 1975, and l982), and the Help America Vote Act of 2002 (HAVA).
  • Registering to vote in Texas is done by each county’s office of voter registration, either by mail or in person.
  • Registration in Texas is open to persons who meet these requirements:
    • Is a U.S. citizen
    • Is a resident of the county
    • Is at least 18 years of age
    • Is not a convicted felon (unless a person’s sentence is completed)
    • Has not been judged mentally incompetent by a court
  • Criteria for voting in Texas include
    • Providing proof of identification
    • Voting in one’s assigned precinct
    • Allowing 30 days for processing a voter registration application or change
    • Texas also allows for early voting during specified times and at specified places before an election.
NewG.14 The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the U.S. constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
NewG.14A Analyze the effectiveness of various methods of participation in the political process at local, state, and national levels.

Analyze

EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS METHODS OF PARTICIPATION IN THE POLITICAL PROCESS (LOCAL, STATE, NATIONAL)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Voting
  • Political parties
  • Lobbying (including congressional contact and interest groups)
  • Protesting
  • Courts
  • Amendments to the Constitution
NewG.14B Analyze historical and contemporary examples of citizen movements to bring about political change or to maintain continuity.

Analyze

CITIZEN MOVEMENTS TO BRING ABOUT POLITICAL CHANGE OR MAINTAIN CONTINUITY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Historical examples – abolitionists, Reform Era movements (women suffrage), Hoovervilles, war protests
  • Contemporary examples – Civil Rights groups, Women’s Rights groups, Anti-war movements, advocates for gay rights, Tea Party
NewG.14C Describe the factors that influence an individual's political attitudes and actions.

Describe

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE INDIVIDUAL’S POLITICAL ATTITUDES AND ACTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Education
  • Family attitudes, culture, and traditions
  • Social groups – friends and co-workers
  • Occupation
  • Media
NewG.15 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
NewG.15A Analyze different points of view of political parties and interest groups such as the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the National Rifle Association (NRA), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) on important contemporary issues.

Analyze

POINTS OF VIEW OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND INTEREST GROUPS ON CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to as expressed perspective, claim, position, or attitude. Political parties express points of view in a party platform developed at a convention.
  • Many interest groups including, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the National Rifle Association (NRA), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), as well as many others take a position or express a point of view on specific contemporary issues.
  • Possible issues to be considered might include:
    • Education
    • Social Security
    • Health Care
    • Gun control legislation
    • Environmental issues
    • Immigration/border security
    • Civil rights
    • Voting rights
Note:
Additional examples may be added to reflect issues as they occur in political discussions
NewG.15B Analyze the importance of the First Amendment rights of petition, assembly, speech, and press and the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms.

Analyze

IMPORTANCE OF FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHTS OF PETITION, ASSEMBLY, SPEECH, AND PRESS, AND THE SECOND AMENDMENT RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The rights to petition, assembly, free speech, and free press are fundamental to our governmental system; they are the rights the Founders were most interested in protecting. These freedoms serve to check the power of government, and they allow:
    • Citizens to contact government officials to request a change in policy
    • Citizens to gather in peaceful public demonstrations for and against an issue
    • Citizens to publicly discuss and promote their diverse opinions
    • The people’s representatives to debate controversial issues without fear of reprisal
    • The free flow of information in the media
    • The opportunity for negotiation and compromise
    • The right to own guns for recreation and protection
NewG.18 The student understands the impact of advances in science and technology on government. The student is expected to:
NewG.18A Describe the potential impact of recent scientific discoveries and technological innovations on government policy.

Describe

POTENTIAL IMPACT OF RECENT SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON GOVERNMENT POLICY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Possible scientific discoveries or technological innovations may include: cell phones, global positioning, DNA testing, Internet, stem cell research, pre-natal testing, cloning, drones, etc. which would possibly necessitate regulation
  • Recent scientific discoveries and technological innovations may impact rights of privacy, criminal behaviors, physical security, ethical biological decisions, election interference, etc.
  • Technological innovations such as computer software designed to address redistricting may facilitate the elimination of partisan redistricting
NewG.18B Evaluate the impact of the Internet and other electronic information on the political process.

Evaluate

IMPACT OF INTERNET AND OTHER ELECTRONIC INFORMATION ON THE POLITICAL PROCESS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Access to voters has been facilitated by social media
  • Fundraising efforts have expanded outreach via Internet
  • Elected officials hold town hall meetings live utilizing on-line platforms
  • Misinformation is spread more easily
  • Some elections are conducted using electronic ballots
NewG.19 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewG.19A Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewG.19B Create a product on a contemporary government issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry.

Create

PRODUCT USING CRITICAL METHODS OF INQUIRY

  • Critical methods of inquiry involves evaluating sources of information in order to synthesize an understanding in the pursuit of the answer to a question.
NewG.20 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewG.20A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
NewG.20B Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, VISUAL PRESENTATIONS USING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Effective communication skills
    • Correct grammar and punctuation
    • Accurate spelling
    • Clear diction and sentence structure
    • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewG.19 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewG.19C Analyze and defend a point of view on a current political issue.

Analyze and Defend

A POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
NewG.19D Analyze and evaluate the validity of information, arguments, and counterarguments from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY OF INFORMATION FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Propaganda refers to information that is generally considered to be misleading or promotes a particular view point, partisan perspective
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source
NewG.19E Evaluate government data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

Evaluate

GOVERNMENT DATA
NewG.21 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewG.21A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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