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Instructional Focus Document
United States Government
TITLE : Unit 04: The Branches of Government: Of the People, By the People, For the People SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the structures and functions of the three branches of the U.S. government. This unit is primarily a study of the structure of the U.S. government. The unique system created by the Founding Fathers includes federalism as well as the three branches of government as features of a government system of checks and balances. An examination of each of the three branches of government is important for understanding the structure of the federalist system in the United States and in many of the state governments in the United States.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the federalist system established by the Founding Fathers in the U.S. Constitution.

During this Unit

During this unit students study about the structures and function of each of the branches of government. Students learn about the bicameral legislative branch along with how legislation is created. Students learn about the role of the executive branch, the process for electing the President, and the functions of the federal bureaucracy. Students also learn about the federal judicial system, along with the role the courts play in the protection of individual rights through due process. Additionally, students continue to practice inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students learn about how government policies are established.


Humans strive for power.

  • How do people seek to gain and maintain power?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Article I of the U.S. Constitution establishes a bicameral legislative branch in the United States responsible for enacting laws.

  • How are representatives in the U.S. Congress chosen?
  • How are the two houses of Congress structured?
  • How does a bill become a law?
  • What role do committees play in the passage of legislation?
  • What role does the Vice President have in the legislative branch?

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems

Civic Engagement

  • Civic Institutions
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Article II of the U.S. Constitution outlines the powers of the President as head of the executive branch and details the process for the election of the President.

  • What powers are given to the President?
  • What role does the Vice President have in the executive branch?
  • How is the President elected?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The administrative bureaucracy of the executive branch is made up of specialized departments and agencies.

  • How does the executive branch execute laws?
  • What independent departments and agencies are part of the executive branch?
  • What functions do independent agencies in the executive branch serve?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Article III of the U.S. Constitution establishes a federal court system in the United States, which has come to include the U.S. Supreme Court, federal trial courts, and specialized courts with various jurisdictions.

  • How is the federal court system structured?
  • How are federal judges chosen?
  • What jurisdictions do the various federal courts have?
  • What role does the judicial branch play in the U.S. federalist system?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

Congress – the legislative body of the United States
bureaucracy – the non-elective governmental bodies that administer the operations of the government
judicial review – the power used by the courts to examine the constitutionality of laws
jurisdiction – the right of authority the court has over particular cases or territories
bicameral – a legislative body with two houses or chambers
due process – the application of the law and legal principles for all citizens ensuring the protection of rights

Related Vocabulary

  • independent executive agencies
  • regulatory commissions
  • appeals
  • Electoral College
  • Cabinet
  • legislative
  • executive
  • judicial
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewG.1 The student understands how constitutional government, as developed in America and expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the U.S. Constitution, has been influenced by ideas, people, and historical documents. The student is expected to:
NewG.1F Identify significant individuals in the field of government and politics, including George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Ronald Reagan.

Identify

SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS IN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Including, but not limited to:

  • George Washington – first President of the United States. He set precedent by stepping down after two terms, thus initiating a peaceful transition of power and by creating a Cabinet. One of his greatest accomplishments was issuing the Neutrality Proclamation because it allowed the fledgling United States to build a solid system of government without becoming embroiled in a foreign war.
  • Thomas Jefferson – third President of the United States. He was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. With James Madison, he formed the Democratic-Republican Party which opposed the Federalists’ plan for national economic development and foreign entanglements with England. The party also championed state’s rights in opposition to the strong central government favored by the Federalists. In 1800, Jefferson was elected president and served two terms. He maintained peace and encouraged westward expansion during the first term, completing the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 from Napoleon, nearly doubling the size of the United States.
  • John Marshall – as a justice in the U.S. Supreme Court, Marshall helped to establish the authority of the court in defining the limits of the U.S. Constitution and the authority of the executive branch. He was appointed chief justice by President John Adams and served from 1801-1835. During his tenure the court set precedents that shaped federal law and government. Most important was the Marbury v. Madison decision (1803) in which he ruled that the federal courts had the power to determine whether or not congressional legislation was constitutional.
  • Andrew Jackson – seventh President of the United States. During the War of 1812, he rose to national prominence as a military leader who fended off the British in the Battle of New Orleans. He ran for the presidency in 1824, but was not elected. In 1828, however, he was elected in a landslide. Jackson favored a powerful presidency. His style of government based in popular support became known as Jacksonian Democracy. He increased the control of the executive branch of government, thereby starting a trend toward a more centralized government. Jackson appointed political allies to positions in government (a process called the “spoils system”), and vetoed more bills in his two terms as president than previous presidents combined because he believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution.
  • Abraham Lincoln – sixteenth President of the United States. He managed to preserve the unity of the United States during the Civil War. His Gettysburg Address called for national unity, and his most lasting influence is the 13th amendment which banned slavery throughout the United States. Is considered the first Republican President and is credited with starting the Republican Party along with anti-slavery advocates.
  • Theodore Roosevelt – twenty-sixth President of the United States. He was the leader of the “Rough Riders,” a volunteer cavalry unit which served in the Spanish-American War. He served as governor of New York and then as William McKinley’s vice president. When McKinley was assassinated in 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the presidency and was later elected to a full term in 1904. He supported expansionism, a powerful navy, and the development of a canal across Central America (the Panama Canal). Under Roosevelt’s direction, the United States became the police of the western hemisphere. Numerous reforms were enacted during his tenure. He prosecuted big business for trust violations, supported passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act, and created national parks.
  • Franklin Roosevelt – thirty-second president of the United States. Elected in 1932 during the Great Depression, he began implementing his New Deal philosophy in the first 100 days after his inauguration. His reforms, proposed to counteract the effects of the Depression, affected four areas: finance, industry, agriculture, and relief (welfare). He strengthened government work programs. His executive orders and sponsorship of legislation in the national interest supported the weak economy and remained viable years after his death. Yet, critics worried that his growing executive authority might undermine the checks and balances of the three branches of government. This concern derived from Roosevelt’s attempts to pack the Supreme Court with his own appointees. Congress eventually passed a court reform bill but it did not support Roosevelt’s ideas. He also fostered a new diplomacy to counter the aggression of Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Tojo Hideki in World War II. American support for Roosevelt was high, and he dominated the political scene for four terms, the most of any U.S. president. The 22nd Amendment adopted in 1951 and often termed the anti-Franklin Roosevelt amendment, limits presidents to two terms.
  • Ronald Reagan – fortieth President of the United States. He implemented sweeping new political and economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics," advocated controlling the money supply to reduce inflation, and spurring economic growth by reducing tax rates, government regulation of the economy, and certain types of government spending. Publicly describing the Soviet Union as an "evil empire," he supported anti-Communist movements worldwide and spent his first term forgoing the strategy of détente by ordering a massive military buildup in an arms race with the USSR. Reagan negotiated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, culminating in a treaty decreasing both countries' nuclear arsenals.
NewG.7 The student understands the structure and functions of the government created by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:
NewG.7A Analyze the structure and functions of the legislative branch of government, including the bicameral structure of Congress, the role of committees, and the procedure for enacting laws.

Analyze

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

Including, but not limited to:
Structure

  • Bicameral structure of Congress
    • Two-house legislature, Congress is divided into House of Representatives and Senate
    • Number of senators (2 per state) and representatives (dependent on population)
    • Leadership: Vice President is president of the Senate, Speaker of the House leads House

Functions

  • Enact laws
    • Congressional committees – congressional standing committees are permanent panels made up of members of the House or Senate that make and debate laws for different areas of public policy. Each committee has jurisdiction over a particular policy area, for example, health, education, the environment, or foreign affairs.
    • Procedure for enacting laws– proposed laws are called bills; bills are referred to legislative committees for public hearings and study; if bills are approved by a committee, they are subject to floor debate; amendments (changes) may be made to bills at any stage in the process; bills must pass both houses in identical form; only a majority vote is needed to pass a bill
  • Exclusive and shared powers of each legislative house as delineated in the Constitution (Article I)
  • Powers in relation to other branches (checks and balances)
NewG.7B Analyze the structure and functions of the executive branch of government, including the constitutional powers of the president, the growth of presidential power, and the role of the Cabinet and executive departments.

Analyze

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH

Including, but not limited to:

Structure

  • President – leader of the country and Commander in Chief of the military. The president fulfills many roles: Commander in Chief, Chief Legislator, Head of State, Foreign Policy Leader, Party Leader, Chief Executive, Chief Economic Planner, and Representative of All the People
    • Qualifications (also include term limits) Article II, Section 1; Amendment 22
    • Process for removal from office – Article II, Section 4
    • Impeachable offenses – Article II, Section 4
    • Succession to the office – Amendment 20
    • Election procedures (electoral college) Article II, Section 1; Amendment 12
  • Vice President– President of the Senate and becomes president if the president is unable to serve. Member of two branches: executive and legislative.
    • Departments – department heads (Cabinet members) advise the president on policy issues and help execute those policies
    • Independent agencies – include regulatory commissions and government corporations

Functions

  • Presidential powers: Constitutional powers of the president are defined in Article II of the Constitution, which discusses the office of president. Section 2 enumerates the powers of the president. Presidential powers have “grown” over time to include implied powers such as executive orders, executive privilege, and executive decision. Presidents often interpret these differently.
    • Commander-in-Chief of the armed services
    • Grant reprieves and pardons
    • Make treaties (with concurrence of the Senate)
    • Appoint ambassadors, Supreme Court judges, and all other officers of the United States (with confirmation by the Congress)
    • Appoint people to fill vacancies that may occur during the recess of the Senate
    • Receive ambassadors and other public ministers
    • Care that the laws be faithfully executed
    • Recommend to Congress measures for their consideration (propose a bill)
    • Approve or veto every Congressional bill (vetoes may be over-ridden)
  • Cabinet and executive departments – The Cabinet advises the president. The heads of major executive departments make up the Cabinet. The departments in the executive branch help execute the policies and laws. The size of the cabinet has grown from four posts under George Washington to 15 today.
  • Over time, as society has become more complex, the executive branch has become larger in order to execute the laws of the land.
NewG.7C Analyze the structure and functions of the judicial branch of government, including the federal court system, types of jurisdiction, and judicial review.

Analyze

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE JUDICIAL BRANCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Structure – the federal trial courts are the Federal District Courts. Cases are appealed from this court to the Circuit Courts of Appeals, and from there to the U.S. Supreme Court. Certain specialized courts also exist: the Court of International Trade, the Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, the Court of Claims, U.S. Tax Court, Court of Appeals for Veterans’ Claims, and the Court of Appeals for the Federal District.
  • Functions – the judicial branch interprets and applies the law, ruling if laws have been broken and determining the punishment for the offender. It includes all the courts of the United States including the highest court, the Supreme Court.
  • Jurisdiction – the jurisdiction of the federal courts is spelled out in Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution. It is limited to cases between citizens of two or more states and to questions of federal laws (patents/copyrights, ambassadors, treaty interpretation, cases between states, federal crimes, bankruptcy, admiralty, antitrust, securities/banking regulation, and other cases authorized by federal law)
  • The federal courts have several types of jurisdiction:
    • Exclusive – only court to hear a case
    • Concurrent – two or more courts have jurisdiction over the same type of case
    • Original – a case is heard for the first time in a court
    • Appellate – a case is heard on appeal after being heard in a lower court
    • The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors and cases between two or more states.
    • The Federal District Courts have original jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases arising under federal law.
    • The Circuit Courts of Appeals have only appellate jurisdiction of cases heard first in the District Courts and the Tax Court.
    • The Supreme Court hears appeals from the Circuit Courts, from the special courts, and from the highest state courts if a constitutional issue is involved.
  • Through judicial review, the courts protect the rights of the people against unconstitutional actions by the president or Congress (first used in Marbury v. Madison). The courts also protect the rights of people to fair treatment under state laws under the 14th amendment (due process of law and equal protection of the law).
NewG.9 The student understands the processes for filling public offices in the U.S. system of government. The student is expected to:
NewG.9B Explain the process of electing the president of the United States and analyze the Electoral College.

Analyze, Evaluate

PROCESS OF ELECTING THE PRESIDENT OF THE U.S.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Typical steps for electing a president
    • Step 1 – campaigning and primaries and caucuses
    • Step 2 – party nomination at national conventions (campaigning continues)
    • Step 3 – general election
    • Step 4 – Electoral College (indirect popular election)
  • If no clear majority wins the Electoral College, House of Representatives decides (election of Thomas Jefferson, election of John Quincy Adams) the winner of the Presidency and the Senate chooses the Vice President.
  • The Electoral College consists of a set of electors chosen by each state to cast a vote for the presidential nominee that won that state. Each state has the number of electors as in Congress (number of representatives plus two senators). Each state sets rules for how electors must vote often with a “winner-takes-all” approach of a nominee winning a majority of the popular vote of a state and as a result winning all the electoral votes of the state.
  • The Electoral College was defended by James Madison in Federalist No. 39 arguing that the Constitution was a mixture of state-based and population-based government and the Electoral College represents that mixture. Generally, small states supported the Electoral College out of concern that the large states would control presidential elections.
  • Criticism
    • Some argue that the Electoral College does not conform to the democratic principle of “one man, one vote” since it is not a direct election
    • A nominee can potential win the popular vote and lose the Electoral College (John Quincy Adams, Hayes, Benjamin Harrison, and George W. Bush)
    • May discourage voter turnout and participation if the voter does not feel an individual vote matters
    • May result in nominees concentrating efforts in undecided “swing states” were polling shows it is unclear who voters favor
    • May make it very difficult for third-party nominees to challenge established party nominees
  • Supporters
    • Some argue that without the Electoral College, less populous states will rarely be visited by a nominee and as a result the interests of the state may be then ignored by the winner
    • Prevents an “urban only” approach to campaigning forcing candidates to less populated areas
    • Maintains a federal character of the election with voters sharing power with states
    • Maintains the stability provided by a two-party system
NewG.9C Analyze the impact of the passage of the 17th Amendment.

Analyze

THE IMPACT OF THE 17th AMENDMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • 17th Amendment – ratified in 1913; changed the method of electing United States Senators to direct election by the people; the Constitution originally required senators to be chosen by the state legislatures.
  • Impact – changing to popular election of senators corrected an undemocratic part of the original Constitution. The legislative selection system had been subject to bribery and corruption. It also was not uniform in all states: some states let the voters “nominate” senators which the legislature then approved. With the change, however, candidates had to compete for the votes of a large electorate, requiring huge sums of money.
NewG.19 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewG.19A Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewG.20 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewG.20A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
NewG.20B Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, VISUAL PRESENTATIONS USING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Effective communication skills
    • Correct grammar and punctuation
    • Accurate spelling
    • Clear diction and sentence structure
    • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewG.19 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewG.19B Create a product on a contemporary government issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry.

Create

PRODUCT USING CRITICAL METHODS OF INQUIRY

  • Critical methods of inquiry involves evaluating sources of information in order to synthesize an understanding in the pursuit of the answer to a question.
NewG.19C Analyze and defend a point of view on a current political issue.

Analyze and Defend

A POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
NewG.19D Analyze and evaluate the validity of information, arguments, and counterarguments from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY OF INFORMATION FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Propaganda refers to information that is generally considered to be misleading or promotes a particular view point, partisan perspective
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source
NewG.21 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewG.21A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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