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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 7 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 07: Texas during the Civil War and Reconstruction – 1861-1876 SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address Texas’ participation in the U.S. Civil War and the Reconstruction of Texas. This unit is primarily a study of reform. In 1861 Texans voted to secede from the United States and join the Confederate States of America. Many Texans had emigrated from the southern United States and some Texans were slaveholders, especially in East Texas where enslaved African Americans worked on plantations. Texans served in the Confederate Army and some battles of the American Civil War were fought in Texas. The Texas coast was blockaded by the Union for the entire war. After the end of the war, Texans began the process of Reconstruction eventually writing a new constitution for Texas and reestablishing institutions in Texas. An examination of the Civil War and Reconstruction in Texas is important for understanding the debates that continue about the nature of federalism.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students studied about the Republic of Texas and the annexation of Texas to the United States. In Grade 4 students learned why Texas joined the Confederacy as well as the political, social and economic changes in Texas which resulted from Reconstruction. In Grade 4 students also studied about Juneteenth.

During this Unit

During this unit, students learn about the reasons for Texas secession, the experiences of Texans in the Civil War, and the changes to Texas’ society that resulted from Reconstruction. Additionally, students examine the concept of federalism and other principles of the U.S. Constitution and how these principles are reflected in the Texas Constitution. Students will study these concepts in more depth in Grade 8. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about the economic development of the cattle, cotton, and railroad industries in Texas as well as the closing of the frontier in Texas.


Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?

Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Concerns about how newly-elected President Lincoln might deal with the issue of slavery led a majority of Texans to support secession.

  • Why did some Texans oppose secession and why did a majority vote in support of secession?
  • Why was the Confederacy formed?
  • What was Houston’s position on Texas secession?

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

During the Civil War, Texans fought for the Confederacy, defended Texas, and supplied the Confederate Army.

  • How successful were Union troops in the battles fought in Texas?
  • How did the Union blockade affect Texans?
  • What happened to Texans that were suspected of supporting the Union?
  • What happened to the Confederate forces in Texas once they learned that the war had ended?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Following the Civil War the political, economic, and social institutions of Texas were reconstructed with oversight from the U.S. government.

  • When did enslaved African Americans in Texas learn about emancipation?
  • What requirements did the U.S. government have for Texas to be readmitted to the Union?
  • Why was the Freedman’s Bureau created?
  • What was characteristic of the Congressional plan for Reconstruction?
  • How was Texas’ economy changing by the end of Reconstruction?

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems

Cultural Patterns

  • Prejudice and Discrimination
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The Texas Constitution of 1876 reflects the constitutional principles of the U.S. Constitution, ensures the rights of Texans, and establishes the structure of government in Texas.

  • Why was a new constitution written for Texas in 1876?
  • How are the Texas Constitution and the U.S. Constitution similar and different?
  • In what ways does the Texas Constitution reflect the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights?
  • What rights are guaranteed to Texans in the Texas Constitution?
  • What are the functions of government at the state, county, and municipal levels in Texas?
  • How does the state of Texas bring in revenue?

Civic Engagement

  • Laws, Rules, Political Processes
  • Rights/Responsibilities
  • Democratic Principles
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may lack an understanding of how powers are shared in a federalist system.

Unit Vocabulary

sectionalism –concern for regional needs and interests
secede – to withdraw, including the withdrawal of states from the Union
blockade – blocking off an area to keep supplies from getting in or out
emancipation – the act of giving someone freedom
reconstruction – the act of rebuilding, generally refers to the rebuilding of the Union following the Civil War
martial law – the imposition of laws by a military authority, generally in defeated territories
sharecropper – a tenant farmer who receives a portion of the crop
popular sovereignty – independent power given to the people
revenue – income
individual rights – personal liberties and freedoms
republicanism – government in which representatives are chosen
federalism – political system in which power is shared between a national centralized government and a collection of smaller state governments

Related Vocabulary

  • principles
  • Confederacy
  • separation of powers
  • checks and balances
  • constitution
 
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
New7.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
New7.1A

Identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain the purpose of dividing the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights; and Contemporary Texas.

Identify

MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Describe

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction
    • Characterized by Texas’ secession and participation in the American Civil War (1861-1865) and later Reconstruction (1865-1874). Slavery as an institution in Texas was ended, with the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment. Former enslaved African Americans were granted citizenship with the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment and all males were given the right to vote with the adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment. The Constitution of 1879 was implemented.

Explain

THE PURPOSE OF DIVIDING THE PAST INTO ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dividing the past into eras facilitates the examinations of how political, economic, geographic and social patterns change over time.
New7.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, mapping of the Texas coast and first mainland Spanish settlement; 1718, founding of San Antonio; 1821, independence from Spain; 1836, Texas independence; 1845, annexation; 1861, Civil War begins; 1876, adoption of current state constitution; and 1901, discovery of oil at Spindletop.

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1861 – Civil War begins
  • 1876 – adoption of current state constitution
New7.5 The student understands how events and issues shaped the history of Texas during the Civil War and Reconstruction. The student is expected to:
New7.5A Explain the central role the expansion of slavery played in the involvement of Texas in the Civil War.

Explain

REASONS FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF TEXAS IN THE CIVIL WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • Expansion of slavery – Texas has been admitted to the United States as a slave state despite opposition from those in the United States who opposed the expansion of slavery. Efforts to resolve the conflict over the expansion of slavery into newly organized territories resulted in the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, yet tensions continued to escalate. The 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln led many political leaders in the South to believe that the federal government would eventually abolish slavery. Secession of South Carolina and other southern states brought the issue to attention in Texas. Governor Sam Houston did not support secession as growing public sentiment did. He refused to call a secession convention so several members of the Texas legislature issued a call for the convention without the governor. The group meet on January 28, 1861 and voted 166 to 8 to sever ties with the union. Though a referendum was needed for a legitimate process of secession. In February of 1861, Texans, most significantly those in counties in East Texas, overwhelmingly voted in favor of secession: 46,153 to 14,747. Many German immigrants and Texans living along the frontier voted against secession. Sam Houston, who refused to take the oath of loyalty to the Confederate States of America, was deposed and replace by the lieutenant governor, Edward Clark.
New7.5B Identify significant events concerning Texas and the Civil War such as the Battle of Galveston, the Battle of Sabine Pass, and the Battle of Palmito Ranch.

Identify

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS CONCERNING TEXAS AND THE CIVIL WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • Battle of Galveston
    • July 1861 – the Union Navy began to blockade Texas ports
    • October 1862 – a Union fleet sailed into Galveston Harbor and Confederate forces retreated.
    • Confederate General John B. Magruder recaptured it by converting two steamboats into gunboats by lining their sides with cotton bales, earning the nickname “Cotton Clads”
    • January 1, 1863 – General John B. Magruder and his men captured several hundred Union soldiers.
    • The city of Galveston was again under Confederate control
  • Battle of Sabine Pass
    • 1863 – The United States. made plans to invade Texas.
    • Union General William B. Franklin and 5,000 troops hoped to land an army near Sabine City, and then march overland to attack Houston and Beaumont
    • Ft. Griffin at Sabine Pass was guarded by Confederate Lieutenant Richard Dowling and Davis Guards
    • September 8, 1863, Union soldiers attacked, but the Davis Guards fought back, marking a complete victory for the Confederacy
  • Battle of Palmito Ranch
    • Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865, but Confederate forces did not stop fighting for another month because word spread slowly.
    • May 12, 1865 – the Union army moved inland to occupy Brownsville.
    • Collided with Confederate troops led by John S. Ford, who captured over 100 Union troops
    • Union troops informed the Confederate troops that the war was over.
New7.5C Explain the political, economic, and social effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction in Texas.

Explain

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL EFFECTS OF THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Civil War in Texas
    • Political effects
      • Texas joined the Confederate States of America
      • Houston removed from office because he failed to sign an oath to the Confederacy
      • Conscription Act – 60,000 Texans joined Confederate army
    • Economic effects
      • Shortages of commodities, such as coffee, medicine, clothing, salt, paper
      • Trade along Mexican border continued and supplied some of these items to Texans
      • Cotton production declines and corn and wheat production increases
      • Shortage of free labor
      • Inadequate production in agriculture and business
    • Social effects
      • Greater responsibilities for women and children during the war
      • Loss of family members
  • Reconstruction in Texas
    • Political effects
      • Martial law – the military polices that started during Governor Edwards term
      • Constitution of 1876 – written at the end of Reconstruction; this is the constitution Texas still follows today
      • Indian wars – the government removes American Indians from the frontier
      • Passage of the Reconstruction Amendments
      • 13th Amendment – ended slavery
      • 14th Amendment – citizenship given to African Americans
      • 15th Amendment – suffrage given to all males
    • Economic effects
      • Growth of tenant farming and sharecropping
      • Expansion of railroad
      • Cattle industry booms
    • Social effects
      • Concern over future of freedmen
      • Juneteenth – June 19, 1865 celebrated by freed enslaved people and becomes state holiday-– Emancipation Day in Texas
      • Freedmen’s Bureau established
      • Black Codes used to segregate the South and Ku Klux Klan forms
      • Immigration to Texas increased
New7.8 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.8C Analyze the effects of physical and human factors such as climate, weather, landforms, irrigation, transportation, and communication on major events in Texas.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN FACTORS ON MAJOR EVENTS IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communication
    • End of the Civil War in Texas and freeing of enslaved people in Texas
    • Communication during the 19th century was very slow. The American Civil War ended April 9, 1865. 
    • Confederate soldiers were still fighting May 12 - May 13, 1865 in Texas because they had not heard that Robert E. Lee surrendered.
    • Enslaved people in Texas did not hear about their emancipation until June 19, 1865
    • Texas was not devastated during the war because few battles were fought in Texas in comparison to the rest of the southern states.
    • Crops were still planted/sold through Mexico and circumvented the Union blockades
New7.13 The student understands the basic principles reflected in the Texas Constitution. The student is expected to:
New7.13A Identify how the Texas Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights.

Identify

HOW THE TEXAS CONSTITUTION REFLECTS THE PRINCIPLES OF LIMITED GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • State of Texas Constitution of 1836
    • Republicanism – a belief that government should be based on the consent of the people; people exercise their power by voting for political representatives
      Article I. SEC.3 The members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen annually, on the first Monday of September each year, until Congress shall otherwise provide by law, and shall hold their offices one year from the date of their election.
    • Limited Government – the principle that requires all U.S. citizens, including government leaders, to obey the law
      Article I. SEC. 12. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall only extend to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or profit under this Government; but the party shall nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment according to law. (Article 15 explains the impeachment process which puts limits on what officeholders can and cannot do while they hold office.)
    • Checks and Balances – the ability of each branch of government to exercise checks, or controls, over the other branche
      Article I. SEC. 6. The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachmentbeing charged with misconduct during office.
    • Federalism – a system of government where power is shared between the central (or federal) government and the state government
      Schedule SEC. 6. Until the first enumeration shall be made, as directed by this Constitution, the precinct of Austin shall be entitled to one representative; the precinct of Brazoria two representatives; the precinct of Bexar two representatives; the precinct of Colorado one representative; Sabine one; Gonzales one; Goliad one; Harrisburg one; Jasper one; Jefferson one; Liberty one; Matagorda one; Mina two; Nacogdoches two; Red River three; Victoria one; San Augustine two; Shelby two; Refugio one; San Patricio one; Washington two; Milam one; and Jackson one representative
    • Separation of Powers – the division of basic government roles into branche
      Article I. SEC. 1. The powers of this Government shall be divided into three departments, viz: Legislative, Executive and Judicial, which shall remain forever separate and distinct.
    • Popular Sovereignty – a government in which the people rule; a system in which the residents vote to decide an issu
      General Provisions SEC. 1. Laws shall be made to exclude from office, from the right of suffrage, and from serving on juries, those who shall hereafter be convicted of bribery, perjury, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
    • Individual Rights – a personal liberty and privilege guaranteed to U.S. citizens by the Bill of Righ
      Declaration of Rights First. All men, when they form a social compact, have equal rights, and no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive public privileges or emoluments from the community
  • State of Texas Constitution of 1876
    • Republicanism – a belief that government should be based on the consent of the people; people exercise their power by voting for political representative
      Article III. SEC. 4. The members of the House of Representatives shall be chosen by the qualified electors, and their term of office shall be two years from the day of their election.
    • Limited Government – the principle that requires all U.S. citizens, including government leaders, to obey the la
      Article III. SEC. 14. Senators and representatives shall, except in cases of treason, felony or breach of peace, be privileged from arrest during the session of the Legislature, and in going to and returning from the same, allowing one day for every twenty miles such member may reside from the place at which the Legislature is convened.
    • Checks and Balances – the ability of each branch of government to exercise checks, or controls, over the other branches
      Article IV. SEC. 14. Every bill which shall have passed both houses of the Legislature shall be presented to the governor for his approval. If he approve he shall sign it; but if he disapprove it, he shall return it with his objections, to the house in which it originated, which house shall enter the objections at large upon its journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two-thirds of the members present agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, with the objections, in the other house, by which likewise it shall be reconsidered; and, if approved by two-thirds of the members of that house, it shall become a law; but in such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively
      Article XV. SEC 1. The power of impeachment shall be vested in the House of Representatives
    • Federalism – a system of government where power is shared between the central (or federal) government and the state government
      Article I SEC. 1. Texas is a free and independent State, subject only to the Constitution of the United States; and the maintenance of our free institutions and the perpetuity of the Union depend upon the preservation of the right of local self-government unimpaired to all the States.
    • Separation of Powers – the division of basic government roles into branche
      Article II. SEC. 1. The powers of the government of the State of Texas shall be divided into three distinct departments
    • Popular Sovereignty – a government in which the people rule; a system in which the residents vote to decide an issu
      Article VI. SEC. 3. All qualified electors of the State, as herein described, who shall have resided for six months immediately preceding an election within the limits of any city or corporate town, shall have the right to vote for mayor and all other elective officers.
    • Individual Rights – a personal liberty and privilege guaranteed to U.S. citizens by the Bill of Rights
    • Bill of Rights – 29 Sections
      SEC. 2. All political power is inherent in the people and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit. The faith of the people of Texas stands pledged to the preservation of a republican form of government, and, subject to this limitation only, they have at all times the inalienable right to alter, reform or abolish their government in such manner as they may think expedient.
New7.13B Compare the principles and concepts of the Texas Constitution to the U.S. Constitution, including the Texas and U.S. Bill of Rights.

Compare

PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF TEXAS CONSTITUTION TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Similarities and differences
    • Based on the principles of limited governments (See 14A)
    • Three branches of government
    • Bill of Rights that list rights given to all citizens
New7.14 The student understands the structure and functions of government created by the Texas Constitution. The student is expected to:
New7.14A Describe the structure and functions of government at municipal, county, and state levels.

Describe

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Municipal level
    • Structure – city limits, Mayor-Council-City Manager government
    • Function – provide government services, police and fire protection, emergency medical services (ambulances), sewers and water lines, inspection of health and sanitation rules, and zoning rules that govern what kinds of buildings may be placed in certain parts of the city.
  • County (254 Counties)
    • Structure – precincts: each precinct has a county commission, headed by a county judge.
    • Function – Help the state collect taxes, oversee and administer law enforcement, and provide services to the rural population
  • State
    • Structure – Representative and Senate districts
      • Executive Branch – Governor
      • Legislative Branch – Representatives and Senators
      • Judicial Branch – Judges
      • Function – maintain highways and state law enforcement, interpret and enforce laws, a prison system, and a National Guard, supports public schools, colleges, universities, and public health
New7.14B Identify major sources of revenue for state and local governments such as property taxes, sales taxes, bonds, and fees.

Identify

SOURCES OF REVENUE FOR STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • State and local government are funded by taxes, including property taxes to fund education and sales tax. Sales taxes are the largest source of tax revenue for for state and local governments. Large building projects especially those for schools are funded with the sale of bonds.
  • State and local governments collect fees from issuing licenses and permits.
New7.15 The student understands the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
New7.15A Explain rights of Texas citizens.

Explain

RIGHTS OF TEXAS CITIZENS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Rights defined in the Texas Constitution and Texas Bill of Rights
  • Article One of the Texas Constitution -Texas Bill of Rights
    • Freedom of worship
    • Freedom of speech and press
    • Freedom of assembly
    • Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures
    • Equality under the law
    • Fair trail and rights of the accused in criminal prosecutions
    • Rights of crime victims
New7.16 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
New7.16A Identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important Texas issues, past and present.

Identify

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW ON IMPORTANT TEXAS ISSUES, PAST AND PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of View– the particular position or attitude expressed or adopted by an individual or a group. An individuals’ point of view is influenced by the historical context (the time in which the individual lived) and frame of reference (personal background of the individual).
New7.17 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
New7.17B

Identify the contributions of Texas leaders such as Lawrence Sullivan "Sul" Ross, John Nance Garner ("Cactus Jack"), James A. Baker III, Henry B. González, Kay Bailey Hutchison, Barbara Jordan, Raymond L. Telles, Sam Rayburn, and Raul A. Gonzalez Jr.

Identify

CONTRIBUTIONS OF TEXAS LEADERS

Including, but not limited to:

Laurence Sullivan "Sul" Ross
  • Served in the Texas Rangers in the 1860s; fought in the Civil War; helped to write the Texas Constitution of 1876; in 1886 was elected governor of Texas after having served as a senator

 

New7.20 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New7.20A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
New7.20B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New7.20C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Information from
    • Outlines
    • Reports
    • Databases
    • Visuals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Timelines
    • Maps
New7.20D Identify bias and points of view from the historical context surrounding an event that influenced the participants.

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT THAT INFLUENCED THE PARTICIPANTS

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New7.20E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Support

A POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

New7.20F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New7.21 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
New7.21A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Create, Interpret

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS REPRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
    • Regions of Texas
    • Major physical geographic features in Texas, including rivers and cities
    • Regions that American Indians inhabited in Texas
    • Spanish missions and settlements in Texas
    • Empresario Grants
    • Settlements in Texas by 1821
    • Battles in the Texas Revolution
    • European settlements
    • Mexican Cession
    • Civil War Battles in Texas
    • Reconstruction military districts
    • Military posts and installations in Texas
    • Texas oil fields
    • Cattle trails
    • Dust Bowl
    • Internment camps
  • Other sources of geographic data
    • Population of American Indians in Texas prior to the arrival of Europeans
    • Number of casualties in the Texas Revolution
    • Population of Texas before and after the Texas Revolution
    • Number of Texans that fought in the Civil War
    • Number of Texans that died in the Civil War
    • European immigration numbers
    • Population changes in Texas
    • Political parties membership numbers and demographics
New7.21B Analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Analyze, Interpret

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERNS IN TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 19th Century
    • Prior to the1800’s Texas was home to a variety of American Indian groups and a growing number of Spanish colonists living near Spanish missions. Spanish missions and surrounding towns were located near rivers in South Texas, East Texas and in far West Texas
    • During the early 1800’s the population of Texas grew significantly as the Mexican government promoted colonization of the region by giving land grants to Anglo and Mexican settlers. The vast majority of the new settlement in Texas during the 1800’s was by immigrants coming from the United States, some bringing enslaved Africans with them to Texas. Most land grants were located in South and East Texas where physical geography was more favorable to settlement.
    • During the mid1800s Texas experience a large wave of immigration from many European nations. This wave including the immigration of Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. By 1850 Texas’ population was well over 200,000 and by 1860 the number of people living in Texas reached more than 600,000, yet in 1836 it had been approximately 50,000. Enslaved African-Americans were also brought to Texas in large numbers during this time period and mostly settled on cotton plantations in East Texas. More than 2,000 families settled in the Peters Colony in North Texas near present day Dallas during the 1840s. Many small towns were established by immigrant s and most people lived in rural areas with settlements concentrated in the eastern and central portions of the state.
    • During the late 1800s the population of Texas continued to grow to more than 3 million by 1900. The building of railroads resulted in the birth of many towns along the rail routes and the growth of towns in West Texas. Most Texans still lived in rural settings, but urban areas were growing in size.
  • 20th Century
    • In 1900 population of Texas was over 3 million. By 1930 the population of Texas has just about doubled, making Texas the fifth largest state in the United States. Immigration accounts for most of the population increase in the early 1900s with many immigrants coming from Mexico during this time period. The population of Texas remained primarily concentrated in rural areas, yet by the 1920 the size of cities in Texas was increasing.
    • By 1950 more Texans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Houston and Dallas became the state’s largest cities. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century suburban areas of Texas also increased as the urban areas of Dallas/ Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and Brownsville experienced significant population increases from 1970-2000.
  • 21st Century
    • Urban areas of Texas continue to grow, with some counties such as Williamson County leading the entire nation in growth rates. The population growth in Texas is concentrated in urban areas with both small cities and large cities experiencing growth. Texas has six of the nation’s largest cities- San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, Dallas, Austin, and El Paso.
New7.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New7.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
New7.22B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New7.22C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL BASED ON RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
New7.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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