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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 7 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 04: Mexican Colonization and the Empresario System – 1821-1836 SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to the newly independent Mexican government’s policy of establishing an empresario system in its efforts to control territory in Texas. This unit is primarily a study of colonization. Early in the nineteenth century, events in Europe affected the Spanish colonies in the New World. In the course of these events, colonists in Mexico fought and gained independence from Spanish rule. Mexican officials made the control of Texas a priority and instituted a system to bring permanent settlers to the region. During the early nineteenth century Texas became the home to many settlers from the United States, who brought with them a different culture than that of the Mexicans. Eventually these cultural differences gave rise to growing tensions between colonists and Mexican officials. An examination of the empresario system in Texas is important for understanding Anglo migration to the region.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students studied about Spanish and French exploration of Texas and about the efforts of the Spanish government to colonize Texas with the building of missions and presidios. In Grade 4 students learned about Mexico gaining independence from Spain, the empresario system, and the cultural changes that resulted in Texas from the migration of settlers to the region.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about challenges Spanish officials had in managing East Texas, about Mexico’s efforts to gain independence from Spain, about the empresario system instituted by the Mexican government, and about how society in Texas was changed by the Anglo migration to the region. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students learn about the issues, events, and leaders of the Texas Revolution.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of its people?

Interactions among humans lead to change.

  • How does the world change as people become more connected?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

A lack of Spanish presence in East Texas resulted in conflicting claims to the land.

  • How did Spanish officials respond to filibusters making claims to land in East Texas?
  • Why were Spanish officials worried about the United States claiming territory in Texas?
  • What was significant about the Adams-Onís Treaty?

Historical Processes

  • Power
  • Conflict/Cooperation

Political Patterns

  • Revolution
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Political unrest in Europe and inequities in New Spain caused leaders in Mexico to pursue independence from Spain.

  • How did class divisions among the Spanish contribute to social unrest and calls for independence?
  • What caused leaders in Mexico to fight for independence from Spain?
  • What issues were most important to leaders in Mexico after gaining independence from Spain?
  • How did the Constitution of 1824 affect settlement of Texas?

Political Patterns

  • Independence Movements

Civic Engagement

  • Laws, Rules, and Political Processes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Mexican officials instituted a land grant policy which resulted in many Anglos from the United States colonizing Texas.

  • Why did the Mexican government pass colonization laws for Texas?
  • What responsibilities did empresarios and immigrants have?
  • What was life in the Austin colony like?
  • Why should Stephen F. Austin be considered the “Father of Texas”?

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders
  • Migration

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Settlement of Texas brought cultural and social changes to the region.

  • Where were most of the empresarios in Texas from?
  • What was characteristic of settlement patterns in Texas during the 1820s-1830s?
  • How did the settlers in Texas change the culture of Texas?
  • How did differing views about government and slavery led to tensions in Texas?

Historical Processes

  • Diffusion

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Many students do not realize that Spain controlled Mexico, and, therefore, Texas, for more than 300 years.
  • Most students do not realize the conditions Americans had to follow to be able to receive land in New Spain (Texas).

Unit Vocabulary

filibuster – an adventurer who engages in private rebellious activity in a foreign country
empresario – an agent who makes all the arrangements to bring settlers to a colony
immigration – the movement of people from one place to settle in another place
Tejano – the unique cultural blending of Spanish and American traditions in Texas

Related Vocabulary

  • land grant
  • constitution
  • revolution
  •  colonization
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
New7.1A

Identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain the purpose of dividing the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights; and Contemporary Texas.

Identify

MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Describe

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mexican National
    • Characterized by the Anglo colonization of Texas with the empresario system following the establishment of Mexico as independent from Spain and the creation of the Mexican Constitution of 1824.

Explain

THE PURPOSE OF DIVIDING THE PAST INTO ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dividing the past into eras facilitates the examinations of how political, economic, geographic and social patterns change over time.
New7.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, mapping of the Texas coast and first mainland Spanish settlement; 1718, founding of San Antonio; 1821, independence from Spain; 1836, Texas independence; 1845, annexation; 1861, Civil War begins; 1876, adoption of current state constitution; and 1901, discovery of oil at Spindletop.

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1821 – Mexico independence from Spain
New7.2 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues through the Mexican National Era shaped the history of Texas. The student is expected to:
New7.2D Identify the individuals, issues, and events related to Mexico becoming an independent nation and its impact on Texas, including Father Miguel Hidalgo, Texas involvement in the fight for independence, José Gutiérrez de Lara, the Battle of Medina, the Mexican federal Constitution of 1824, the merger of Texas and Coahuila as a state, the State Colonization Law of 1825, and slavery.

Identify

INDIVIDUALS, ISSUES, EVENTS RELATED TO MEXICO BECOMING AN INDEPENDENT NATION AND IMPACT ON TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Father Miguel Hidalgo
    • Known as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he is credited with sparking the Mexican War for Independence. Following Napoleon’s invasion of Spain many in Mexico no longer felt the same allegiance to their Spanish rulers and at the same time creole resentment of the Spanish imperial social hierarchy was growing. Father Hidalgo as a student of the Enlightenment was a champion of the poor and indigenous populations in Mexico. He organized his parishioners to prepare for revolt and envisioned a revolt led by the popular masses. Such an idea would not be supported by the creoles who also began to support the idea of revolt. On September 16, 1810 Hidalgo gathered his parishioners who seized the prison at Dolores, starting the Mexican War of Independence. Hidalgo and his followers had early successes but were eventually defeated in the spring of 1811. Hidalgo was later executed and eventual the cause for Mexican independence gained the support of creoles.
  • Texas involvement in the fight for Mexico’s independence from Spain
    • Philip Nolan – a filibuster from the United States that was sent to Texas with Spanish approval, but Spain was suspicious of the U.S. taking control of Texas
    • Gutierrez-Magee Expedition – José Bernardo Gutiérrez (follower of Father Hidalgo) and Augustus Magee (former U.S. soldier) organized the Republic of the north and proclaimed Texas independent of Spain, but were defeated. It encouraged others to free Texas and Mexico from Spanish rule.
    • Galveston Pirates – Jean Lafitte and other pirates attacked Spanish ships
    • Long Expedition – Dr. James Long led a group from Mississippi to Nacogdoches where he declared Texas independent from Spain. While looking for military support, he was captured, taken to Mexico City, and shot.
  • José Gutiérrez de Lara
    • Leader of the Mexican Republican Army of the North and opposed Spanish Rule
    • Joined Agustus Magee and his men, which became known as the Guiterrez-Magee Expedition
    • Supported several filibuster expeditions
    • First Governor of Mexican Texas
  • Battle of Medina
    • Fought August 18, 1813, along the Medina River south of San Antonio between the republican forces of the Gutiérrez-Magee expedition and the Spanish royalist army
    • The Republican army lost miserably, but it encouraged others to participate in the revolution.
  • Mexican Federal Constitution of 1824
    • The constitution written after Mexico’s independence from Spain
    • The republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic with Catholicism as the official religion.
    • Created the state of Coahuila y Tejas, merging the two provinces
  • Merger of Texas and Coahuila as a state
    • Merger stated in the Mexican Federal Constitution of 1824
    • Texas was not organized as a separate state because of its small population.
  • State Colonization Law of 1825
    • Law that set up guidelines for the colonization of Coahuila y Texas
    • Allowed Stephen F. Austin and other empresarios to receive land grants in Texas
  • Slavery
    • 1821 – colonists could bring enslaved people to Texas and buy land depending on the number of enslaved people brought.
    • Mexico offered full citizenship to free African Americans, including land ownership and other privileges.
    • 1823 – the sale or purchase of enslaved people  was forbidden in Texas, and required that the children of enslaved people be freed when they reached age fourteen.
    • 1827 – the legislature of Coahuila y Tejas outlawed the introduction of additional enslaved people and granted freedom at birth to all children born to enslaved people.
    • 1829 – Mexico abolished slavery, but it granted an exception to Texas.
    • 1830 – importation of enslaved people was illegal in Texas.
New7.2E Identify the contributions of significant individuals, including Moses Austin, Stephen F. Austin, Erasmo Seguín, Martín De León, and Green DeWitt, during the Mexican settlement of Texas.

Identify

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS DURING THE MEXICAN SETTLEMENT OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Moses Austin (1820) – first American to work with the Spanish government to settle Americans in Texas
  • Stephen F. Austin (1821) – first American to recruit and settle Americans in Texas/Mexico. He settled 300 families and was known as an empresario. This led to the colonization by other American settlers in Texas/Mexico.
  • Erasmo Seguin – Tejano rancher who represented Texas at the Mexican Constitutional convention; located land for the Austin Colony and supported Texas independence
  • Martin De Leon – a Mexican empresario who settled 200 Mexican families in South Texas (between the Lavaca and Guadalupe River). He and his wife founded the town of Victoria in 1824.
  • Green DeWitt (1831) – an important American empresario who settled 166 families in the area near present-day Gonzales
New7.2F Contrast Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo purposes for and methods of settlement in Texas.

Contrast

PURPOSES FOR AND METHODS OF SETTLEMENT IN TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Spanish
    • To lay claim to Texas
    • Missions, presidios, and civil settlements
  • Mexican
    • Economic opportunities – large ranches and small businesses
    • Civil settlements and empresarios grants
  • Anglo
    • Economic opportunities – large farms to grow cash crops and small businesses
    • New start
    • Escape debt
    • Empresarios grants

Spanish
Settlement

Mexican
Settlement

Anglo
Settlement

Purpose

  • Secure   Spanish control in New World
  • Gold,   silver, and resources

 Method

  • A colony   of Spain
  • Resettled   other Spanish colonist (e.g., Canary Islanders)

Purpose

  • Increase   population in northern Mexico

 

Method

  • Empresario   grants
  • Supporting   towns already in the area
  • Large   ranches

Purpose

  • Increase   population in Texas

 


Method

  • Allowed   because of the National Colonization Law
  • Empresario   grants
  • Settled in   northern Texas
  • Farming/agriculture
New7.9A Identify ways in which Texans have adapted to and modified the environment and explain the positive and negative consequences of the modifications.

Identify

WAYS TEXANS HAVE ADAPTED TO AND MODIFIED THE ENVIRONMENT

Explain

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF THE MODIFICATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

Colonial Texas

  • Early settlers adapted to the environment by using local materials, such as timber and rock for construction of buildings, homes, and furnishings. In order to adapt to the climate of the region homes were built with a breezeway for shade and to catch the breeze, and came to be known as Dog Run homes. Buckskin clothing was made from deer hides. Wells were used to gain access to underground water.
  • In order to adapt to the arid climate of the western regions of Texas, cattle ranching became more prominent as an economic activity as opposed to farming.
New7.18B Describe how people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups attempt to maintain their cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture.

Describe

HOW PEOPLE FROM RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS ATTEMPT TO MAINTAIN CULTURAL HERITAGE WHILE ADAPTING TO THE LARGER TEXAS CULTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maintained food, music, traditions, language, and religion over many generations
  • Celebrations practiced in new world
New7.20 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New7.20A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
New7.20B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New7.20C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Information from
    • Outlines
    • Reports
    • Databases
    • Visuals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Timelines
    • Maps
New7.20D Identify bias and points of view from the historical context surrounding an event that influenced the participants.

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT THAT INFLUENCED THE PARTICIPANTS

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New7.20E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Support

A POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

New7.20F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New7.21 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
New7.21A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Create, Interpret

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS REPRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
    • Regions of Texas
    • Major physical geographic features in Texas, including rivers and cities
    • Regions that American Indians inhabited in Texas
    • Spanish missions and settlements in Texas
    • Empresario Grants
    • Settlements in Texas by 1821
    • Battles in the Texas Revolution
    • European settlements
    • Mexican Cession
    • Civil War Battles in Texas
    • Reconstruction military districts
    • Military posts and installations in Texas
    • Texas oil fields
    • Cattle trails
    • Dust Bowl
    • Internment camps
  • Other sources of geographic data
    • Population of American Indians in Texas prior to the arrival of Europeans
    • Number of casualties in the Texas Revolution
    • Population of Texas before and after the Texas Revolution
    • Number of Texans that fought in the Civil War
    • Number of Texans that died in the Civil War
    • European immigration numbers
    • Population changes in Texas
    • Political parties membership numbers and demographics
New7.21B Analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Analyze, Interpret

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERNS IN TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 19th Century
    • Prior to the1800’s Texas was home to a variety of American Indian groups and a growing number of Spanish colonists living near Spanish missions. Spanish missions and surrounding towns were located near rivers in South Texas, East Texas and in far West Texas
    • During the early 1800’s the population of Texas grew significantly as the Mexican government promoted colonization of the region by giving land grants to Anglo and Mexican settlers. The vast majority of the new settlement in Texas during the 1800’s was by immigrants coming from the United States, some bringing enslaved Africans with them to Texas. Most land grants were located in South and East Texas where physical geography was more favorable to settlement.
    • During the mid1800s Texas experience a large wave of immigration from many European nations. This wave including the immigration of Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. By 1850 Texas’ population was well over 200,000 and by 1860 the number of people living in Texas reached more than 600,000, yet in 1836 it had been approximately 50,000. Enslaved African-Americans were also brought to Texas in large numbers during this time period and mostly settled on cotton plantations in East Texas. More than 2,000 families settled in the Peters Colony in North Texas near present day Dallas during the 1840s. Many small towns were established by immigrant s and most people lived in rural areas with settlements concentrated in the eastern and central portions of the state.
    • During the late 1800s the population of Texas continued to grow to more than 3 million by 1900. The building of railroads resulted in the birth of many towns along the rail routes and the growth of towns in West Texas. Most Texans still lived in rural settings, but urban areas were growing in size.
  • 20th Century
    • In 1900 population of Texas was over 3 million. By 1930 the population of Texas has just about doubled, making Texas the fifth largest state in the United States. Immigration accounts for most of the population increase in the early 1900s with many immigrants coming from Mexico during this time period. The population of Texas remained primarily concentrated in rural areas, yet by the 1920 the size of cities in Texas was increasing.
    • By 1950 more Texans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Houston and Dallas became the state’s largest cities. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century suburban areas of Texas also increased as the urban areas of Dallas/ Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and Brownsville experienced significant population increases from 1970-2000.
  • 21st Century
    • Urban areas of Texas continue to grow, with some counties such as Williamson County leading the entire nation in growth rates. The population growth in Texas is concentrated in urban areas with both small cities and large cities experiencing growth. Texas has six of the nation’s largest cities- San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, Dallas, Austin, and El Paso.
New7.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New7.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
New7.22B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New7.22C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL BASED ON RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New7.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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