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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 7 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 05: Unrest and Revolt in Texas – 1821-1836 SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to the issues and events surrounding the fight in Texas for independence from Mexico. This unit is primarily a study of revolution. As tensions grew in Texas, Mexican officials attempted to impose more control over the settlers. Eventually political changes in Mexico forced settlers in Texas to pursue independence. While the movement towards independence had been growing for years, it took less than a year for Texans to gain independence.  During that time, Texans met to form a new government as well as battle Mexico’s army at Gonzales, the Alamo, Goliad, and San Jacinto.  The victory at San Jacinto signified the end of Mexican rule in Texas. An examination of the Texas Revolution is important for understanding the commitment Texans had to preserving their political rights.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students studied about Mexico gaining independence from Spain and the policies of the Mexican government to implement a land grant system in Texas. In grade 4, students studied the same events surrounding the Texas Revolution, while in grade 5 they studied the events of the American Revolution. Students should see the parallels between the American Revolution and the Texas Revolution.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the attempts by Mexican officials to control the settlers in Texas, the changes in the Mexican government that affected Texans, and the events of the Texas Revolution. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students learn about the Texas Republic and the transition to statehood.


People act for change when they can no longer tolerate the conditions in which they live.

  • How do people act effectively to address intolerable conditions in society?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Attempts by Mexican officials to impose more control over Texans fueled growing unrest.

  • Why did the actions of Haden Edwards upset Mexican officials?
  • How did Mexican officials react to the Mier y Terán report?
  • What policies were enacted by Mexican officials to gain control over Texas?
  • What events led to the writing of the Turtle Bayou Resolutions?

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
  • Conflict/Cooperation

Civic Engagement

  • Laws, Rules, Political Processes

Political Patterns

  • Revolution
  • Independence Movements
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Changes in the Mexican government gave Texans hope that they would gain political rights.

  • Why were Texans supportive of Santa Anna in the civil war in Mexico?
  • Why did Texans hold the Convention of 1833 and what resulted from the meeting?
  • What resulted from Austin’s meeting with Santa Anna?
  • What actions led Texans to withdraw their support of Santa Anna and begin to prepare for a revolt?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Violence between Mexican soldiers and Texans erupted at Gonzales as Texans began organizing to establish a government.

  • Why did fighting start in Gonzales and what resulted from the fighting?
  • What was the outcome of the Consultation that met in the fall of 1835?
  • What actions were taken by the delegates at the Convention of 1836?
  • What was characteristic of the constitution Texans wrote in March of 1836?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Hundreds of Texans gave their lives in the defeat at the Alamo and the massacre at Goliad which caused Texans to retreat and reunite for independence.

  • Why did Travis write his letter from the Alamo?
  • What Texans were able to escape from the Alamo and what Texans gave their lives at the Alamo?
  • Why were the Texans defeated at the Alamo and what effect did the loss have on Texans?
  • How did Sam Houston react to the defeat at the Alamo?
  • How did the Battle of Goliad help to build support for the Texas Revolution?
  • How did settlers in Texas react to the news of Goliad Massacre?

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
  • Conflict/Cooperation

Political Patterns

  • Revolution
  • Independence Movements
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

After retreating to East Texas the army of Texans led by Sam Houston was victorious at San Jacinto securing independence for Texas.

  • How did Sam Houston prepare his army for battle with Santa Anna’s troops?
  • What factors account for the victory of Sam Houston’s troops?
  • What terms did Santa Anna agree to in the Treaties of Velasco?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students often think that Texans won at the Battle of the Alamo.

Unit Vocabulary

federalists – those in Mexico who supported the establishment of a federal system of government like that in the United States
centralists – those in Mexico who favored a strong central government with power concentrated among a few leaders
revolution – a movement to bring about change
siege – surrounding a fortification to cut it off from supplies
delegate – a person acting as a representative for others
republic – type of government with elected representatives
courier – a messenger generally delivering correspondence
treaty – an agreement between national governments

Related Vocabulary

  • ad interim
  • provisional
  • war council
  • retreat
  • reinforcements
  • cavalry
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
New7.1A

Identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain the purpose of dividing the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights; and Contemporary Texas.

Identify

MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Describe

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Revolution
    • Characterized by the rising tensions between Texas empresarios and settlers with the Mexican government culminating in the Texas Revolution and independence for Texas.

Explain

THE PURPOSE OF DIVIDING THE PAST INTO ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dividing the past into eras facilitates the examinations of how political, economic, geographic and social patterns change over time.
New7.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, mapping of the Texas coast and first mainland Spanish settlement; 1718, founding of San Antonio; 1821, independence from Spain; 1836, Texas independence; 1845, annexation; 1861, Civil War begins; 1876, adoption of current state constitution; and 1901, discovery of oil at Spindletop.

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1836 – Texas independence
New7.3 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues related to the Texas Revolution shaped the history of Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.3A Describe the chain of events that led to the Texas Revolution, including the Fredonian Rebellion, the Mier y Terán Report, the Law of April 6, 1830, the Turtle Bayou Resolutions, and the arrest of Stephen F. Austin.

Describe

CHAIN OF EVENTS THAT LED TO THE TEXAS REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Fredonian Rebellion – in 1826, in Nacogdoches, a group of Texans formed the Fredonian Republic led by the Edwards Brothers, claimed the area was no longer under Mexican control. Stephen F. Austin sided with the Mexican government and marched to Nacogdoches to help stop the rebellion. It ended quickly.
  • Mier y Terán – in 1828, the Mexican government sent Gen. Manuel Mier y Terán to investigate the conditions in northern Texas. He found that the Anglo-Americans outnumbered Mexicans 10 to 1. The report resulted in the Law of April 6.
  • Law of April 6, 1830 – in 1828, the Mexican government sent Mier y Terán to report on the new immigrants moving into Texas. He reported concerns about the Anglo Americans. This resulted in the Law of April 6 which outlawed immigration from the U.S. to Texas and canceled all empresarial grants that had not been fulfilled. It did encourage European immigration. Enslaved people could no longer be brought into Mexico to work, and customs duties were imposed on all goods entering Texas from the U.S.
  • Turtle Bayou Resolutions – Anahuac settlers gathered at Turtle Bayou following the uprising at Anahuac. John Austin was sent to retrieve a cannon to be brought back from Brazoria and drafted resolutions pledging continued loyalty to Mexico under the Constitution of 1824. Santa Anna seemed to support the Constitution of 1824. This event resulted in Colonel Jose de las Piedras ordering the release of William B. Travis and Patrick Jack from jail. Bradburn was dismissed from his command with the Mexican army
  • Arrest of Stephen F. Austin – Austin traveled to Mexico to meet with Mexican officials and delivered the resolution written by Texas officials about their concerns. When he arrived, Santa Anna had becomethe leader of Mexico, but so much time has gone by that Austin sent a letter back to Texas to tell Texas officials to establish a state government. Austin has a meeting with Santa Anna who agrees to address many of the grievances.  Austin is on his return when he is arrested for treason because of the letter he wrote to Texas officials earlier. He was not allowed to return to Texas until summer of 1835.
New7.3B Explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Texas Revolution, including George Childress, Lorenzo de Zavala, James Fannin, Sam Houston, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Juan N. Seguín, and William B. Travis.

Explain

ROLES PLAYED BY SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS DURING THE TEXAS REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • George Childress – chaired the committee in charge of writing the Texas Declaration of Independence
  • Lorenzo de Zavala – helped write the Texas Declaration of Independence and helped design the ad interim government at Washington-on-the Brazos; was elected Vice President of the new republic
  • James Fannin – led the Texans at Coleto Creek and surrendered to Urrea; later he was executed at Goliad by order of Santa Anna
  • Sam Houston – leader of the Revolutionary Army during the Texas Revolution
  • Antonio López de Santa Anna – dictator of Mexico, and military leader of the Mexican Army during the Texas Revolution
  • Juan Seguín – served with Travis at the Alamo, but survived because he was sent out as a messenger to warn Sam Houston about the events at the Alamo. He continued to serve under Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto.
  • William B. Travis –military leader of the Texas forces at the Alamo; was killed by Mexican forces at the Alamo
New7.3C Explain the issues surrounding significant events of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of Gonzales; the siege of the Alamo, William B. Travis's letter "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World," and the heroism of the diverse defenders who gave their lives there; the Constitutional Convention of 1836; Fannin's surrender at Goliad; and the Battle of San Jacinto.

Explain

ISSUES SURROUNDING SIGNIFICANT EVENTS OF THE TEXAS REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Battle of Gonzales
    • First battle of the Texas Revolution – October 2, 1835
    • Citizens of Gonzales would not give up a cannon that was given to them by the Mexican government to protect them from American Indians.
    • A militia led by J.H. Moore flew a flag over  the cannon which said “Come and Take It”.
    • Lieutenant Francisco Castaneda led 100 men to Gonzales to take the cannon.
    • The militia fired the cannon on October 2 at the Mexican soldiers, a battle began, and so did the Texas Revolution.
  • The siege of the Alamo and all the heroic defenders who gave their lives there
    • Sam Houston ordered the Alamo to be destroyed.
    • James Bowie and James Neill decided that the Alamo was too important.
    • James Bowie and William Travis began to recruit supporters.
    • Santa Anna arrived in San Antonio.
    • The Texans moved into the Alamo and for 13 days fought the Mexicans.
    • The fall of the Alamo occurred on the morning of March 6, 1836.
    • 1800 Mexican troops fought against approximately 189 Texans.
    • All Texans were killed, and approximately 600 Mexican soldiers were also killed.
  • William B. Travis's letter "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World"
    • Travis wrote this letter to recruit men to help him and his men attheAlamo after Santa Anna showed up in San Antonio, February 23.
  • Constitutional Convention of 1836
    • Texas delegates met at Washington-on-the-Brazos.
    • Declared independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836
    • Wrote a constitution to form an ad interim government for the Republic of Texas
  • Fannin's surrender at Goliad
    • Colonel James Fannin surrendered his 300 men at the Battle of Coleto because he was pinned on the open prairie.
    • Texans fought the Mexicans off, but Fannin decided to surrender to prevent more deaths.
    • Captives were marched to Goliad, and Urrea told them they were not going to be killed, but Santa Anna ordered the captives to all be shot on March 21.
  • Battle of San Jacinto
    • April 21, 1836
    • Shortest battle in history
    • Sam Houston led the Texas forces – 800 men
    • Santa Anna led the Mexican forces – 1300 men
    • Houston burned every way out of San Jacinto and attacked the Mexican Army about 3:00 p.m.
    • The battle lasted 18 minutes
    • Santa Anna was captured the next day and surrendered to SamHouston
New7.8C Analyze the effects of physical and human factors such as climate, weather, landforms, irrigation, transportation, and communication on major events in Texas.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN FACTORS ON MAJOR EVENTS IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  •  Weather
    • Texas Revolution
      • The fall and spring brought heavy rains and cold fronts that made it very difficult to travel, especially across rivers (e.g., Brazos and Trinity).
      • The Runaway Scrape and the path to the San Jacinto battleground was made very difficult because of heavy rains and cold fronts.
  • Landforms
    • Battle of Coleto
      • Fannin stopped in an open prairie to give his men a rest, but the Mexicans were able to surround them.
      • Fannin’s men had no natural resources to protect themselves, resulting in a defeat.
    • American Indian Wars
      • The U.S. Army trapped the Comanche in the Palo Duro Canyon, their winter home.
      • Flat land of High Plains allowed for them to be untouched for so long
      • This defeat forced the Comanche to move to reservations in Oklahoma.
New7.20 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New7.20A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
New7.20B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New7.20C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Information from
    • Outlines
    • Reports
    • Databases
    • Visuals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Timelines
    • Maps
New7.20D Identify bias and points of view from the historical context surrounding an event that influenced the participants.

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT THAT INFLUENCED THE PARTICIPANTS

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New7.20E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Support

A POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

New7.20F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New7.21 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
New7.21A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Create, Interpret

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS REPRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
    • Regions of Texas
    • Major physical geographic features in Texas, including rivers and cities
    • Regions that American Indians inhabited in Texas
    • Spanish missions and settlements in Texas
    • Empresario Grants
    • Settlements in Texas by 1821
    • Battles in the Texas Revolution
    • European settlements
    • Mexican Cession
    • Civil War Battles in Texas
    • Reconstruction military districts
    • Military posts and installations in Texas
    • Texas oil fields
    • Cattle trails
    • Dust Bowl
    • Internment camps
  • Other sources of geographic data
    • Population of American Indians in Texas prior to the arrival of Europeans
    • Number of casualties in the Texas Revolution
    • Population of Texas before and after the Texas Revolution
    • Number of Texans that fought in the Civil War
    • Number of Texans that died in the Civil War
    • European immigration numbers
    • Population changes in Texas
    • Political parties membership numbers and demographics
New7.21B Analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Analyze, Interpret

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERNS IN TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 19th Century
    • Prior to the1800’s Texas was home to a variety of American Indian groups and a growing number of Spanish colonists living near Spanish missions. Spanish missions and surrounding towns were located near rivers in South Texas, East Texas and in far West Texas
    • During the early 1800’s the population of Texas grew significantly as the Mexican government promoted colonization of the region by giving land grants to Anglo and Mexican settlers. The vast majority of the new settlement in Texas during the 1800’s was by immigrants coming from the United States, some bringing enslaved Africans with them to Texas. Most land grants were located in South and East Texas where physical geography was more favorable to settlement.
    • During the mid1800s Texas experience a large wave of immigration from many European nations. This wave including the immigration of Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. By 1850 Texas’ population was well over 200,000 and by 1860 the number of people living in Texas reached more than 600,000, yet in 1836 it had been approximately 50,000. Enslaved African-Americans were also brought to Texas in large numbers during this time period and mostly settled on cotton plantations in East Texas. More than 2,000 families settled in the Peters Colony in North Texas near present day Dallas during the 1840s. Many small towns were established by immigrant s and most people lived in rural areas with settlements concentrated in the eastern and central portions of the state.
    • During the late 1800s the population of Texas continued to grow to more than 3 million by 1900. The building of railroads resulted in the birth of many towns along the rail routes and the growth of towns in West Texas. Most Texans still lived in rural settings, but urban areas were growing in size.
  • 20th Century
    • In 1900 population of Texas was over 3 million. By 1930 the population of Texas has just about doubled, making Texas the fifth largest state in the United States. Immigration accounts for most of the population increase in the early 1900s with many immigrants coming from Mexico during this time period. The population of Texas remained primarily concentrated in rural areas, yet by the 1920 the size of cities in Texas was increasing.
    • By 1950 more Texans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Houston and Dallas became the state’s largest cities. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century suburban areas of Texas also increased as the urban areas of Dallas/ Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and Brownsville experienced significant population increases from 1970-2000.
  • 21st Century
    • Urban areas of Texas continue to grow, with some counties such as Williamson County leading the entire nation in growth rates. The population growth in Texas is concentrated in urban areas with both small cities and large cities experiencing growth. Texas has six of the nation’s largest cities- San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, Dallas, Austin, and El Paso.
New7.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New7.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
New7.22B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New7.22C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL BASED ON RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New7.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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