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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 7 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 08: Cotton, Cattle, Railroads and Closing the Texas Frontier – 1866-1900 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations which relate to economic development in Texas following the end of the Civil War. This unit is primarily a study of economic development. In the latter half of the twentieth century the cattle industry in Texas flourished, while the agricultural sector also expanded. Many new innovations were introduced at this time, such as windmills that facilitated economic development in Texas. It was also during this time that railroads were built across Texas, facilitating further economic development and the first moves towards urbanization in the state. Eventually the railroads and the enclosure of land, brought about by the invention of barbed wire, resulted in the closing of the Texas frontier. An examination of the development of the cattle industry and the expansion of the railroads is important for understanding the development of the Texas economy.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about Texas’ role in the American Civil War and the changes brought about by Reconstruction. Students also examine the principles of the Texas Constitution. In Grade 4 students learned about the institution of cattle drives in Texas and the settlement of the Texas frontier following the end of the Civil War, including the building of railroads.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the conflict brought about by westward expansion in Texas, the development of the cattle industry in Texas, the expansion of railroads in Texas, and the changes in the agriculture industry in Texas. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about the development of the oil industry in Texas.


Adopting new ideas and innovations has unintended consequences.

  • Do new ideas and innovations improve the lives of people?

Physical and human processes shape the patterns of the Earth’s surface.

  • In what ways is the Earth’s surface constantly being changed?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Westward expansion in Texas resulted in conflicts with American Indian groups.

  • What events led to the Frontier Wars?
  • What role did Quanah Parker have in the Frontier Wars?
  • Who were the Buffalo Soldiers?
  • What effect did the Frontier Wars have on American Indians and the settlement of West Texas?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration

Historical Processes

  • Diffusion
  • Conflict/Cooperation

Cultural Patterns

  • Prejudice and Discrimination
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Following the Civil War the cattle industry in Texas expanded to meet demand resulting in large cattle drives and the establishment of vast ranches.

  • How did cattle ranching first start in Texas?
  • Why did ranchers start the cattle drives and what were some of the most famous trails?
  • What was the cowboy way of life like?
  • Why did the big cattle drives come to an end?

Economic Patterns

  • Resources

Spatial Patterns

  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The expansion of railroads in Texas brought economic changes and increasing urbanization to Texas.

  • How did the building of railroads in Texas affect the cotton, lumber, coal, and cattle industries?
  • How were settlement patterns in Texas changed by the building of the railroads?
  • Why was the Texas Railroad Commission created?

Economic Patterns

  • Resources

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Infrastructure
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The introduction of new technologies changed farming practices in Texas and led to the development of agricultural industries and the closing of the frontier.

  • Why did farmers in Texas establish the Grange?
  • What new inventions helped farmers to produce more crops?
  • What changes helped farmers in Texas to become commercial farmers?
  • What changes eventually led to the closing of the Texas frontier?

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Mechanization
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Cowboys did not lead a glamorous life, but one of hard work, low pay, and great risk.

Unit Vocabulary

subsistence farming – the practice of growing enough crops to provide for one’s family group
commercial agriculture – the practice of growing surplus crops to sell for profit
vaqueros – Spanish term for cowboy
urbanization – the process of increasing human settlement in cities
settlement patterns – the spatial distribution of where humans inhabit the Earth

Related Vocabulary

  • barbed wire
  • ranches
  • innovation
  • technology
  • stampede
  • textiles
  • windmill
  • irrigation
  • treaty
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
New7.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
New7.1A

Identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain the purpose of dividing the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights; and Contemporary Texas.

Identify

MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Describe

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads
    • Characterized by the economic development of the cotton and cattle industries in Texas, facilitated by the building of railroads. The population of Texas grew and the frontier was eventually closed with the invention of windmills and barbwire.

Explain

THE PURPOSE OF DIVIDING THE PAST INTO ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dividing the past into eras facilitates the examinations of how political, economic, geographic and social patterns change over time.
New7.6 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century. The student is expected to:
New7.6A Identify significant individuals, events, and issues, including the factors leading to the expansion of the Texas frontier, the effects of westward expansion on American Indians, the buffalo soldiers, and Quanah Parker.

Identify

SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, AND ISSUES LEADING TO THE EXPANSION OF THE TEXAS FRONTIER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Factors leading to the expansion of the Texas frontier
    • Large amount of land
    • Large supply of wild longhorn on the Texas frontier
    • Demand for beef in the northern and eastern United States
    • Longhorns were worth $40 a head in northern city packinghouses
  • Effects of westward expansion on American Indians
    • Battles between Comanche, Apaches, Kiowas, and the U.S. Army
    • Forced to move to reservations in Oklahoma
  • Buffalo soldiers
    • African American soldiers who were in the 9th and 10thCavalry, as well as in the 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments stationed in Texas. They were former enslaved people who fought during the Indian Wars. American Indians gave them this nickname for their bravery.
  • Quanah Parker
    • Quanah Parker was the last Chief of the Comanches and skilled warrior. His tribe roamed West Texas.
    • His mother was Cynthia Ann Parker and father was Chief Peta Nacona. His mother was captured by the Comanche as a small child and raised by them.
    • He eventually surrendered after evading capture by the U.S. cavalry. He assimilated to American culture and influenced other American Indians to do the same.
New7.6B Identify significant individuals, events, and issues, including the development of the cattle industry from its Spanish beginnings and the cowboy way of life.

Identify

SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, AND ISSUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CATTLE INDUSTRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Development of the cattle industry from its Spanish beginnings
    • Cattle were brought to the Americas by the Spaniards
    • prior to the Civil War longhorn cattle roamed freely and mixed with other cattle
    • increasing numbers of cattle migrated into western Texas and populated the region from the Rio Grande to the upper Panhandle
    • following the end of the Civil War the price of cattle increased significantly, which attracted ranchers into the business, resulting in a Texas cattle boom
    • long cattle drives began from Texas to the Kansas, Colorado, and Missouri creating cattle trails, such as the Chisholm Trail and the Goodnight-Loving Trail in an effort to move cattle to markets
    • Ranchers consolidated land and huge “land and cattle” companies emerged to control the industry, including the JA Ranch owned by Charles Goodnight and the XIT ranch, both in the, and the King Ranch in South Texas
    • Ranchers in South Texas collaborated with vaqueros to operate the ranches where a kinship relationship developed between vaqueros and ranch owners; Panhandle ranchers hired cowboys and an employee-employer relationship developed
    • By the 1880s the cattle boom waned when long drives became less cost effective. Expenses on the trails had increased and cattle sold for less after having lost weight along the trails. Kansas enacted laws forbidding Texas cattle to enter the state in summer and fall and the range could no longer support the amount of cattle being taken to market. The introduction of barbed wire brought a final end to the cattle drives.
    • A devastating winter in 1886-1887 caused the death of many cattle and was a final blow to the cattle boom
    • By the turn of the century cattle ranching had shifted to raising livestock in fenced pastures. The windmill (windpump or windwheel) facilitate raising cattle in areas without ready access to bodies of water and growing winter feed for livestock.
  • Cowboy way of life
    • The traditions and dress of Spanish vaqueros were adapted by American cowboys
    • Cowboys came from a diversity of backgrounds, including African-Americans, Native Americans, Mexicans, and settlers from the Eastern United States; many were former Civil War soldiers, former enslaved persons, and some were women
    • Cowboys worked long hours caring for cattle and horses, repairing fences and buildings, and conducting long cattle drives; many lived in shared living quarters or a “bunkhouse” and worked in groups; the work of a cowboy involved using a lasso more than a gun; cowboys faced many hazards, especially the threat of stampedes and endured extreme weather conditions
    • Famous cowboys – Daniel Webster “80 John” Wallace, Bose Ikard, Oliver Loving, Charles Goodnight, Maria del Carmen Cavillo, Elizabeth “Lizzie” Johnson Williams
New7.6C Identify significant individuals, events, and issues, including the effects of the growth of railroads and the contributions of James Hogg.

Identify

SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, AND ISSUES IN THE GROWTH OF RAILROADS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Effects of the growth of railroads
    • Allowed raw materials in Texas to be sent to northern markets
    • Texans had fast, inexpensive, and reliable transportation.
    • Cause for the industrialization of Texas
  • Contributions of James Hogg
    • As Texas Attorney General, and Governor, he worked at reforming big business fighting to protect citizens from unjust businesses practices.
    • Supported the creation of the Texas Railroad Commission that protected citizens from unfair practices by railroads
New7.6D Explain the political, economic, and social impact of the agricultural industry and the development of West Texas resulting from the close of the frontier.

Explain

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF WEST TEXAS RESULTING FROM THE CLOSE OF THE FRONTIER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Agricultural industry
    • Political impact
      • Increase of revenue for state
    • EconomicImpact
      • Products were moved, sold, and transported across the nation.
      • New cash crops were grown in Texas (e.g., wheat, sorghum).
      • Cotton and corn grown across the state
      • Crops affect inflation
      • Income from agriculture exceeded income from cattle ranching by 1900s.
    • Social impact
      • Farmers moved west.
      • New methods of farming – dry farming, irrigation, and terraces
      • Increase of sharecropping and tenant farming, which resulted in many people in deep debt
      • Tenant Farming – farmers who rented land on which to grow crops
      • Sharecropping – farmers who rented land, tools, seeds, and/or houses and promised part of their crop as payment
  • Development of West Texas resulting from the close of the frontier
    • Politicalimpact
      • Range wars – farmers and ranchers battled between each other. Cutting and destroying fences and burning pasture land resulted in gunfights and lower property values.
      • Legislation – fence cutting became a felony
    • Economicimpact
      • Expansion of the railroad
      • Cattle ranching becomes a business, rather than a way of life
      • Growth of large ranches
    • Inventions – barbwire and windmill (windpump or windwheel)
      • Sheep ranching increased
      • Improvements in quality of beef
    • Socialimpact
      • Growth of population and towns in West Texas
      • Use of barbwire to fence-off land
New7.7 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas during the late 19th, 20th, and early 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
New7.7B

Define and trace the impact of "boom-and-bust" cycles of leading Texas industries throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries such as farming, oil and gas production, cotton, ranching, real estate, banking, and computer technology.

Define, Trace

IMPACT OF “BOOM-AND-BUST” CYCLES OF LEADING TEXAS INDUSTRIES THROUGHOUT THE 20th AND EARLY 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Farming
    • Agriculture was the leading industry in Texas at the beginning of the 20th century. Growing urbanization resulted in increased demand for agricultural products. As the value of agricultural products increased, farmers began mechanizing to produce more crops. Overproduction by the 1930s resulted in a drop in prices. The drop in prices and the dust bowl of the Great Depression era caused many farmers to lose or abandon their farms. Increased demand during the Second World War helped the industry to revive. Following the Second World War agriculture became more commercialized in Texas. Cotton
  • Cotton
    • First grown by Spanish missionaries, the cotton industry in Texas was well established by 1852 with Texas ranked in the top ten of cotton producing states. Cotton production decreased during the Civil War. the 1870s introduction of barbed wire and railroads stimulate the industry which experienced steady growth since the Civil War. Increased demand during the First World War resulted in overproduction and decrease in prices. This led many tenant and sharecroppers to abandon farms. The economic depression of the 1930s coupled with the Dust Bowl resulted in a decline in the production and price declines. The increased demand brought on by the Second World War revived the industry.
  • Ranching
    • Following the Civil War Texas was home to a large supply of cattle. Demand for cattle in the North resulted in higher prices and increased cattle production. An economic panic in 1873 affected the industry for a short time but prices recovered and were a high levels again ten years later. The introduction of barbed wire in the late 1880s transformed the industry from open range to fenced pastures and brought about conflicts between small ranchers and large land owners. Panic and drought in 1893 put some ranchers out of business. The First World War facilitated a boom in cattle sales but by the 1920s deflation in prices was bankrupting some. During the Great Depression ranchers suffered as drought, overstock, and low prices plagued the industry. For the first time in history cattle ranchers received government aid. By the 1950s the industry and ranchers moved herds into areas previously used for cotton farming. The boom and bust cycle of cattle ranching continued throughout the late 20th century with beef prices falling in the early 1980s. Drought, shortage of winter pastures and high grain prices were to blame. By 1988 the market had revived and was stable for seven years only to see prices fall again and finally stabilize in fall of 1995. The industry continues to be affected by weather, disease, and competition from markets outside of Texas.
New7.8 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.8C Analyze the effects of physical and human factors such as climate, weather, landforms, irrigation, transportation, and communication on major events in Texas.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN FACTORS ON MAJOR EVENTS IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Irrigation
    • Closing the frontier
    • When windmills were invented, farmers and ranchers were able to water their crops and animals on their own property without having access to a river or aquifer.
  • Transportation
    • Growth of population and agricultural industry
    • Due to the growth of the railroad in Texas, people were able to travel, live, and create new businesses in all areas of Texas, including South and West Texas, and they were able to transport crops and cattle across Texas and the United States.
New7.9 The student understands the effects of the interaction between humans and the environment in Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.9A Identify ways in which Texans have adapted to and modified the environment and explain the positive and negative consequences of the modifications.

Identify

WAYS TEXANS HAVE ADAPTED TO AND MODIFIED THE ENVIRONMENT

Explain

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF THE MODIFICATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

19th Century Texas

  • The environment was modified by the development of cattle trails used en route to railroads centers. Eventually fences were used to keep livestock together, closing the open range.  Railroads built across Texas further modified the environment and contributed to the growth of towns in West Texas.

20th Century Texas

  • The environment was further modified by the expansive building of roads as more Texans used automobiles as a means of transportation.
  • Following the 1900 hurricane, the city of Galveston built a seawall and increased the elevation of the city.
  • Built in 1914, the Houston Ship Channel connects Houston with the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Texans planted trees and natural vegetation in the Texas Panhandle to prevent erosion following the devastating effects of the Dust Bowl. Irrigation systems facilitated the adaptation to the arid environment of this region.
  • Dams built to provide hydro-electric power and control flooding, reservoirs provided recreation areas.
  • Irrigation of the plains has strained aquifers, some of which have dried up, yet crop yields have increased.
  • Drilling for oil in the Gulf of Mexico, along with the introduction of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing extraction methods have resulted in  more energy, economic growth, oil spills, oil contamination of beaches, gulf, and wildlife habitats, possible water contamination and possible increase in seismic activity.
New7.9B Explain ways in which geographic factors such as the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the Dust Bowl, limited water resources, and alternative energy sources have affected the political, economic, and social development of Texas.

Explain

WAYS GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS HAVE AFFECTED THE POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Limited water resources – especially in arid regions of the western portion of the state facilitated a shift from farming to ranching. Limited access to water resources affects settlement patterns and has resulted in mandated water restrictions periodically.
New7.19 The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the political, economic, and social development of Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.19A Compare types and uses of technology, past and present.

Compare

TYPES AND USES OF TECHNOLOGY, PAST AND PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Types of Technologies – may include a variety of innovations in agriculture, transportation, communication, and energy production.
  • Uses of technology
    • facilitate increased agricultural production, such as mechanical reapers or irrigation systems
    • facilitate faster transporting of goods and people, such as with railroads, automobiles, airplanes, and rockets
    • facilitate faster methods of communicating, such as telegraph, telephone, cell phones, and e-mail
    • provide access to natural resources such as windmills, water pumps, oil drilling methods
New7.19C

Analyze the effects of various scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of Texas such as advancements in the agricultural, energy, medical, computer, and aerospace industries.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Advancements in the agricultural industries
    • Barbed wire – fencing that prevented cattle and other animals from destroying crops
    • Windmill (windpump or windwheel) – allowed cattle, sheep, goats, and crops to be watered on a farmer’s land, they did not have to be near a river or water source
    • Irrigation –artificial application of water to the soil; usually used to assist the growing of crops in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall
    • Mechanized agriculture – this is the process of using agricultural machinery to massively increase farm output. In modern times, powered machinery has replaced many jobs formerly carried out by men or animals such as oxen and horses, but it also has increased the production of agriculture products.
    • Soil conservation – a set of management strategies for prevention of soil being eroded from the Earth’s surface or becoming chemically altered by overuse, acidification, salinization or other chemical soil contamination. It has led to the increase of farm production, especially in areas like South and West Texas.
New7.20A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
New7.20B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New7.20C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Information from
    • Outlines
    • Reports
    • Databases
    • Visuals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Timelines
    • Maps
New7.20D Identify bias and points of view from the historical context surrounding an event that influenced the participants.

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT THAT INFLUENCED THE PARTICIPANTS

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New7.20E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Support

A POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

New7.20F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New7.21 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
New7.21A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Create, Interpret

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS REPRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
    • Regions of Texas
    • Major physical geographic features in Texas, including rivers and cities
    • Regions that American Indians inhabited in Texas
    • Spanish missions and settlements in Texas
    • Empresario Grants
    • Settlements in Texas by 1821
    • Battles in the Texas Revolution
    • European settlements
    • Mexican Cession
    • Civil War Battles in Texas
    • Reconstruction military districts
    • Military posts and installations in Texas
    • Texas oil fields
    • Cattle trails
    • Dust Bowl
    • Internment camps
  • Other sources of geographic data
    • Population of American Indians in Texas prior to the arrival of Europeans
    • Number of casualties in the Texas Revolution
    • Population of Texas before and after the Texas Revolution
    • Number of Texans that fought in the Civil War
    • Number of Texans that died in the Civil War
    • European immigration numbers
    • Population changes in Texas
    • Political parties membership numbers and demographics
New7.21B Analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Analyze, Interpret

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERNS IN TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 19th Century
    • Prior to the1800’s Texas was home to a variety of American Indian groups and a growing number of Spanish colonists living near Spanish missions. Spanish missions and surrounding towns were located near rivers in South Texas, East Texas and in far West Texas
    • During the early 1800’s the population of Texas grew significantly as the Mexican government promoted colonization of the region by giving land grants to Anglo and Mexican settlers. The vast majority of the new settlement in Texas during the 1800’s was by immigrants coming from the United States, some bringing enslaved Africans with them to Texas. Most land grants were located in South and East Texas where physical geography was more favorable to settlement.
    • During the mid1800s Texas experience a large wave of immigration from many European nations. This wave including the immigration of Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. By 1850 Texas’ population was well over 200,000 and by 1860 the number of people living in Texas reached more than 600,000, yet in 1836 it had been approximately 50,000. Enslaved African-Americans were also brought to Texas in large numbers during this time period and mostly settled on cotton plantations in East Texas. More than 2,000 families settled in the Peters Colony in North Texas near present day Dallas during the 1840s. Many small towns were established by immigrant s and most people lived in rural areas with settlements concentrated in the eastern and central portions of the state.
    • During the late 1800s the population of Texas continued to grow to more than 3 million by 1900. The building of railroads resulted in the birth of many towns along the rail routes and the growth of towns in West Texas. Most Texans still lived in rural settings, but urban areas were growing in size.
  • 20th Century
    • In 1900 population of Texas was over 3 million. By 1930 the population of Texas has just about doubled, making Texas the fifth largest state in the United States. Immigration accounts for most of the population increase in the early 1900s with many immigrants coming from Mexico during this time period. The population of Texas remained primarily concentrated in rural areas, yet by the 1920 the size of cities in Texas was increasing.
    • By 1950 more Texans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Houston and Dallas became the state’s largest cities. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century suburban areas of Texas also increased as the urban areas of Dallas/ Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and Brownsville experienced significant population increases from 1970-2000.
  • 21st Century
    • Urban areas of Texas continue to grow, with some counties such as Williamson County leading the entire nation in growth rates. The population growth in Texas is concentrated in urban areas with both small cities and large cities experiencing growth. Texas has six of the nation’s largest cities- San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, Dallas, Austin, and El Paso.
New7.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New7.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
New7.22B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New7.22C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL BASED ON RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
New7.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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