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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 7 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 06: Republic of Texas and Early Statehood – 1836-1861 SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the issues and events surrounding the Republic of Texas and the process of Texas becoming a state in the United States. This unit is primarily a study of political leadership. After Texans gained independence from Mexico, Texas became a nation that faced many challenges. The new republic was modeled after the U.S. republic and some Texans wanted Texas to join the United States. Early leaders of the Texas republic worked to provide security for Texans, establish government services, and address financial issues.  Eventually Texans decided that many of the financial problems faced by the republic could be solved by joining the United States. The annexation of Texas triggered a boundary dispute with Mexico and war broke out between Mexico and the United States. The treaties that ended the war established the borders of Texas. The vast amounts of cheap land available in Texas during the mid1800s fueled European immigration to Texas. This immigration gave shape to the unique culture of Texas.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the events and issues of the Texas Revolution. In Grade 4 students studied about the creation of the Texas Republic modeled after the United States and about the annexation of Texas starting the U.S.- Mexican War. In Grade 5 students learned about the annexation of Texas, about the U.S.-Mexican War, and about the territory that was added to the United States following the war.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the issues faced by the leaders of the Republic of Texas, the events that led to annexation of Texas by the United States, the causes and consequences of the war between Mexico and the United States, and about the migration of European immigrants to Texas in the mid-1800s. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about Texas during the Civil War and Reconstruction.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of its people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Leaders of the Texas Republic had to deal with threats from Mexico and American Indian groups, had to address financial problems and had to provide protection for Texan citizens.

  • What policy goals did Houston have?
  • Why were the Texas Rangers formed?
  • What was characteristic of the Republic’s relationships with American Indian groups and Mexico?
  • How was the issue of slavery handled in the Republic of Texas?
  • What policies were advocated by Lamar?
  • Why did Lamar oppose Texas’ annexation to the United States?
  • How successful were leaders at addressing the financial issues facing the Republic of Texas?

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems

Civic Engagement

  • Civic Institutions
  • Civic Virtue
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Continued conflicts with Mexico and financial problems made joining the United States attractive to many Texans.

  • What events led many in Texas to support annexation to the United States?
  • What measures did Anson Jones take to secure the annexation of Texas to the United States?
  • Why were some Americans opposed to the annexation of Texas?
  • Why did Texas eventually join the United States?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
  • Growth/Decay
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The annexation of Texas resulted in a boundary dispute between the United States and Mexico, which was settled after going to war.

  • What events led the United States and Mexico to war?
  • What was the outcome of the war?
  • Why was the Compromise of 1850 passed?
  • How was the money Texas received in the Compromise of 1850 used by leaders in Texas?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The availability of cheap land in Texas attracted many immigrants to the region during the early and mid1800s.

  • What accounts for the large number of immigrants who came to Texas in the early and mid1800s?
  • What immigrant groups came to Texas in the early and mid1800s and where did they settle?
  • What influences are still seen in Texas today because of immigration in the 1800s?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration

Cultural Patterns

  • Community
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students often think that Texas immediately became part of the United States.

Unit Vocabulary

annexation – adding territory to existing territory
manifest destiny – idea that the United States should expand to include the territory from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
compromise – an agreement in which both sides give up some demands
foreign relations – dealings between countries
domestic affairs – relating to issues within a home country
cession – something that is given up in a treaty, generally territory

Related Vocabulary

  • debt
  • republic
  • federalism
  • dictatorship
  •  abolish
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
New7.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
New7.1A

Identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain the purpose of dividing the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights; and Contemporary Texas.

Identify

MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Describe

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Texas Republic – (1836-1845)
    • Characterized by the administrations of Sam Houston, Mirabeau Lamar, and Anson Jones as Texas established itself as an independent republic.
  • Early Statehood – (1845)
    • Characterized by Texas’ annexation into the union of the United States of America as a slave state and the subsequent war between Mexico and the United States.

 

Explain

THE PURPOSE OF DIVIDING THE PAST INTO ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dividing the past into eras facilitates the examinations of how political, economic, geographic and social patterns change over time.
New7.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, mapping of the Texas coast and first mainland Spanish settlement; 1718, founding of San Antonio; 1821, independence from Spain; 1836, Texas independence; 1845, annexation; 1861, Civil War begins; 1876, adoption of current state constitution; and 1901, discovery of oil at Spindletop.

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1845 – annexation

 

New7.4 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of the Republic of Texas and early Texas statehood. The student is expected to:
New7.4A Identify individuals, events, and issues during the administrations of Republic of Texas Presidents Houston, Lamar, and Jones such as the Texas Navy, the Texas Rangers, Jack Coffee Hays, Chief Bowles, William Goyens, Mary Maverick, José Antonio Navarro, the Córdova Rebellion, the Council House Fight, the Santa Fe Expedition, slavery, and the roles of racial and ethnic groups.

Identify

INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, AND ISSUES DURING THE ADMINISTRATIONS OF REPUBLIC OF TEXAS PRESIDENTS HOUSTON, LAMAR, AND JONES

Including, but not limited to:

  • President Sam Houston (1836-1838) – Houston focused on forming a government, and dealing with the issues of debt, the army, conflict with American Indians and Mexico, and selecting a capital. When Sam Houston became President, he dismissed the army because of its cost and leadership. He replaced them by reinstating the Texas Rangers. He used them to fight the attacks by the American Indians and the Mexican soldiers that crossed the border. Chief Bowles was the leader of a group of Cherokees that arrived in Texas in 1820. He signed a treaty with Sam Houston during the Texas Revolution.
  • President Mirabeau Lamar (1838-1841) – did not agree with Houston’s policies. During his administration, he focused on pushing American Indians farther west, was commitment to education, and concentrated on building a new capital (Austin). During Lamar’s administration public debt significantly increased, much of it to pay for wars with American Indians.
  • President Sam Houston (1841-1844) – according to the Constitution, a person couldn’t be elected two times in a row. Most Texans were unhappy with the conflict during Lamar’s administration and re-elected Houston. His main focus was to return peace, decrease the public debt, and prepare Texas for statehood.
  • President Anson Jones (1844-1845) – supported Houston’s policies. He maintained peace with the American Indian tribes, tried to limit spending, and turned over Texas to the United States.
  • Texas Navy – during Houston’s administration, the Navy protected the Texas coast, but it was a drain on the nation’s finances. Lamar had Congress issue bonds to purchased ships. Ships were used to conduct unsuccessful secret peace negotiations between Texas and Mexico, blockading the Mexican coast, and an invasion of Mexico. Most Navy officers were recruited from the U.S. Navy. Very costly, and most uses not successful. Houston tried to sell the Navy during his second term, but was unsuccessful. When Texas was annexed, the Texas Navy was taken over by the U.S. Navy.
  • Texas Rangers/Mier Expedition (1842) – as a result of the Santa Fe Expedition, Mexico began to invade Texas. Houston sent Texas Rangers to guard the border, and the threat was over. 300 Texans remained and crossed into Mexico to Mier. A battle enraged for two days, and the Texans surrendered. Texans were marched to Mexico City and executed by Santa Anna.
  • Jack Coffee Hays –one of the best-known Texas Rangers. A surveyor of the Republic of Texas and a captain of a Texas Ranger company.
  • Chief Bowles – during the Lamar administration (1839), Chief Bowles was ordered to lead the Cherokees out of Texas. Bowles refused. Lamar ordered the militia to drive them out by force. Bowles was killed, and the Cherokees were forced to present-day Oklahoma.
  • William Goyens – a free African-American who was a well-to-do businessman. He was a blacksmith, wagon manufacturer, freight hauler, mill owner, landowner, and farmer in Nacogdoches. He was of mixed race and spoke Spanish and several native Texan languages. Goyens was an important negotiator for Texas with the Cherokees.
  • Mary Maverick – she and her husband, Samuel, established a large ranch near the San Antonio area. She recorded her daily life in diaries and journals between the days of the Republic of Texas and the Civil War. Maverick worked hard making sure the history of Texas was preserved.
  • José Antonio Navarro – served as Bexar’s (San Antonio) representative in the Texas Congress. He tried to protect Tejano land claims and other rights; he was a voice of Tejanos. Supporter of Mirabeau B. Lamar and a critic of Sam Houston. Chosen as one of President Lamar's commissioners to accompany the Texan Santa Fe expedition. Delegate to the Convention of 1845, which decided annexation, and helped write the state constitution. Served in the Texas Senate
  • Cordova Rebellion / the role of racial and ethnic groups (American Indians and Tejanos) – after the Texas Revolution, there was an influx of Americans to Nacogdoches, where the population was primarily Mexican. Some Mexicans living in Nacogdoches remained loyal to Mexico. One loyalist was Vicente Cordova. Vicente Cordova, along with American Indians who were loyal to Mexico, began to organize with almost 400 people along the Angelina River. Before anything happened, the group was defeated, yet the distrust of Mexicans and American Indians resulted in Lamar’s decision to remove the Cherokee from Texas.
  • Council House Fight – during the Lamar’s administration on March 19, 1840 a group of Comanche leaders agreed to meet in San Antonio to surrender all Anglo captives. One captive, Matilda Lockhart was delivered. Texans were angry, and refused to let the Comanche leave. The Comanche tried to leave and were attacked resulting in the death of seven Texans and many Comanche leaders who were unarmed and outnumbered. To this date, the Comanche nation refuses to make peace with the Texas Rangers over this event.
  • Santa Fe Expedition – during Lamar’s Administration in June 1841Lamar sent troops to claim the western boundary of Texas, all the land east of the Rio Grande, which included Santa Fe, and a part of present-day New Mexico. Mexico did not agree, and neither did the citizens of Santa Fe. By the time the Texans got there, they were exhausted and short of supplies. Texans were captured and marched to Mexico City, and then thrown into prison. The expedition was a failure and cost a great sum of money and Mexicans began raiding Texas again.
  • Slavery – the status of African Americans changed dramatically during the Republic of Texas. Slavery was legalized, and freed enslaved people in Texas had to get an act of Congress to remain freed in Texas.
New7.4B Analyze the causes of and events leading to Texas annexation such as security and public debt.

Analyze

CAUSES OF AND EVENTS LEADING TO TEXAS ANNEXATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • One of the most pressing issues for the leaders of the new Texas Republic was the overwhelming debt. Efforts to raise revenue were ineffective and money was needed to provide for security, as well as to pay public officials and bureaucrats. The republic faced threats from American Indian tribes and from Mexico which refused to recognize Texas as independent.
  • Many of the settlers in Texas had a deep connection to the United States as many had migrated to Texas from the United States. These settlers were familiar with republican government and had approved a constitution for Texas that resembled that of the United States.
  • In 1844 President John Tyler had negotiated a treaty of annexation with Texas officials, yet the treaty was rejected by the U.S. Senate. Most likely because anti-slavery supporters opposed the admission of Texas as an expansion of slavery in the United States and because of the threat of war with Mexico.
  • At the end of President Tyler’s term with the support of President-Elect James K. Polk a joint resolution passed both houses of the U.S. Congress and Texas was admitted into the United States on December 29, 1845.
New7.4C Identify individuals, events, and issues during early Texas statehood, including the U.S.-Mexican War, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, slavery, and the Compromise of 1850.

Identify

INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, AND ISSUES DURING EARLY TEXAS STATEHOOD

Including, but not limited to:

  • U.S.- Mexican War – Mexico claimed the Nueces River as its border, and the United States/Texas claimed the Rio Grande. War began at Brownsville when a small battle breaks out, and American blood is shed.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – was signed to end the U.S.- Mexican War and resulted in the Mexican Cession of land forming the Southwest of  the United States. Mexico accepted Texas as part of the United States, and the United States paid $15 million to Mexico. The Rio Grande River was established as the border of Texas/ United States.
  • Slavery – the number of enslaved persons in Texas grew substantially in Texas from the time of statehood to the Civil War. Most enslaved populations were concentrated in East Texas. Enslaved persons were considered personal property and were forbidden to marry or have a family, to bear arms, to assemble, or to testify against whites. Despite these restrictions some planters allowed marriages. Some enslaved persons resisted by running away, breaking tools, burning barns, stealing farm animals, or slowing down their work. In the 1850s paranoia about potential slave insurrections was spreading as it was in the American South.
  • Compromise of 1850 – established the boundary between Texas and New Mexico. The annexation of Texas and the subsequent Mexican Cession heightened the tension in the United States about the spread of slavery. In the midst of this tension a dispute over the western boundary of Texas erupted. As a part of a compromise bill proposed by Henry Clay to deal with the expansion of slavery issue, Texas gave up a part of its western and northern territory for a payment of $10 million.
New7.8 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.8C Analyze the effects of physical and human factors such as climate, weather, landforms, irrigation, transportation, and communication on major events in Texas.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN FACTORS ON MAJOR EVENTS IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Landforms
    • American Indian Wars
      • The U.S. Army trapped the Comanche in the Palo Duro Canyon, their winter home.
      • Flat land of High Plains allowed for them to be untouched for so long
New7.10 The student understands the characteristics, distribution, and migration of population in Texas in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
New7.10A Identify why immigrant groups came to Texas and where they settled.

Identify

WHY IMMIGRANT GROUPS CAME TO TEXAS AND WHERE THEYSETTLED

Including, but not limited to:

  • 19th century
    • Several prominent Mexican families established ranches in South Texas even after the abandonment of the missions in Texas.
    • Mexican families immigrated to Texas as part of the De León colony established along the Guadalupe River near Victoria. 
    • Irish settler also immigrated to Texas on two land grants from the Spanish government during the early 1800s.
    • The majority of immigrants to Texas as part of the empresario land grants came from the United States.
    • The attraction of cheap land resulted in a wave of immigration in the mid1800s that brought thousands of European immigrants to Texas. Among them were Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. Many of these immigrants came seeking economic opportunities, fleeing the conflicts of 1848 in Europe, or because of the potato famine in Ireland.
    • Germans primarily settled in New Braunfels, with many German towns established along a “German Belt” from Galveston westward to the Hill Country.
    • Americans and enslaved African Americans settled mostly in East Texas
    • Swedes settled in Williamson County
    • Irish settled in the Rio Grande Valley, San Patricio, Refugio, and Victoria
    • French who took advantage of the Colonization Laws of 1841established Castroville west of San Antonio
    • Poles settled in Panna Maria
    • Czech mainly settled in Fayette County
    • Italians settled in urban communities along the Texas coast
    • In the 1870s Chinese immigrants came to Texas to help build the railroads, eventually settling in urban areas like Houston and El Paso
New7.10B Describe how immigration and migration to Texas have influenced Texas.

Describe

HOW IMMIGRATION AND MIGRATION HAVE INFLUENCED TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • A cultural pattern of diversity is evident in the celebrations, languages, traditions, arts, architecture and foods in Texas.
New7.16 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
New7.16A Identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important Texas issues, past and present.

Identify

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW ON IMPORTANT TEXAS ISSUES, PAST AND PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Point of View– the particular position or attitude expressed or adopted by an individual or a group. An individuals’ point of view is influenced by the historical context (the time in which the individual lived) and frame of reference (personal background of the individual).
New7.18 The student understands the concept of diversity within unity in Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.18A Explain how the diversity of Texas is reflected in a variety of cultural activities and celebrations.

Explain

HOW THE DIVERSITY OF TEXAS IS REFLECTED IN CULTURAL ACTIVITIES AND CELEBRATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The diversity of Texas is reflected in many cultural activities such as  local folk festivals, Wurstfest, celebrations of Cinco de Mayo, Quinceañera celebrations, ballet folklorico performances, Scottish dancing performances, and many numerous others
New7.18B Describe how people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups attempt to maintain their cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture.

Describe

HOW PEOPLE FROM RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS ATTEMPT TO MAINTAIN CULTURAL HERITAGE WHILE ADAPTING TO THE LARGER TEXAS CULTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maintained food, music, traditions, language, and religion over many generations
  • Celebrations practiced in new world
New7.18C

Identify examples of Spanish influence and the influence of other cultures on Texas such as place names, vocabulary, religion, architecture, food, and the arts.

Identify

EXAMPLES OF SPANISH INFLUENCE AND THE INFLUENCE OF OTHER CULTURES ON TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Other Cultures
    • Place names
      • Fredericksburg and New Braunfels (German),Beaumont (French)
    • Vocabulary
      • Kindergarten, wiener, pretzel, sauerkraut
    • Religion
      • Lutheran (Wends, Germans)
      • Catholic
    • Architecture
      • Germans – half-timbered Vereins-Kirche
    • Food
      • German – Bratwurst
      • Italian – Pasta
      • Czech – Kolaches
    • Arts
      • Painted Churches of Texas – 15 churches built to have the façade of churches in Europe
New7.20 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New7.20A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
New7.20B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New7.20C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Information from
    • Outlines
    • Reports
    • Databases
    • Visuals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Timelines
    • Maps
New7.20D Identify bias and points of view from the historical context surrounding an event that influenced the participants.

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT THAT INFLUENCED THE PARTICIPANTS

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New7.20E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Support

A POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

New7.20F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New7.21 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
New7.21A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Create, Interpret

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS REPRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
    • Regions of Texas
    • Major physical geographic features in Texas, including rivers and cities
    • Regions that American Indians inhabited in Texas
    • Spanish missions and settlements in Texas
    • Empresario Grants
    • Settlements in Texas by 1821
    • Battles in the Texas Revolution
    • European settlements
    • Mexican Cession
    • Civil War Battles in Texas
    • Reconstruction military districts
    • Military posts and installations in Texas
    • Texas oil fields
    • Cattle trails
    • Dust Bowl
    • Internment camps
  • Other sources of geographic data
    • Population of American Indians in Texas prior to the arrival of Europeans
    • Number of casualties in the Texas Revolution
    • Population of Texas before and after the Texas Revolution
    • Number of Texans that fought in the Civil War
    • Number of Texans that died in the Civil War
    • European immigration numbers
    • Population changes in Texas
    • Political parties membership numbers and demographics
New7.21B Analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Analyze, Interpret

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERNS IN TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 19th Century
    • Prior to the1800’s Texas was home to a variety of American Indian groups and a growing number of Spanish colonists living near Spanish missions. Spanish missions and surrounding towns were located near rivers in South Texas, East Texas and in far West Texas
    • During the early 1800’s the population of Texas grew significantly as the Mexican government promoted colonization of the region by giving land grants to Anglo and Mexican settlers. The vast majority of the new settlement in Texas during the 1800’s was by immigrants coming from the United States, some bringing enslaved Africans with them to Texas. Most land grants were located in South and East Texas where physical geography was more favorable to settlement.
    • During the mid1800s Texas experience a large wave of immigration from many European nations. This wave including the immigration of Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. By 1850 Texas’ population was well over 200,000 and by 1860 the number of people living in Texas reached more than 600,000, yet in 1836 it had been approximately 50,000. Enslaved African-Americans were also brought to Texas in large numbers during this time period and mostly settled on cotton plantations in East Texas. More than 2,000 families settled in the Peters Colony in North Texas near present day Dallas during the 1840s. Many small towns were established by immigrant s and most people lived in rural areas with settlements concentrated in the eastern and central portions of the state.
    • During the late 1800s the population of Texas continued to grow to more than 3 million by 1900. The building of railroads resulted in the birth of many towns along the rail routes and the growth of towns in West Texas. Most Texans still lived in rural settings, but urban areas were growing in size.
  • 20th Century
    • In 1900 population of Texas was over 3 million. By 1930 the population of Texas has just about doubled, making Texas the fifth largest state in the United States. Immigration accounts for most of the population increase in the early 1900s with many immigrants coming from Mexico during this time period. The population of Texas remained primarily concentrated in rural areas, yet by the 1920 the size of cities in Texas was increasing.
    • By 1950 more Texans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Houston and Dallas became the state’s largest cities. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century suburban areas of Texas also increased as the urban areas of Dallas/ Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and Brownsville experienced significant population increases from 1970-2000.
  • 21st Century
    • Urban areas of Texas continue to grow, with some counties such as Williamson County leading the entire nation in growth rates. The population growth in Texas is concentrated in urban areas with both small cities and large cities experiencing growth. Texas has six of the nation’s largest cities- San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, Dallas, Austin, and El Paso.
New7.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New7.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
New7.22B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New7.22C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL BASED ON RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
New7.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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