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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 7 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 12: Contemporary Texas – 1950-Present SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to contemporary issues in Texas. This unit is primarily a study of growth. From the 1950s to the 1970s Texas cities experienced tremendous growth as Texas became an urbanized state. New industries, such as aerospace and petrochemical drew many to Texas’ urban areas and supported growing prosperity for the state. Texas had long been the home to various immigrant groups and in the latter half of the twentieth century immigrants continued to come to Texas, many to Houston making it one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the United States. At the beginning of twenty first century Texas is experiencing demographic shifts and continued population growth. Texas faces challenges to provide energy, water, and public education to this growing population. An examination of contemporary social and cultural patterns in Texas is important for understanding the important economic, political, and social decisions Texans face in the twenty-first century.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students studied about the social and political changes taking place in Texas as part of the Civil Rights Movement and the rise of conservatism. In Grade 4 students learned about the diversification of the Texas’ economy and the interconnectedness of industries in Texas to global markets. 

During this Unit

During this unit, students complete their study of Texas history by examining the economic patterns, cultural patterns and changing demographic patterns in contemporary Texas. Students study about the economic boom that has characterized Texas for the latter half of the twentieth century and twenty first century, the multi ethnic contributions that characterize culture in Texas today, and the challenges Texans face as demographics change in Texas during the twenty first century. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.


Interactions among humans lead to change.

  • How does the world change as people become more connected?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Following the Second World War Texas developed a diversified economy, continued to urbanize, and integrated with global markets.

  • What new industries developed in Texas during the 1950s and 1960s?
  • What was characteristic of urban growth in Texas in the late 1900s?
  • What happened to the Texas economy in the 1980s because of the drop in oil prices and a banking scandal?
  • How has urbanization affected the environment of Texas?
  • How has economic growth in Texas been affected by globalization?

Economic Patterns

  • Globalization

Spatial Patterns

  •  Migration
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Texas continues to experience urban growth, and culture in Texas continues to be shaped by the contributions of many individuals and groups.

  • Which Texans have made significant contributions to the arts in Texas and what were those contributions?
  • In what ways does culture in Texas reflect the contributions of various immigrant groups?

Cultural Patterns

  • Artistic Expressions

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Texas continues to maintain the prosperity and quality of life Texans have come to enjoy, while facing the challenges of the twenty-first century.

  • What population predications are demographers making about Texas in the 21st century?
  • How will Texas address the demands for public education, healthcare and transportation in the 21st  century?
  • How will Texas provide energy and water to a growing population while protecting the environment in the 21st century?
  • How will Texans continue to be civically engaged in the 21st century?

Cultural Patterns

  • Demographics

Economic Patterns

  • Scarcity/Choices

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Energy Sources
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

globalization – the process of increasing connectivity between the world’s societies
demographers – those who studystatistical data about human populations

Related Vocabulary

  • energy
  • sustainability
  • technology
  • innovation
  •  prediction
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
New7.1A

Identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain the purpose of dividing the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights; and Contemporary Texas.

Identify

MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Describe

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Contemporary Texas
    • Characterized by the continued economic diversification, growth, and urbanization in Texas along with the changing demographics of the Texas population.

Explain

THE PURPOSE OF DIVIDING THE PAST INTO ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dividing the past into eras facilitates the examinations of how political, economic, geographic and social patterns change over time.
New7.7 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas during the late 19th, 20th, and early 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
New7.7B

Define and trace the impact of "boom-and-bust" cycles of leading Texas industries throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries such as farming, oil and gas production, cotton, ranching, real estate, banking, and computer technology.

Define, Trace

IMPACT OF “BOOM-AND-BUST” CYCLES OF LEADING TEXAS INDUSTRIES THROUGHOUT THE 20th AND EARLY 21st CENTURIES

  • Oil and gas production
    • The discovery of oil in Texas in the 1890s ushered in an oil boom at the beginning of the 20th century. The subsequent discovery of more oil fields helped to make Texas one of the leading oil producers in the United States by the 1940s and firmly establish the oil and gas production as an industry in Texas.
    • During the 1970s and early 1980s, a worldwide oil shortage caused Texas oil to be in great demand. This was due to the 1973 OPEC Oil Embargo and 1979 Oil Crisis. The result was an increase in Texas oil production. When oil producers in the Middle East increased production in the 1980s, oil prices dropped and Texas faced hard economic times. State leaders then began working to diversify the Texas economy.
    • The introduction of new hydraulic drilling techniques in the 21st century has resulted in a resurgence of oil drilling in Texas.
  • Real Estate and Banking
    • The oil boom in the early 1970s facilitated a boom in home buying and real estate investment. By the 1980s Texas was home to more banks than any other state. With the end of the oil embargo in 1980s the price of oil fell drastically putting many Texans out of work and creating a recession. Banks made large invests in commercial real estate during the recession. In 1986 Congress removed tax incentives for real estate investment with an overhaul of the tax codes resulting in decreasing real estate values and investment losses. During the 1980s every major bank in Texas failed or was bought out by other banks at rock bottom prices. Additionally, during the late 1980s Texas Savings and Loans were implicated in land flips and other criminal activities. As bad land investments were auctioned off, real estate prices collapsed. Texans homes were foreclosed on as banks failed, and many lost jobs related to the oil bust. The real estate market recovered in the 1990s as the diversification of the Texas economy helped to create new jobs and bring newcomers to Texas.
  • ComputerTechnology
    • Following the oil bust of the 1980s Texan leaders worked to actively diversify the economy, most significantly by attracting technology companies to establish businesses in Texas. The industry continues to grow in Texas with many small start-up companies and major technology producers including Dell Computers operating in Texas, especially in Austin and Dallas.
New7.7E

Analyze the political, economic, and social impact of World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, and significant issues in the latter half of the 20th and early 21st centuries such as political and economic controversies, immigration, and migration on the history of Texas.

Analyze

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF WORLD WAR I, GREAT DEPRESSION, WORLD WAR II, ISSUES IN LATTER HALF OF 20TH AND EARLY 21ST CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Significant issues in the late 20th century and early 21st century
    • Korean Conflict, Vietnam War, and Gulf Wars – military bases in Texas supported these efforts; continued economic growth; service of Texans in these wars
    • Political and economic controversies includes the challenge of funding public education equitably across the state; transportation-challenges to provide for rapid population growth in Texas has resulted in increased taxes or partnering with the federal government to acquire funding to build highways, roads, and bridges, along with building of toll roads
    • Immigration has supplied cheap labor for construction, restaurants, hotels and other manufacturing industries in Texas, yet a number of immigrants who are not citizens use government services most significantly public schools; policy issues about children who are citizens while their parents are not citizensMigration has provided skilled labor for an expanding Texas economy; home costs increase along with the cost of living; urban congestion; increase population especially in urban areas with diverse backgrounds; more representation in the U.S. Congress and the Electoral College
New7.9 The student understands the effects of the interaction between humans and the environment in Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.9A Identify ways in which Texans have adapted to and modified the environment and explain the positive and negative consequences of the modifications.

Identify

WAYS TEXANS HAVE ADAPTED TO AND MODIFIED THE ENVIRONMENT

Explain

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF THE MODIFICATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

20th Century Texas

  • The environment was further modified by the expansive building of roads as more Texans used automobiles as a means of transportation.
  • Following the 1900 hurricane, the city of Galveston built a seawall and increased the elevation of the city.
  • Built in 1914, the Houston Ship Channel connects Houston with the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Texans planted trees and natural vegetation in the Texas Panhandle to prevent erosion following the devastating effects of the Dust Bowl. Irrigation systems facilitated the adaptation to the arid environment of this region.
  • Dams built to provide hydro-electric power and control flooding, reservoirs provided recreation areas.
  • Irrigation of the plains has strained aquifers, some of which have dried up, yet crop yields have increased.
  • Drilling for oil in the Gulf of Mexico, along with the introduction of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing extraction methods have resulted in  more energy, economic growth, oil spills, oil contamination of beaches, gulf, and wildlife habitats, possible water contamination and possible increase in seismic activity.
New7.9B

Explain ways in which geographic factors such as the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the Dust Bowl, limited water resources, and alternative energy sources have affected the political, economic, and social development of Texas.

Explain

WAYS GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS HAVE AFFECTED THE POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Alternative energy sources – have contributed to economic development in Texas, most significantly the development of wind energy. Additionally hydropower accounts for much of the electric power generated for Texans’ use.
New7.10 The student understands the characteristics, distribution, and migration of population in Texas in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
New7.10A Identify why immigrant groups came to Texas and where they settled.

Identify

WHY IMMIGRANT GROUPS CAME TO TEXAS AND WHERE THEYSETTLED

Including, but not limited to:

  • 20th century
    • Immigrants continued to come to Texas seeking job opportunities . Many immigrants to Texas in the 20th century came as students in the state’s high educational institutions.
    • Immigrants to Texas in the 20th century came from a variety of places including Eastern Europe, Latin America, Vietnam, and the Middle East. Most of these immigrant groups have settled in urban areas.
    • At the beginning of the 21st century Texas continues to attract a large majority of immigrants from Mexico seeking economic opportunities and many from Central America fleeing political and social oppression.
    • According to an analysis of census data from Rice University released in 2015, Houston is most ethnically diverse city in the United States. 
New7.10C Describe the structure of the population of Texas using demographic concepts such as growth rate and age distribution.

Describe

STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION OF TEXAS USING DEMOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Growth Rate – the annual rate at which population has been or is expected to grow
    • Anglo
      • 2000 – 11,074,716
      • 2040 – 12,225,486
    • African American
      • 2000 – 2,421,653
      • 2040 – 3,995,349
    • Hispanic
      • 2000 – 6,669,666
      • 2040 – 29,926,210
    • Other
      • 2000 – 685,785
      • 2040 – 4,435,916
  • At the turn of the century, the population growth rate has been increasing. Use charts and graphs to show this.
  • Age distribution – the pattern of different age groups of the population at different periods
    • Average age is getting older with the aging of the baby boom generation, yet the majority of the Texas population is under the age of 65.
    • Check yearly with the State Demographer
New7.10D Analyze the effects of the changing population distribution and growth in Texas and the additional need for education, health care, and transportation.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF THE CHANGING POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH IN TEXAS DURING 20th AND 21st CENTURIES AND THE ADDITIONAL NEED FOR EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE, AND TRANSPORTATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Need for education
    • Fast growing school districts resulting in the need for more teachers, buildings, and resources
    • Demand for a greater tax base
  • Health care
    • More medical hubs across the state
    • Demand for public funding
  • Transportation
    • More roads and highways needed
    • Increased urban congestion
    • Toll Roads
New7.12 The student understands the interdependence of the Texas economy with the United States and the world. The student is expected to:
New7.12A Explain the impact of national and international markets on the production of goods and services in Texas, including agriculture and oil and gas.

Explain

IMPACT OF MARKETS ON PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Demand in U.S. and international markets is met by Texas supplies of agricultural products including cotton, rice, sugar, vegetables, fruit, cattle, poultry, timber, oil and gas. National and international demands for oil helps to sustain the oil/gas industry in Texas. The Oil Embargo of 1973 resulted in increased oil production in Texas. Many multinational oil companies are located in Texas.
New7.12B Explain the impact of economic concepts within the free enterprise system such as supply and demand, profit, and world competition on the economy of Texas.

Analyze

IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CONCEPTS WITHIN THE FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM ON THE ECONOMY OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Supply and demand – Texas consumers are impacted by price fluctuations related to supply and demand.
  • Profit – Texans are free to start businesses to make a profit.
  • World competition – many Texas industries, including in the agricultural and oil and gas sectors benefit from an exporting products, yet these industries have to compete with international producers.
New7.12C Analyze the impact of significant industries in Texas such as aerospace, medical, and computer technologies on local, national, and international markets.

Analyze

IMPACT OF SIGNIFICANT INDUSTRIES IN TEXAS ON LOCAL, NATIONAL, AND INTERNATIONAL MARKETS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Aerospace – NASA was located in Houston (Clear Lake) and other aerospace industries grew from this. It brought many jobs to the Houston area, as well as other cities, that are the home of other aerospace industries.
  • Medical technology – MD Anderson Cancer Research Hospital is the leading cancer research hospital in the nation. Most large and mid-size urban areas are medical hubs and support jobs and industries.
  • Computer technology – companies in Austin, Dallas and other cities provide jobs and contribute to a highly educated workforce.
New7.15 The student understands the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
New7.15B Explain civic responsibilities of Texas citizens and the importance of civic participation.

Explain

CIVIC RESPONSIBILITIES OF TEXAS CITIZENS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF CIVIC PARTICIPATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Texas citizens have the civic responsibility to follow the laws, pay taxes, serve jury duty, act as witnesses in court, and vote.
  • Civic participation is important for communities to thrive. Individuals and groups can civically participate by addressing any issues of public concern through lobbying, informing others about the issue, signing a petition, serving as an elected official, volunteering, serving on a board, attending governmental meetings, or organizing events.
New7.16 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
New7.16A Identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important Texas issues, past and present.

Identify

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW ON IMPORTANT TEXAS ISSUES, PAST AND PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of View– the particular position or attitude expressed or adopted by an individual or a group. An individuals’ point of view is influenced by the historical context (the time in which the individual lived) and frame of reference (personal background of the individual).
New7.18 The student understands the concept of diversity within unity in Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.18A Explain how the diversity of Texas is reflected in a variety of cultural activities and celebrations.

Explain

HOW THE DIVERSITY OF TEXAS IS REFLECTED IN CULTURAL ACTIVITIES AND CELEBRATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The diversity of Texas is reflected in many cultural activities such as  local folk festivals, Wurstfest, celebrations of Cinco de Mayo, Quinceañera celebrations, ballet folklorico performances, Scottish dancing performances, and many numerous others
New7.18B Describe how people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups attempt to maintain their cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture.

Describe

HOW PEOPLE FROM RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS ATTEMPT TO MAINTAIN CULTURAL HERITAGE WHILE ADAPTING TO THE LARGER TEXAS CULTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maintained food, music, traditions, language, and religion over many generations
  • Celebrations practiced in new world
New7.18D Identify contributions to the arts by Texans such as Roy Bedichek, Diane Gonzales Bertrand, J. Frank Dobie, Scott Joplin, Elisabet Ney, Amado Peña Jr., Walter Prescott Webb, and Horton Foote.

Identify

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ARTS BY TEXANS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Roy Bedichek – a lifelong outdoorsman, and animal lover, Bedichek wrote "Adventures with a Texas Naturalist", which was published in 1947. His letters, evidence of his enthusiastic correspondence, were collected into two books. Bedichek is fondly remembered as a conversationalist, folklorist, and storyteller who related all experience to the natural world. (June 27, 1878 – May 21, 1959)
  • Diane Gonzales Bertrand – Bertrand is a Mexican-American author with published works of poetry, non-fiction and fiction for children and young adults. She has won numerous awards for her works that focus on Mexican American characters and her bilingual works. She continues to teach others about the art of writing.
  • J. Frank Dobie –was a Texas writer who wrote about African American, Anglo, and Hispanic cowboys, as well as American Indian, Spanish, African American, and Mexican heritage. His writings developed an appreciation of the legends, the myths, and the many cultures of Texas. His best known books are The Longhorns, The Mustangs, and A Vaquero of the Brush Country. He also organized the Texas Institute of Letters to promote and encourage Texas writers. (1888-1964)
  • Scott Joplin –was  African American Texan who established ragtime, one of the most popular forms of music during the turn of the 20th century. Joplin was a talented pianist and music writer. He wrote more than 500 pieces of music, including a ballet and two operas. Among his best loved works are “Maple Leaf Rag”, “The Entertainer” and the opera Treemonisha. (1867-1917)
  • Elisabet Ney –was an early female artist who had a studio in Austin. Ney sculpted the “great men” of frontier Texas, among them life-size figures of Stephen F. Austin and Sam Houston that stand today in the national and state capitols. She also sculpted European notables. She and her husband played an active role in the establishment of Texas state universities and the Texas Fine Arts Association. (1833-1907)
  • Amado Peña Jr. – a Laredo native, Pena is an artist and former secondary teacher who uses bold colors and composition to pay tribute to American Indians who survive by living in harmony within an adversarial, untamed environment. (1943-present)
  • Walter Prescott Webb – as a University of Texas history professor, Webb was a well-respected historian who wrote books such as The Texas Rangers and the award-winning The Great Plains. (1888-1963)
  • Horton Foote –was an American playwright and screenwriter. He was best known for his Academy Award-winning screenplays such as the 1962 film To Kill a Mockingbird and the 1983 film Tender Mercies. In 2000, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts. (1916-2009)
New7.19 The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the political, economic, and social development of Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.19A Compare types and uses of technology, past and present.

Compare

TYPES AND USES OF TECHNOLOGY, PAST AND PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Types of Technologies – may include a variety of innovations in agriculture, transportation, communication, and energy production.
  • Uses of technology 
    • Facilitate increased agricultural production, such as mechanical reapers or irrigation systems
    • Facilitate faster transporting of goods and people, such as with railroads, automobiles, airplanes, and rockets
    • Facilitate faster methods of communicating, such as telegraph, telephone, cell phones, and e-mail
    • Provide access to natural resources such as windmills, water pumps, oil drilling methods
New7.19B Identify Texas leaders in science and technology such as Walter Cunningham, Michael DeBakey, Denton Cooley, Benjy Brooks, Michael Dell, and Howard Hughes Sr.

Identify

TEXAS LEADERS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Walter Cunningham
    • Was aboard the first Apollo spacecraft that carried astronauts into space. He and three other astronauts successfully orbited the Earth 163 times returning safely after 11 days. For his bravery, he earned the American Legion Medal of Valor.
    • Political/economic – NASA continued to be a viable government entity located in Clear Lake outside of Houston. NASA has contributed to the economy of the Houston area through government support.
  • Michael DeBakey
    • Developed procedures to prevent heart attacks. In 1966, he was the first surgeon to fully implant a mechanical heart pump in a patient.
    • DeBakey and Cooley were rivals in this industry until a few years before DeBakey’s death.
    • Political/economic – Houston became one of the most important medical locations in the world. Being a medical hub has led to a strong economy and political and philanthropic support of this industry. People from around the world come to Houston to receive cardiac care.
  • Denton Cooley
    • Was the first heart surgeon to perform a human heart transplant in 1968. Later in 1969, he was the first to use an artificial heart to replace human hearts.
    • Debakey and Cooley were rivals in this industry until a few years before Debakey’s death.
    • Political/economic – Houston became one of the most important medical locations in the world. Being a medical hub has led to a strong economy and political and philanthropic support of this industry. People from around the world come to Houston to receive cardiac care.
  • Benny Brooks
    • Was the first woman to become a pediatric surgeon in the state of Texas. In her work at Texas Children's Hospital and St. Joseph's Hospital in Houston, she conducted research on congenital defects, burn treatment, spleen reparation, and the prevention of hepatitis. A foundation set up in her name has advanced the surgical care of young children in Texas by endowing chairs at medical colleges, donating special equipment to hospitals and medical centers, and providing research grants for the study of pediatric illnesses and diseases.
    • Political/economic – Houston became one of the most important medical locations in the world. Being a medical hub has led to a strong economy and political and philanthropic support of this industry.
  • Michael Dell
    • American entrepreneur, businessman, and author, known as the founder and CEO of Dell, Inc., one of the world's leading sellers of personal computers
    • Dell, Inc. is one of the largest computer companies in the world. It has caused Texas to be a center for technology and has brought many jobs to Texas and around the world.
  • Howard Hughes, Sr.
    • Howard Hughes, Sr., from Houston, developed a new type of drill bit called the rotary drill bit. The bit made it possible to drill through very hard rock to reach oil deep underground. (1933)
    • The drill bit revolutionized the oil industry which is one of the largest industries in Texas.
New7.19C

Analyze the effects of various scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of Texas such as advancements in the agricultural, energy, medical, computer, and aerospace industries.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Advancements in the energy industries
    • Oil and gas – since World War II, this has become a major industry in Texas. It has led to the production of products made of oil and gas.
    • Wind energy – has become a new industry in Texas in areas that have suffered a decrease in industries and population like West Texas, the Panhandle, and South Texas
  • Advancements in the medical industries
    • MD Anderson – MD Anderson Cancer Center was created in 1941. The institution is one of the nation’s original three comprehensive cancer centers designated by the National Cancer Act of 1971 and is one of 40 National Cancer Institutes. Patients, physicians, and researchers travel to Houston from across the state, nation, and world.
  • Advancements in the computer industries
    • In the 1970s and 1980s, computer companies moved to Texas (especially in Dallas and Austin) and it has remained a growing industry. Dell Computers, considered the largest computer company in the world, is located in Round Rock.
  • Advancements in the aerospace industries
    • NASA-Johnson Space Center – Johnson Space Center was established in 1961 as the Manned Spacecraft Center. In 1973, the Center was renamed in honor of the late President and Texas native, Lyndon B. Johnson. From the early Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects to today's Space Shuttle and International Space Station Programs, the Center continues to lead NASA's efforts in human space exploration.
New7.19D Evaluate the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the use of resources such as fossil fuels, water, and land.

Evaluate

EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON THE USE OF RESOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Fossil fuels
    • Rotary drill bits –penetrate medium and hard rocks with ten times the speed of any former bit; allowed deeper drilling on land and ocean
    • Directional drilling- the practice of drilling non-vertical wells which allows drilling to occur in different landforms
    • Deep sea drilling –drilling that can occur in the depths of the ocean; new oil reserves have been found and the industry has flourished
    • Hydraulic fracturing-method of oil drilling where highly pressurized liquid combinations including water and chemicals are used to break up rock and gain access to oil; possibly causes contamination of ground water and increased seismic activity
  • Water
    • Dams –have been built to control water use, flooding, and to provide hydro-electrical power
  • Land
    • Soil conservation – planting of trees, irrigation, planting of appropriated crops, and organizing the state into soil and water districts
New7.19E Analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations have resulted in an interdependence among Texas, the United States, and the world.

Analyze

HOW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS HAVE RESULTED IN INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG TEXAS, THE UNITED STATES, AND THE WORLD

Including, but not limited to:

  • Technology and innovation brought prosperity and economic diversity to Texas. Locally, nationally, and globally, citizens are dependent on Texas for innovations in computer technology (Dell and others), medical technology (MD Anderson and others), oil and gas technology (refineries in Beaumont, Houston, and Corpus Christi), and other industries.
New7.20 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New7.20A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
New7.20B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New7.20C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Information from
    • Outlines
    • Reports
    • Databases
    • Visuals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Timelines
    • Maps
New7.20D Identify bias and points of view from the historical context surrounding an event that influenced the participants.

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT THAT INFLUENCED THE PARTICIPANTS

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New7.20E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Support

A POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

New7.20F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New7.21 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
New7.21A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Create, Interpret

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS REPRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
    • Regions of Texas
    • Major physical geographic features in Texas, including rivers and cities
    • Regions that American Indians inhabited in Texas
    • Spanish missions and settlements in Texas
    • Empresario Grants
    • Settlements in Texas by 1821
    • Battles in the Texas Revolution
    • European settlements
    • Mexican Cession
    • Civil War Battles in Texas
    • Reconstruction military districts
    • Military posts and installations in Texas
    • Texas oil fields
    • Cattle trails
    • Dust Bowl
    • Internment camps
  • Other sources of geographic data
    • Population of American Indians in Texas prior to the arrival of Europeans
    • Number of casualties in the Texas Revolution
    • Population of Texas before and after the Texas Revolution
    • Number of Texans that fought in the Civil War
    • Number of Texans that died in the Civil War
    • European immigration numbers
    • Population changes in Texas
    • Political parties membership numbers and demographics
New7.21B Analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Analyze, Interpret

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERNS IN TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 19th Century
    • Prior to the1800’s Texas was home to a variety of American Indian groups and a growing number of Spanish colonists living near Spanish missions. Spanish missions and surrounding towns were located near rivers in South Texas, East Texas and in far West Texas
    • During the early 1800’s the population of Texas grew significantly as the Mexican government promoted colonization of the region by giving land grants to Anglo and Mexican settlers. The vast majority of the new settlement in Texas during the 1800’s was by immigrants coming from the United States, some bringing enslaved Africans with them to Texas. Most land grants were located in South and East Texas where physical geography was more favorable to settlement.
    • During the mid1800s Texas experience a large wave of immigration from many European nations. This wave including the immigration of Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. By 1850 Texas’ population was well over 200,000 and by 1860 the number of people living in Texas reached more than 600,000, yet in 1836 it had been approximately 50,000. Enslaved African-Americans were also brought to Texas in large numbers during this time period and mostly settled on cotton plantations in East Texas. More than 2,000 families settled in the Peters Colony in North Texas near present day Dallas during the 1840s. Many small towns were established by immigrant s and most people lived in rural areas with settlements concentrated in the eastern and central portions of the state.
    • During the late 1800s the population of Texas continued to grow to more than 3 million by 1900. The building of railroads resulted in the birth of many towns along the rail routes and the growth of towns in West Texas. Most Texans still lived in rural settings, but urban areas were growing in size.
  • 20th Century
    • In 1900 population of Texas was over 3 million. By 1930 the population of Texas has just about doubled, making Texas the fifth largest state in the United States. Immigration accounts for most of the population increase in the early 1900s with many immigrants coming from Mexico during this time period. The population of Texas remained primarily concentrated in rural areas, yet by the 1920 the size of cities in Texas was increasing.
    • By 1950 more Texans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Houston and Dallas became the state’s largest cities. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century suburban areas of Texas also increased as the urban areas of Dallas/ Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and Brownsville experienced significant population increases from 1970-2000.
  • 21st Century
    • Urban areas of Texas continue to grow, with some counties such as Williamson County leading the entire nation in growth rates. The population growth in Texas is concentrated in urban areas with both small cities and large cities experiencing growth. Texas has six of the nation’s largest cities- San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, Dallas, Austin, and El Paso.
New7.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New7.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
New7.22B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New7.22C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL BASED ON RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New7.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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