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Instructional Focus Document
United States Government
TITLE : Unit 02: The U.S. Constitution: The Blessings of Liberty SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

 Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to principles and rights embodied in the U.S. Constitution. This unit is primarily a study of limited government. The U.S. Constitution serves as a framework for the U.S. government and secures the fundamental rights of Americans. At the time of its creation it provided for an extraordinary degree of freedom, yet through compromise it failed to address the institution of slavery. Throughout the history of the United States the U.S. Constitution has been amended and debated. An examination of the U.S. Constitution is important for understanding the freedoms afforded Americans and the principles employed to limit the government.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, beginning in Kindergarten, students have been developing an understanding of the meaning, intent, and purpose of the U.S. Constitution. In Grade 5 students learned about the writing of the U.S. Constitution, including the addition of the Bill of Rights. In Grade 5 students also studied about the rights in the Bill of Rights, branches of government, and the reason for checks and balances. In Grade 7 and Grade 8 students studied about the constitutional principles of limited government which are reflected in the U.S. Constitution.

During this Unit

During this unit, students learn about principles of limited government reflected in the U.S. Constitution, the amendment process, and the rights guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. Additionally, students continue to practice inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about the structure of the federalist system created by the U.S. Constitution.


Democratic societies strive to guarantee the rights and freedoms of the individual.

  • How are the rights and freedoms of individuals protected in a democratic society?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The U.S. Constitution reflects the principles of limited government.

  • Which provisions of the U.S. Constitution reflect the principles of limited government including republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights?
  • How can the U.S. Constitution be amended?
  • How are the principles of limited government reflected in the national identity of Americans?

Political Patterns

  • Ideology

Civic Engagement

  • Democratic Principles
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Individual rights of American citizens are guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights.

  • Why is having a written constitution important?
  • What are unalienable rights?
  • What individual freedoms are guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights?
  • How does limiting government promote the protection of individual rights?
  • Why did the Founding Fathers believe it was important to protect religious freedom?

Civic Engagement

  • Democratic Principles

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Through the use of due process the federal court system ensures that the rights of Americans are protected and that government is limited.

  • How have rulings by the U.S. Supreme court clarified and protected the rights of Americans?
  • How did due process come about as a legal principle in the United States and why is it an important legal principle in the United States?

Political Patterns

  •  Governmental Systems

Civic Engagement   

  • Democratic Principles
  • Rights/Responsibilities
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

rule of law – ideas that all individuals, including political leaders, must follow the law
amendment – an addition, specifically referring to an addition to the U.S. Constitution
double-jeopardy – being tried twice for the same criminal incident
self-incrimination – giving information about oneself that is likely to implicate oneself in a crime
federalism – political system in which power is shared between a national centralized government and a collection of smaller state governments
popular sovereignty – independent power given to the people
checks and balances – a system in which limits are placed on functions of government so no one part becomes too powerful
separation of powers – a policy of dividing power among different branches of government in order to ensure no one branch has too much power
republicanism – government in which representatives are chosen as leaders

Related Vocabulary

  • unalienable rights
  •  limited government
  •  individual rights
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewG.6 Government. The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the U.S. Constitution and why these are significant. The student is expected to:
NewG.6A Explain the importance of a written constitution.

Explain

IMPORTANCE OF A WRITTEN CONSTITUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • A written constitution defines purpose, powers, rights and responsibilities of citizens, and describes the operational systems of government.
NewG.6D Evaluate constitutional provisions for limiting the role of government, including republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights.

Evaluate

CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS FOR LIMITING THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Constitutional Provisions related to election processes  (republicanism, popular sovereignty, individual rights) (Article I, Section 4; Article II, Sections 1)
  •  Constitutional Provisions related to legislative, executive and judicial powers (checks and balances and separation of powers) (Article I, Sections 7, & 8; Article II, Sections 2, & 3; Article III, Section 2)
  • Constitutional Provisions related to a distinction between federal and state powers (federalism and separation of powers) (Article 1, Sections 4 & 10; Article IV, Sections 2,3 & 4)
  • Bill of Rights (individual rights)
NewG.6E Describe the constitutionally prescribed procedures by which the U.S. Constitution can be changed and analyze the role of the amendment process in a constitutional government.

Describe

THE CONSTITUTIONALLY PRESCRIBED PROCEDURES BY WHICH THE CONSTITUTION CAN BE CHANGED

Analyze

THE ROLE OF THE AMENDMENT PROCESS IN A CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Article 5 of the Constitution outlines the process for amending the Constitution
    • Proposal by either 2/3 vote of each house of Congress or by a national convention requested by 2/3 of the state legislatures
    • Ratification by 3/4 of the states in their legislatures or in state conventions
  • Amendments can be added by any combination of the proposal and ratification steps outlined in Article 5 of the Constitution.
  • 26 of the 27 amendments have been made by a proposal in Congress and approved by the state legislatures. Only the 21st Amendment (repeal of Prohibition) was ratified by state conventions.
  • No national conventions have been called to propose an amendment.
  • The amendment process illustrates federalism in that proposal is a national function and ratification is a state function.
  • An Amendment might be proposed to address a perceived deficit in the Constitution (as in the Bill of Rights), in response to a particular court decision (11th Amendment in response to Chisholm v. Georgia ruling regarding lawsuits), or to advance a controversial social issue (18th Amendment and Prohibition).
  • The amendment process ensures that the Constitution can be changed to meet the needs of the people. Yet the process is not so simple as to induce drastic, constant changes. 
NewG.6F Identify how the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution continue to shape American beliefs and principles in the United States today.

Identify

HOW THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE AND THE U.S. CONSTITUTION CONTINUE TO SHAPE AMERICAN BELIEFS AND PRINCIPLES

Including, but not limited to:

  • The founding documents continue to shape American beliefs and principles about individual rights, equality, protection of minority rights, rule of law, and consent of the governed.
NewG.12 Citizenship. The student understands the rights that are protected and secured by the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights. The student is expected to:
NewG.12A Explain the roles of limited government and the rule of law in the protection of individual rights.

Explain

ROLE OF LIMITED GOVERNMENT AND RULE OF LAW TO PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Limited government – a chief purpose of the Constitution is to guarantee the equal protect of individual rights from an abusive government. The Bill of Rights was included with the intention of listing key rights that the government must respect and well as defend.
  • Rule of law – individuals and the minority political voice are protected from the “tyranny of the majority” ensuring that despite potentially destructive decisions by the majority, the rights of the minority cannot be infringed upon
  • Despite the claim of the Declaration of Independence that all men were equal, many were enslaved during the Revolution. Many times the principles of good law and governance precede their application in the real-world. In an effort to become a “more perfect union,” the Constitution establishes a government that allows for the flexibility of expanding the protection of individual rights with the understanding that as new issues arise, new understanding emerges around ideas of individual rights. Additionally, the justice system is established to create a system for balancing the rights claims of individuals and government using the law, and not individual caprice, to make impartial decisions.
NewG.12B Identify and define the unalienable rights.

Identify, Define

UNALIENABLE RIGHTS

Including,but not limited to:

  • Unalienable rights – unalienable rights are fundamental rights or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. The Declaration of Independence equated natural rights with several truths, “that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” The phrase “unalienable rights” was also used in the Virginia Declaration of Rights. Other rights are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
NewG.12C Identify the freedoms and rights protected and secured by each amendment in the Bill of Rights.

Identify

FREEDOMS AND RIGHTS PROTECTED AND SECURED BY EACH AMENDMENT IN THE BILL OF RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The Bill of Rights (first ten Amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1791) protects the following civil rights and liberties:
    • Freedom of speech, press, petition, and assembly; freedom to worship and freedom from an established religion
    • Right to bear arms
    • No forced quartering of soldiers
    • Protection against unreasonable searches and seizures
    • Grand jury hearing, double jeopardy (not be tried twice for the same crime once found innocent), self-incrimination (not be forced to testify), due process (all legal steps are followed), eminent domain (procedure for taking property for public use)
    • Rights of the accused: speedy and public trial, impartial jury, informed of charges, have witnesses in court, assistance of an attorney
    • Trial by jury in civil cases
    • Prohibition of excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment
    • Protection of rights not specifically listed in the Constitution
    • Powers saved for the states and the people
Note: 
Specific language for each right is found in the actual language of the Bill of Rights
NewG.12D Analyze the reasons the Founding Fathers protected religious freedom in America and guaranteed its free exercise by saying that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof," and compare this to the concept of "separation of church and state".

Analyze

REASONS THE FOUNDING FATHERS PROTECTED RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN AMERICA AND GUARANTEED ITS FREE EXERCISE

Compare

THE PROTECTION OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND THE CONCEPT OF SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Free exercise clause – clause in the First Amendment; “Congress shall make no law…prohibiting the free exercise…” of religion which has been interpreted to protect a person’s religious beliefs and the activities that flow from those beliefs, as long as they do not overshadow other important rights of society
  • Establishment clause – clause in the First Amendment; “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion…” and was meant to prevent the establishment of a national church. Beyond this ban on a national church, scholars and the courts continue to debate the meaning of the clause. Some believe it merely prevents the government from favoring one religion over another, while others believe there should be a “wall of separation” between church and state.
  • Separation of church and state – these words do not appear in the Constitution, but stem from the ideas of James Madison and Thomas Jefferson calling for a “wall of separation” between church and state, meaning little or no connection between the two.
  • The Founding Fathers included protections for religious freedom in the First Amendment because of experiences with the Church of England (Anglican Church), the national church of England, and because followers of other religions in England had suffered persecution. The Church of England (Anglican Church) was supported by government taxation and held significant political power.
  • Article VI of the Constitution – “…no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office of public trust under the United States;” meant no government official had to swear to hold certain religious beliefs before being allowed to hold office; added to prevent a single church from holding power over government as was the case with the Church of England
  • When the First Amendment was added, five states had “established” or “official” churches. The First Amendment applied only to Congress, the national legislature.
  • Fourteenth Amendment – the privileges and immunities clause as well as the due process and equal protection rights stated in this amendment have been interpreted by the Supreme Court to mean that states may not establish religions or unreasonably interfere with a person’s free exercise of religion.
NewG.12E Analyze U.S. Supreme Court interpretations of rights guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution in selected cases, including Engel v. Vitale, Schenck v. United States, Texas v. Johnson, Miranda v. Arizona, Gideon v. Wainwright, Mapp v. Ohio, and Roe v. Wade.

Analyze

UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT INTERPRETATIONS OF RIGHTS GUARANTEED BY THE U.S. CONSTITUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Through its decisions, the Supreme Court has clarified the meaning of many rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights.
  • Engel v. Vitale – under the First Amendment’s freedom of religion requirements, a state may not require school children to recite a specific prayer at the beginning of each school day.
  • Schenck v. U.S. – speech that presents a “danger” to the community is not protected by the First Amendment of Bill of Rights.
  • Texas v. Johnson – the First Amendment protects burning the American flag in protest, and other forms of political expression and symbolic speech.
  • Miranda v. Arizona – under the Fifth Amendment, suspects in a criminal action must be informed of their rights before making a confession.
  • Gideon v. Wainwright – state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford their own attorneys.
  • Mapp v. Ohio – evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
  • Roe v. Wade – the constitutional right to privacy, under the Ninth Amendment, extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that right must be balanced against the state's two legitimate interests for regulating abortions; protecting prenatal life and protecting the mother's health.
NewG.12F Explain the importance of due process rights to the protection of individual rights and in limiting the powers of government.

Explain

IMPORTANCE OF DUE PROCESS RIGHTS TO THE PROTECTION OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND IN LIMITING THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Through its decisions, the Supreme Court has held federal, state, and local governments responsible for following specific legal procedures (e.g., guaranteeing defendants access to counsel, using warrants to search private property, requiring death penalty statutes to be carefully crafted, etc.).
  • In addition to safeguarding “procedural due process,” the Supreme Court has used the 14th Amendment to guarantee “equal protection of the law” to racial, religious, age, gender, and other groups. This “substantive due process” has had a significant impact on hiring and college admissions, school integration, workplace equity, voting rights, and other similar social and economic issues.
  • The 5th Amendment also contains a due process clause and procedure for exercising the right of eminent domain.
  • Due process – laws and legal proceedings must be fair. The Constitution guarantees that the government cannot take away a person's basic rights to “life, liberty or property, without due process of law.”
  • Individual rights include due process protections of habeas corpus, presumption of innocence, impartial juries, speedy and public trials, right to counsel, trial by jury, right against self-incrimination, protection against double jeopardy, right of appeal, protections against unfair punishment, and right to jury trials in civil cases.
NewG.12G Recall the conditions that produced the 14th Amendment and describe subsequent efforts to selectively extend some of the Bill of Rights to the states through U.S. Supreme Court rulings and analyze the impact on the scope of fundamental rights and federalism.

Recall

CONDITIONS THAT PRODUCED THE 14th AMENDMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Adopted July 9, 1868; one of the post-Civil War Reconstruction amendments
  • Clause One of the amendment has three important parts:
    • Part one provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling the decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), which held that African Americans could not be citizens of the United States.
    • Part two, the Due Process Clause, has been used to make most of the Bill of Rights applicable to the states. Certain steps are required before depriving people (individual and corporate) of life, liberty, or property. It was added because a Congressional Joint Committee on Reconstruction found that only a Constitutional amendment could protect the rights and welfare of African Americans living in the former Confederate states.
    • Part three, the Equal Protection Clause, requires states to provide equal protection under the law to all people within their jurisdictions. This section was in response to the Black Codes which southern states had passed in the wake of the Thirteenth Amendment, which ended slavery in the United States. Those laws attempted to return formerly enslaved people to something like their former condition by, among other things, restricting their movement, forcing them to enter into year-long labor contracts, and by preventing them from suing or testifying in court.

Describe

EFFORTS TO SELECTIVELY EXTEND SOME OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS TO STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Blaine Amendment – name given to a collective of state constitutional amendments that bar public funding of religious organizations
  • The privileges and immunities clause of the 14th Amendment declares that Americans have dual citizenship in both the state they reside as well as the United States, namely the rights described in the first eight amendments of the Bill of Rights constitute the privileges and immunities of being a federal citizen and cannot be violated by an individual state. Yet, those privileges and immunities had to be individually applied to states through court decision, a process known as “incorporation”.
  • U.S. Supreme Court rulings – over a series of court rulings from the 1920s thru the 1960s a majority of the rights outlined in the Bill of Rights have been applied to the states. This has become known as the incorporation doctrine, and is based on U.S. Supreme court interpretations of the 14th Amendment.

Analyze

IMPACT ON THE SCOPE OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FEDERALISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Most provisions of the Bill of Rights now apply to the states
  • 14th Amendment is the most cited amendment in litigation

Note:
The amendment’s other three clauses include a number of requirements dealing with the Confederacy and its officials.

NewG.19 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewG.19A Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewG.20 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewG.20A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
NewG.20B Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, VISUAL PRESENTATIONS USING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Effective communication skills
    • Correct grammar and punctuation
    • Accurate spelling
    • Clear diction and sentence structure
    • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewG.19 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewG.19B Create a product on a contemporary government issue or topic using critical methods of inquiry.

Create

PRODUCT USING CRITICAL METHODS OF INQUIRY

  • Critical methods of inquiry involves evaluating sources of information in order to synthesize an understanding in the pursuit of the answer to a question.
NewG.19C Analyze and defend a point of view on a current political issue.

Analyze and Defend

A POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of view refers to the perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
NewG.19D Analyze and evaluate the validity of information, arguments, and counterarguments from primary and secondary sources for bias, propaganda, point of view, and frame of reference.

Analyze, Evaluate

VALIDITY OF INFORMATION FROM PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Propaganda refers to information that is generally considered to be misleading or promotes a particular view point, partisan perspective
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source
NewG.19E Evaluate government data using charts, tables, graphs, and maps.

Evaluate

GOVERNMENT DATA
NewG.21 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewG.21A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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