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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 7 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 09: Modernizing Texas in An Age of Oil – 1900-1929 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the development of the oil industry in Texas, the advance of reform movements in Texas, and the effects of the First World War on society in Texas. This unit is primarily a study of growing power. At the beginning of the twentieth century the Texas coast was devastated by a hurricane. Rebuilding after the hurricane brought political and economic changes to Galveston and Texas. It was also during the early decades of the twentieth century that the oil industry in Texas began. During this time Texans played a role in national events including the progressive reform movements and the First World War. An examination of early twentieth century events in Texas is important for understanding the broader role Texas was taking in national political affairs.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students studied about economic development in Texas in the latter half of the nineteenth century by examining the cattle and agricultural industries as well as the building of railroads in Texas. In Grade 4 students learned about the creation of the oil industry in Texas and the accompanying urbanization.

During this Unit

During this unit, students learn about the devastation the 1900 hurricane that hit Galveston, the early development of the oil industry, the participation of Texans in reform movements, and the effects of the First World War in Texas. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about Texas during the Great Depression and the Second World War.


Humans have a complex relationship with the environment.

  • What is characteristic of the interactions between humans and the environment?

People act for change when they can no longer tolerate the conditions in which they live.

  • How do people act effectively to address intolerable conditions in society?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The devastation brought by the 1900 hurricane in Galveston brought geographic, economic, and political changes to Texas.

  • How did the hurricane of 1900 change the economy of Galveston?
  • What steps did leaders in Galveston take to prevent damage from future hurricanes?
  • What political changes were made in Galveston following the hurricane and how did that affect Texas?

Spatial Patterns

  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The discovery of oil in Texas resulted in the development of other industries, increasing urbanization in Texas, and an expansion of the Railroad Commission.

  • What other industries flourished in Texas following the discovery of oil?
  • What cities became economic centers for Texas in the early 1900s?
  • Why did the refinery industry in Texas concentrate in the Houston area?
  • What was characteristic of the economic boom that developed in Texas as a result of the oil industry?
  • Why was it necessary to expand the role of the Texas Railroad Commission to regulate the oil industry?

Economic Patterns

  • Resources
  • Factors of Production

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Energy Sources
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Texans joined in the national movements to reform society.

  • How did life in rural and urban Texas compare in the early 1900s?
  • What changes did Populists, labor unions and women’s groups advocate in the early 1900s?
  • How successful were the reform groups in Texas in the early 1900s at bring about political and social changes?
  • What actions did political leaders in Texas take to bring about reforms?

Civic Engagement

  • Civic Virtue
  • Rights/Responsibilities
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The First World War led to the establishment of military bases in Texas, a boom in the oil industry, and changing roles for women in Texas.

  • How did Texans support the war effort during the First World War?
  • How did the First World War affect the economy of Texas?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

boom and bust cycle – an economic pattern characterized by periods of economic growth and periods of economic decline
industrialization – the economic development of manufacturing products from natural resources
petroleum – a thick, oily substance found deep in the Earth, use as a fuel
prohibition – to ban something, generally refers to the movement to ban the manufacture, sale, transportation and use of alcoholic beverages
progressives – those who advocate social reforms and legislative programs to improve society
suffrage – the right to vote

Related Vocabulary

  • refinery
  • standard of living
  • reform
  • rural
  • urban
  • urbanization
  • military installation
  • temperance
  • drill bit
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
New7.1A

Identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain the purpose of dividing the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights; and Contemporary Texas.

Identify

MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Describe

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Age of Oil
    • Characterized by the development of the oil industry in Texas at the beginning of the 20th century, the development of reform movements in the early 20th century, and the involvement of Texans in the First World War

Explain

THE PURPOSE OF DIVIDING THE PAST INTO ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dividing the past into eras facilitates the examinations of how political, economic, geographic and social patterns change over time.
New7.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, mapping of the Texas coast and first mainland Spanish settlement; 1718, founding of San Antonio; 1821, independence from Spain; 1836, Texas independence; 1845, annexation; 1861, Civil War begins; 1876, adoption of current state constitution; and 1901, discovery of oil at Spindletop.

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1901 – oil discovery at Spindletop
New7.7 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas during the late 19th, 20th, and early 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
New7.7A Explain how the oil industry led to the industrialization of Texas.

Explain

HOW THE OIL INDUSTRY LED TO THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Texas’ first commercial oil well was established in Corsicana in 1894, but it was the discovery of oil at Spindletop in 1901 that confirmed for potential investors that Texas may have large oil deposits. The oil industry experienced continued growth through the 1920s, yet the Texas economy remained largely dominated by agricultural production.
  • It was during the 1950s and 1960s that Texas began the transition to an industrial economy spurred by the expansion of oil related industries, such as refineries, chemical plants, pipelines, shipbuilding, automobiles, and real estate. New professions like petroleum engineering came about and the oil industry provided a new tax base for the state.
  • Population growth and urbanization that accompanied the expanding oil industry was coupled with an increase in jobs in manufacturing, food processing, retail sales, banking, and transportation.
New7.7B

Define and trace the impact of "boom-and-bust" cycles of leading Texas industries throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries such as farming, oil and gas production, cotton, ranching, real estate, banking, and computer technology.

Define, Trace

IMPACT OF “BOOM-AND-BUST” CYCLES OF LEADING TEXAS INDUSTRIES THROUGHOUT THE 20th AND EARLY 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Oil and gas production
    • The discovery of oil in Texas in the 1890s ushered in an oil boom at the beginning of the 20th century. The subsequent discovery of more oil fields helped to make Texas one of the leading oil producers in the United States by the 1940s and firmly establish the oil and gas production as an industry in Texas.
    • During the 1970s and early 1980s, a worldwide oil shortage caused Texas oil to be in great demand. This was due to the 1973 OPEC Oil Embargo and 1979 Oil Crisis. The result was an increase in Texas oil production. When oil producers in the Middle East increased production in the 1980s, oil prices dropped and Texas faced hard economic times. State leaders then began working to diversify the Texas economy.
    • The introduction of new hydraulic drilling techniques in the 21st century has resulted in a resurgence of oil drilling in Texas.
New7.7C

Describe and compare the impact of reform movements in Texas in the 19th and 20th centuries such as progressivism, populism, women's suffrage, agrarianism, labor reform, and the conservative movement of the late 20th century.

Describe, Compare

IMPACT OF REFORM MOVEMENTS IN TEXAS IN THE 19th AND 20th CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Progressivism – early 20th century politics in Texas was dominated by progressives who believed that efficient government and strong public education would create an environment in which the industrial and agricultural economic sectors would both thrive. Progressive reforms addressed corruption with election reform, new labor regulations, tax reform, banking regulations, a restriction on trusts, creation of a state insurance program, and most significantly education reform. Many progressives felt that education opportunities across Texas at that time were unequal and they worked to address these inequalities by consolidating rural school districts, providing funding for textbooks, expanding higher education for the training of teachers, and instituting compulsory attendance. Progressives also advocated for the conservation of forests and funding for highway development, highlighted by the Good Roads Movement which emerged in 1910. While progressives made many changes in Texas, these changes were largely focused on the needs of Anglo Texans.
  • Populism – at the turn of the century a nationwide movement of rural citizens who had not benefited from the modern lifestyle made by the growth in industry called for more government intervention in the economy to support farmers and common workers. The populist movement originated with the Farmer’s Alliance which spread throughout South Texas forming a political party in 1892, known as the People’s Party or Populist Party In Texas populists supported government ownership of the railroads, an income tax, eight-hour workday, direct election of senators, free coinage of silver, referendum and recall. They also supported creation of public warehouses where farmers could store excess crops until prices increased. Texas populists avoiding taking a stand on women’s suffrage and prohibition. In an effort to win elections, populist candidates reached out to African-American voters, but did not argue for racial equality. Populists won some elections in 1892 and 1894 at the state level but the movement faded after 1896 when the Texas Democratic Party adopted progressive reforms that encompassed many of the Populists’ ideas.
  • Women’s Suffrage – intertwined with the progressive movement, women in Texas petitioned the constitutional conventions of 1868 and 1875 to grant women the right to vote but were unsuccessful. In 1893 the Texas Equal Rights Association was formed and a late split in the organization resulted in the formation of the Texas Women’s Suffrage Association in 1903 with local chapters in almost every county in Texas by the outbreak of the First World War. Women fought for the right to vote with legislation proposed in 1915 and 1917, again unsuccessfully. In a special session of the Texas legislature in 1918 women were granted the right to vote in primary elections. Passage of the19th Amendment gave women the right to vote in the United States.
  • Agrarianism – several groups formed in the late 19th century to organize farmers into cooperatives. One of the most popular was The Grange or Patrons of Husbandry organized in Texas in 1873. The group shared information about farming techniques, served as a social outlet, demanded better schools, helped to create an agricultural college in Texas, now known as Texas A&M, advocated for the regulation of railroads. Membership declined by the 1880s as populism grew. The Farmers’ Union was organized in 1902 and grew into the Farmers’ Educational and Cooperative Union of Texas. A Colored Farmers’ Union also formed. The Texas Farm Bureau became a significant rural organization supporting expansion of credit to farmers.
  • Labor reform – Progressives in Texas were successful in limiting workhours for railroad trainmen, increasing safety standards for railroad workers, and regulating child labor.
New7.7E

Analyze the political, economic, and social impact of World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, and significant issues in the latter half of the 20th and early 21st centuries such as political and economic controversies, immigration, and migration on the history of Texas.

Analyze

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF WORLD WAR I, GREAT DEPRESSION, WORLD WAR II, ISSUES IN LATTER HALF OF 20TH AND EARLY 21ST CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • World War I - approximately 200,000 Texans fought in the war and approximately 500 women from Texas served as nurses; Texan Edward M. House served as an advisor to President Wilson; four major military camps were set up in Texas; Camp Bowie in Ft. Worth, Camp Travis in San Antonio, Camp Logan in Houston, and Camp MacArthur in Waco; Texan women joined the workforce; Texans supported the war effort buying Liberty Bonds and volunteering for the Red Cross; Texans experience some food rationing; oil industry benefited from increased demand
New7.9 The student understands the effects of the interaction between humans and the environment in Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.9A Identify ways in which Texans have adapted to and modified the environment and explain the positive and negative consequences of the modifications.

Identify

WAYS TEXANS HAVE ADAPTED TO AND MODIFIED THE ENVIRONMENT

Explain

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF THE MODIFICATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

20th Century Texas

  • The environment was further modified by the expansive building of roads as more Texans used automobiles as a means of transportation.
  • Following the 1900 hurricane, the city of Galveston built a seawall and increased the elevation of the city.
  • Built in 1914, the Houston Ship Channel connects Houston with the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Texans planted trees and natural vegetation in the Texas Panhandle to prevent erosion following the devastating effects of the Dust Bowl. Irrigation systems facilitated the adaptation to the arid environment of this region.
  • Dams built to provide hydro-electric power and control flooding, reservoirs provided recreation areas.
  • Irrigation of the plains has strained aquifers, some of which have dried up, yet crop yields have increased.
  • Drilling for oil in the Gulf of Mexico, along with the introduction of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing extraction methods have resulted in  more energy, economic growth, oil spills, oil contamination of beaches, gulf, and wildlife habitats, possible water contamination and possible increase in seismic activity.
New7.9B

Explain ways in which geographic factors such as the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the Dust Bowl, limited water resources, and alternative energy sources have affected the political, economic, and social development of Texas.

Explain

WAYS GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS HAVE AFFECTED THE POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Galveston Hurricane of 1900
    • Political development
      • City commission – new type of city government
      • The island was raised by 13 feet – dredged sand from the bay
      • A seawall was built to protect the island
New7.11 The student understands the factors that caused Texas to change from an agrarian to an urban society. The student is expected to:
New7.11A Explain economic factors and the development of major industries that led to the urbanization of Texas such as transportation, oil and gas, and manufacturing.

Explain

ECONOMIC FACTORS THAT LED TO URBANIZATION OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Urban growth in Texas grew at a steady pace starting in the early 20th century but it wasn’t until after the Second World War that the number of Texans living in urban areas outnumbered the rural population. Urbanization was facilitated initially by the building of railroads. The economic growth of the oil and gas industry and the related economic sectors provide employment opportunities for those moving to Texas and those migrating from rural to urban areas. Increased use of automobiles resulted in the expansion of a highway system in Texas needed to support urbanization. Increasing urban populations supported the expansion of manufacturing, food processing, and retail sales.
New7.11B Explain the changes in the types of jobs and occupations that have resulted from the urbanization of Texas.

Explain

CHANGES IN TYPES OF JOBS AND OCCUPATIONS THAT HAVE RESULTED FROM URBANIZATION OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Fewer people took jobs in the cattle, ranching, farming, and agricultural industries as generations moved to urban areas.
  • Oil and gas industry jobs increased as automobile use increased along with the production of more products made from petroleum.
  • Service industry jobs increased to address the needs of urban populations.
New7.19 The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the political, economic, and social development of Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.19B

Identify Texas leaders in science and technology such as Walter Cunningham, Michael DeBakey, Denton Cooley, Benjy Brooks, Michael Dell, and Howard Hughes Sr.

Identify

TEXAS LEADERS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Howard Hughes, Sr.
    • Howard Hughes, Sr., from Houston, developed a new type of drill bit called the rotary drill bit. The bit made it possible to drill through very hard rock to reach oil deep underground. (1933)
    • The drill bit revolutionized the oil industry which is one of the largest industries in Texas.
New7.19D Evaluate the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the use of resources such as fossil fuels, water, and land.

Evaluate

EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON THE USE OF RESOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Fossil fuels
    • Rotary drill bits –penetrate medium and hard rocks with ten times the speed of any former bit; allowed deeper drilling on land and ocean
    • Directional drilling- the practice of drilling non-vertical wells which allows drilling to occur in different landforms
    • Deep sea drilling –drilling that can occur in the depths of the ocean; new oil reserves have been found and the industry has flourished
    • Hydraulic fracturing-method of oil drilling where highly pressurized liquid combinations including water and chemicals are used to break up rock and gain access to oil; possibly causes contamination of ground water and increased seismic activity
  • Water
    • Dams –have been built to control water use, flooding, and to provide hydro-electrical power
  • Land
    • Soil conservation – planting of trees, irrigation, planting of appropriated crops, and organizing the state into soil and water districts
New7.20 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New7.20A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
New7.20B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New7.20C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Information from
    • Outlines
    • Reports
    • Databases
    • Visuals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Timelines
    • Maps
New7.20D Identify bias and points of view from the historical context surrounding an event that influenced the participants.

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT THAT INFLUENCED THE PARTICIPANTS

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New7.20E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Support

A POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

New7.20F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New7.21 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
New7.21A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Create, Interpret

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS REPRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
    • Regions of Texas
    • Major physical geographic features in Texas, including rivers and cities
    • Regions that American Indians inhabited in Texas
    • Spanish missions and settlements in Texas
    • Empresario Grants
    • Settlements in Texas by 1821
    • Battles in the Texas Revolution
    • European settlements
    • Mexican Cession
    • Civil War Battles in Texas
    • Reconstruction military districts
    • Military posts and installations in Texas
    • Texas oil fields
    • Cattle trails
    • Dust Bowl
    • Internment camps
  • Other sources of geographic data
    • Population of American Indians in Texas prior to the arrival of Europeans
    • Number of casualties in the Texas Revolution
    • Population of Texas before and after the Texas Revolution
    • Number of Texans that fought in the Civil War
    • Number of Texans that died in the Civil War
    • European immigration numbers
    • Population changes in Texas
    • Political parties membership numbers and demographics
New7.21B Analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Analyze, Interpret

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERNS IN TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 19th Century
    • Prior to the1800’s Texas was home to a variety of American Indian groups and a growing number of Spanish colonists living near Spanish missions. Spanish missions and surrounding towns were located near rivers in South Texas, East Texas and in far West Texas
    • During the early 1800’s the population of Texas grew significantly as the Mexican government promoted colonization of the region by giving land grants to Anglo and Mexican settlers. The vast majority of the new settlement in Texas during the 1800’s was by immigrants coming from the United States, some bringing enslaved Africans with them to Texas. Most land grants were located in South and East Texas where physical geography was more favorable to settlement.
    • During the mid1800s Texas experience a large wave of immigration from many European nations. This wave including the immigration of Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. By 1850 Texas’ population was well over 200,000 and by 1860 the number of people living in Texas reached more than 600,000, yet in 1836 it had been approximately 50,000. Enslaved African-Americans were also brought to Texas in large numbers during this time period and mostly settled on cotton plantations in East Texas. More than 2,000 families settled in the Peters Colony in North Texas near present day Dallas during the 1840s. Many small towns were established by immigrant s and most people lived in rural areas with settlements concentrated in the eastern and central portions of the state.
    • During the late 1800s the population of Texas continued to grow to more than 3 million by 1900. The building of railroads resulted in the birth of many towns along the rail routes and the growth of towns in West Texas. Most Texans still lived in rural settings, but urban areas were growing in size.
  • 20th Century
    • In 1900 population of Texas was over 3 million. By 1930 the population of Texas has just about doubled, making Texas the fifth largest state in the United States. Immigration accounts for most of the population increase in the early 1900s with many immigrants coming from Mexico during this time period. The population of Texas remained primarily concentrated in rural areas, yet by the 1920 the size of cities in Texas was increasing.
    • By 1950 more Texans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Houston and Dallas became the state’s largest cities. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century suburban areas of Texas also increased as the urban areas of Dallas/ Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and Brownsville experienced significant population increases from 1970-2000.
  • 21st Century
    • Urban areas of Texas continue to grow, with some counties such as Williamson County leading the entire nation in growth rates. The population growth in Texas is concentrated in urban areas with both small cities and large cities experiencing growth. Texas has six of the nation’s largest cities- San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, Dallas, Austin, and El Paso.
New7.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New7.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
New7.22B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New7.22C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL BASED ON RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
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ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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