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Instructional Focus Document
United States Government
TITLE : Unit 03: A Federalist System: A More Perfect Union SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

 Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that focus on the structure of the federalist system of the United States as outlined in the U.S. Constitution. This unit is primarily a study of federalist governments. The Founding Fathers created a unique federalist system addressing the problems created by the Articles of Confederation. An examination of the federalist system established in the U.S. Constitution is important for understanding the political institutions that characterize the United States and how those institutions vary from other centralized governments.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the political philosophies, debates and compromises that informed the creation of the U.S. Constitution. Students also studied about the protections of individual rights in the U.S. Constitution specifically with an analysis of the Bill of Rights.

During this Unit

During this unit, students learn about the federalist governmental system created by the Founding Fathers. Students study about the division and sharing of power between federal, state, and local governmental bodies along with comparing the U.S. federalist system with other governmental systems. Additionally, students continue to practice inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students continue to learn about the federalist system by examining the three branches of government.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The Founding Fathers created a unique federalist system in which power is shared between federal, state, and local governmental bodies.

  • Why did the Founding Fathers create a federalist system of government?
  • How does the federal government ensure the purposes set out in the Preamble?
  • What powers are divided between the federal, state, and local governments?
  • What powers are shared between the federal, state, and local governments?
  • What historical conflicts have arisen in the United States because of federalism?
  • What are the major responsibilities of the United States federal government?

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The U.S. federalist system differs from other centralized governmental systems.

  • What is similar and different about the federalist system of the United States in comparison to other types of governments? 
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of federalist, confederate, unitary, presidential and parliamentary governmental systems?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

unitary system – political system in which all power and authority is centralized in one political body
confederation – a system in which a variety of countries, people, or groups band together for a common purpose
parliamentary system – political system in which a single legislative body, know a parliament, makes and executes the laws
legislative – refers to the branch of government responsible for making laws
executive – refers to the branch of government responsible for the administration of the laws
judicial system – refers to the administration of justice through the courts of law

Related Vocabulary

  • federalism
  • constitutional republic
  • monarchy
  • theocracy
  • direct democracy
  • socialist governmnet
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewG.6 The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the U.S. Constitution and why these are significant. The student is expected to:
NewG.6B Explain how the federal government serves the purposes set forth in the Preamble to the U.S. Constitution.

Explain

HOW THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SERVES THE PURPOSES SET FORTH IN THE PREAMBLE

Including, but not limited to:
We the people of the United States,

  • In order to form a more perfect union – create a new type of government; established three branches of government with a system of checks and balances
  • Establish justice – created a system of courts with a Supreme Court (Article III, Section 1)
  • Insure domestic tranquility –  raise revenues by taxation for public services, mint money, establish a postal system and roads, call forth a militia (Article I, Section 8)
  • Provide for the common defense – raise and support an army and navy, declare war, enter into treaties (Article I, Section 8; Article 2, Section 2)
  • Promote the general welfare – regulate interstate commerce and foreign trade (Article I, Section 8)
  • Secure the blessings of liberty – provide for peaceful transitions of power with national elections (Article I, Section 4; Article II, Section 1)
NewG.7 The student understands the structure and functions of the government created by the U.S. Constitution. The student is expected to:
NewG.7E Explain how provisions of the U.S. Constitution provide for checks and balances among the three branches of government.

Explain

HOW U.S. CONSTITUTION PROVIDES CHECKS AND BALANCES AMONG THE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • The U.S. Constitution describes the structure and assigns the powers of the U.S. governments. The Constitution purposefully established a government with three branches to provide checks and balances to keep any one branch from gaining too much power. To accomplish this, several branches share power (e.g., the President appoints, but the Congress affirms). The powers of one branch can be challenged by another (e.g., Congress makes a law, but Supreme Court reviews constitutionality). Additionally, principles of federalism serve as a check on the national government’s power.
  • The Legislative Branch makes the law.
    • Senate approves/disapproves judicial appointments, Cabinet positions, ambassadors (advise and consent)
    • The U.S. House of the Representatives has the sole power of creating a federal budget and determining taxation. Since issues of taxation have a long contentious history in the United States and the members of the House are considered more directly accountable to the voters, the American people can check the decisions of representatives through the ballot box.
    • Checks and balances on the executive branch (e.g., impeachment, declare war, enact taxes, creates agencies, controls appropriations, override a veto), judicial branch (e.g., initiate constitutional amendments, set jurisdiction of courts), and because it is bicameral, on the legislative branch (e.g., bills pass both houses)
  • The Executive Branch executes (administers) the law.
    • Checks and balances on the legislature (e.g., veto power, Vice President is President of the Senate, call emergency session of Congress), judicial branch (e.g., nominates judges, power to pardon), and executive branch (Vice President and Cabinet can initiate a process of removal of the  President if they believe the President is unable to discharge the duties of the office, such as in the case of a health issue)
  • The Judicial Branch interprets the law.
  • Checks and balances on the legislature (e.g., judicial review), and executive branch (e.g., judicial review, Chief Justice sits as President of the Senate during presidential impeachment); justices serve for life, unless impeached, free from control of the executive who appointed them
NewG.7G Explain the major responsibilities of the federal government for domestic and foreign policy such as national defense.

Explain

MAJOR RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating and enforcing laws in order to protect the rights of U.S. citizens – this responsibility is most often carried out by the federal courts along with a variety of federal agencies with regulator duties, such as the Environmental Protection Agency
  • Managing the national economy – specifically the federal government has the responsibility to; print currency, levy taxes, pay the country’s debts, regulate international and interstate commerce, establish universal weights and measures, provide copyright protections, maintain a postal system
  • Providing for the national defense – in doing so the federal government maintains several military branches with the President as a civilian commander-in-chief and with Congress having the power to declare war
  • Protecting the nation’s interests through foreign policy – the federal government is responsible for maintaining a network of embassies with a cadre of diplomats; the power to negotiate treaties and trade agreements in also a component of U.S. foreign policy
NewG.7H Compare the structures, functions, and processes of national, state, and local governments in the U.S. federal system.

Compare

STRUCTURES, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCESSES OF NATIONAL, STATE, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN THE FEDERAL SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • The U.S. Constitution guarantees every state must have a republican form of government. All states have adopted a state constitution with similar protections and government functions at the U.S. Constitution.
  • Roles of state governors are similar to the role of the president as chief executive with the power to sign and veto legislation, appoint some officials, and act to enforce the law.
  • Roles of the three branches are also similarly established across all states.
  • The Texas Constitution contains the principles of popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, and protection of individual rights. Like the U.S. and other state constitutions, the Texas Constitution lays out the structure, powers, and processes of government and describes the amendment process.
  • Municipal governments
    • Cities have a wide variety of government structures, usually dictated by the size of the governed community
    • Executive leadership may be invested in a mayor, a city manager, or a city council.
    • Municipal courts act in concert with state courts handling local cases of low-level offenses that do not warrant state or federal court
    • Cities exercise legislative power often through a council that implements local ordinances and regulations
  • County, parish, and boroughgovernments
    • Usually governed by a commission system with commissioners acting with some judicial and executive powers
    • County governments usually act to govern unincorporated areas of a state as well as manage a jail system in conjunction with municipal jails
    • County governments may also be tasked with maintaining civil records, issuing various licenses, and conducting local elections
  • Functions of local governments
    • Provide services and security
    • Maintain records (marriage, divorce, birth, death, deeds, vehicle registration)
    • Conduct elections and register voters according to state requirements
NewG.8 The student understands the concept of federalism. The student is expected to:
NewG.8A Explain why the Founding Fathers created a distinctly new form of federalism and adopted a federal system of government instead of a unitary system.

Explain

WHY THE FOUNDING FATHERS CREATED FEDERAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT INSTEAD OF A UNITARY SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Federal system – national government holds significant power, shares powers with smaller political subdivisions, and smaller political subdivisions hold reserved power not exercised by the national government. The United States, Canada, Australia, and Brazil are examples of federal systems.
  • Unitary system – most prevalent national government system. In a unitary system, most power is held at the national level, with very little reserved power for political subdivisions, such as provinces, counties, parishes, or towns.
  • The Founding Fathers separated the United States from England, which was a unitary system of government. The confederation government under the Articles of Confederation was considered weak with no central power to coordinate a national military, address emergencies, or raise taxes.   The Constitutional Framers led by James Madison instituted a federal system of government in order to share and distribute government power in order to establish a system of checks and balances.
  • The Founding Fathers and Constitution Framers were wary of all-powerful centralized governments and instead opted to institute a government based on checks and balances including: a federal organization to share power between national government and state governments, a system of individual rights that the government must guarantee in order to protect individuals and the political minority from government abuse, popular sovereignty through a republican government to limit any one individual from gaining too much power, and a separation of powers among three branches with the power to check another branch in order to maintain a balance of shared power.
NewG.8B Categorize government powers as national, state, or shared.

Categorize

GOVERNMENT POWERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • National powers– express, enumerated, implied, delegated, and inherent powers are those specifically listed in Article 1, Section 8, such as the power to coin money, to raise an army and navy, to provide for patent and copyright protections, to establish a post office, and to make treaties and war with other nations.
    • An express, delegated, or enumerated power is one specifically listed.
    • An implied or inherent power is one that exists to carry out an express or enumerated power. For example, Congress can raise an army; this implies the ability to specify regulations regarding who can join the army.
    • Powers denied to the federal government are specified in Article I, Section 9.
  • State powers– reserved specifically for the states or are traditionally held at the state level
    • Consist mostly of police powers, such as providing fire and police protection, establishment of health regulations, licensing, and education
    • 10th amendment grants reserved power for the states
    • Powers denied to the states are specified in Article I, Section 10
  • Shared powers– concurrent or shared powers are those shared by state and federal government. (Examples: both the federal government and state governments have taxation power, the ability to construct and maintain roads, and other spending powers for the general welfare.)
NewG.8C Analyze historical and contemporary conflicts over the respective roles of national and state governments.

Analyze

HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY CONFLICTS OVER ROLES OF NATIONAL AND STATE GOVERNMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist:
    • Federalists favored a strong central government
    • Anti-Federalists favored states’ rights
    • Conflict argued in Federalist Papers
    • Compromise was reached by including the Bill of Rights in the Constitution
  • Articles of Confederation – weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation brought to the forefront differences and the need for a more defined national government
  • Nullification Crisis
  • Civil War
  • Voting rights
  • Integration of public facilities and schools
  • Education standards
  • Defining marriage
  • Health care
  • Illegal immigration
  • Other issues may be added depending on current events.
NewG.8D Explain how the U.S. Constitution limits the power of national and state governments.

Explain

HOW THE U.S. CONSTITUTION LIMITS THE POWER OF GOVERNMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The Constitution enacted a system of federalism in which the power to govern is divided between national and state governments.
  • The U.S. Constitution limits the power of government by:
    • Articulating the rights that are protected
    • Establishing procedures for the election of representatives
    • Limiting the term of the executive
    • Requiring due process
  • Powers denied to the federal government are specified in Article I, Section 9, and powers denied to the states are specified in Article I, Section 10.
NewG.11 The student understands the similarities and differences that exist among the U.S. system of government and other political systems. The student is expected to:
NewG.11A Compare the U.S. constitutional republic to historical and contemporary forms of government such as monarchy, a classical republic, authoritarian, socialist, direct democracy, theocracy, tribal, and other republics.

Compare

THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTIONAL REPUBLIC TO HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY FORMS OF GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • U.S. system of government – the Federal system divides the power of government between national and state governments.
  • Monarchy – a country is governed by a hereditary ruler. Monarchies can be constitutional (powers of the monarch limited by a constitution) or absolute (ruler controls all aspect of life: social, economic, and political- oftentimes tied to divine right of kings).
  • Classical republic – a representative democracy in which a small group of leaders, elected by the citizens, represents the concerns of the electorate. The interests of the majority take precedence over the interests of a few. (e.g., Ancient Rome – representative democracy; Ancient Greece – direct democracy)
  • Authoritarian – type of government in which an individual or group has unlimited authority, and individual rights are subordinate to that power. No restraint on power exists. (Examples: Imperialist Japan, Czar Nicholas I of Russia)
  • Socialist government – in a socialist government, the government owns some factors of production and can still operate as a democracy Socialist governments often control major industries that have a large impact on the population (such as health care in Britain) in an effort to either manage the industry in a manner that has the most benefit for the general public or to control critical industries of national importance. Socialism offers some security and benefits to those who are less fortunate, homeless, or underemployed. All governments control some aspect of their national economies to varying degrees. Governments that have more extensive control of major industries such as transportation and communication systems include New Zealand, Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, and others.
  • Direct democracy – a government where the will of the people is translated into public policy directly by the people themselves, in direct meetings. It only works in very small communities where it is possible for people to meet in some central place and the problems of government are few and relatively simple. It does not exist on the national level anywhere in the world, but New England town meetings and local governments in smaller Swiss cantons are examples.
  • Theocracy – a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided; the administrative hierarchy of the government may be identical with the administrative hierarchy of the religion, or it may have two 'arms,' but with the state administrative hierarchy subordinate to the religious hierarchy.
  • Tribal government – historic tribal societies were comprised small numbers of individuals living communally in a settled area and speaking one language. Tribal societies were often distinguished by egalitarianism and as such political power was diffused among the group. While “village headmen” or “big men” among the group were elevated to leadership roles, their selection was based on merit or charisma and not heredity.  Tribal organization characterized the earliest agricultural and pastoral societies. Post-colonial references to tribes generally refers to communities of various indigenous groups. Many of these tribes have adopted governmental systems which reflect colonial influences. 
  • Other republics – confederate and unitary
    • Confederate system – involves two or more independent states which unite to achieve a common goal
    • Unitary system – all authority rests with a central government; state and local governments have only those powers given to them by the central government
NewG.11B Analyze advantages and disadvantages of presidential and parliamentary systems of government.

Analyze

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PRESIDENTIAL AND PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • presidential system of government(United States)
Presidential system
Advantage
Disadvantage
separation of powers protects against tyranny
divided government
more direct democracy, more accountability to voters
power struggles between parties make passing legislation more difficult
  • parliamentary system of government (Japan, United Kingdom)
Parliamentary system
Advantage
Disadvantage
threat of losing majority power creates incentive to agree and make changes
close connection between executive and legislative branches provides less protection against tyranny
prime minister accountable to legislature and can be ousted on a vote of no confidence
prime minister not directly elected by voters
NewG.19 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewG.19A Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewG.19B Create a product on a contemporary government issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry.

Create

PRODUCT USING CRITICAL METHODS OF INQUIRY

  • Critical methods of inquiry involves evaluating sources of information in order to synthesize an understanding in the pursuit of the answer to a question.
NewG.20 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewG.20A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
NewG.20B Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, VISUAL PRESENTATIONS USING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Effective communication skills
    • Correct grammar and punctuation
    • Accurate spelling
    • Clear diction and sentence structure
    • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewG.19 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewG.19C Analyze and defend a point of view on a current political issue.

Analyze and Defend

A POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
NewG.19D Analyze and evaluate the validity of information, arguments, and counterarguments from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY OF INFORMATION FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Propaganda refers to information that is generally considered to be misleading or promotes a particular view point, partisan perspective
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source
NewG.19E Evaluate government data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

Evaluate

GOVERNMENT DATA
NewG.21 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewG.21A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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