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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 7 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 03: Exploration and Early Colonization of Texas – 1519-1821 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the exploration of Texas and early efforts by the Spanish to colonize Texas. This unit is primarily a study of diffusion. Early European exploration of Texas was motivated primarily by the quest for gold. Both Spanish and French explorers made forays into Texas in the sixteenth century. Competition between France and Spain to claim land in the New World fueled Spanish desires to colonize and control Texas. The Spanish began the process of colonizing Texas by building a series of missions and presidios in the territory. The struggle to control a vast empire plagued the Spanish and eventually the missions and presidios were abandoned. A study of the early colonization of Texas is important for understanding the cultural influences still evident in Texas today.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students studied about the physical geographic regions of Texas and how American Indian groups were influenced by the geography of Texas. In the elementary grades students studied about the expedition of Juan de Oñate as one of the first Spanish explorers to travel through Texas. In Grade 4 students learned about several explorers who came to Texas and about the missions that were built in Texas.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the early expeditions of Spanish and French explorers to Texas and about the mission-presidio system instituted by the Spanish government to colonize Texas. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students learn about the establishment of Mexico as an independent nation and the efforts of the newly-formed Mexican government to colonize Texas.


Interactions among humans lead to change.

  • How does the world change as people become more connected?

Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Spanish explorers and French explorers competed to claim Texas.

  • What motivated Spanish explorers to want to travel to Texas?
  • What impact did the expeditions of Pineda and Cabeza de Vaca have on the exploration of Texas?
  • What was characteristic of the contact between explorers and American Indians in Texas?
  • Why did the Spanish eventually lose interest in further exploring Texas?
  • What happened to La Salle’s expedition?
  • How did the Spanish government respond to reports of French exploration of Texas?

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Exploration

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Spanish colonization of Texas encompassed building a system of missions and presidios.

  • How did physical geography impact the building of missions and presidios in Texas?
  • Why did the Spanish adopt the process of building missions and presidios?
  • Who were the major leaders of the mission-presidio building process?
  • What was life in a mission like?

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
  • Diffusion

Political Patterns

  • Colonization
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Efforts by Spanish leaders to colonize Texas with the mission-presidio system were largely unsuccessful, yet the influence of Spanish colonization is evident still in Texas.

  • Why did the Spanish decide to close most of the missions and presidios in Texas?
  • What changes in Texas resulted from the building of missions and presidios?
  • What lasting legacy is seen in Texas because of Spanish colonization of the region?

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
  • Diffusion

Political Patterns

  • Colonization
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

conquistador – a Spanish explorer who searched for wealth in the Americas
expedition – a journey undertaken by a group of people
exploration – travel undertaken in order to discover new resources
viceroy – Spanish official appointed to rule land claimed by Spain in the New World
mission – a settlement founded to spread Christianity to the people in the area
presidio – a military post or guarded settlement in an area under Spanish control
colonization – state-sponsored settlement of people to new territories

Related Vocabulary

  • friar
  • missionary
  • settlement
  • territorial claims
  • treaties
  • quarters
  • frontier
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
New7.1A

Identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain the purpose of dividing the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights; and Contemporary Texas.

Identify

MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Describe

DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR ERAS IN TEXAS HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Age of Contact
    • Characterized by Spanish and French exploration of Texas. Spanish exploration was let by Cabeza De Vaca. René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle being the primary French explorer in Texas.
  • Spanish Colonial
    • Characterized by the establishment of missions and presidios by Spanish colonial and religious leaders.

Explain

THE PURPOSE OF DIVIDING THE PAST INTO ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dividing the past into eras facilitates the examinations of how political, economic, geographic and social patterns change over time.
New7.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, mapping of the Texas coast and first mainland Spanish settlement; 1718, founding of San Antonio; 1821, independence from Spain; 1836, Texas independence; 1845, annexation; 1861, Civil War begins; 1876, adoption of current state constitution; and 1901, discovery of oil at Spindletop.

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1519 – mapping of the Texas coast by Pineda and first mainland Spanish settlement (This settlement is located in New Spain not specifically Texas.)
  • 1718 – founding of San Antonio
New7.2B Identify important individuals, events, and issues related to European exploration of Texas such as Alonso Álvarez de Pineda, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, the search for gold, and the conflicting territorial claims between France and Spain.

Identify

IMPORTANT INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, AND ISSUES RELATED TO EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Alonso Álvarez de Pineda was the first explorer to map the coast of Texas.
  • Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca – arrived in Texas on an expedition with Pánfilo de Narváez, shipwrecked and captured by American Indians, ended up traveling across Texas, and was the first person to write about, and report about Texas.
  • The search for gold
    • Stories about the riches and limitless gold in the Seven Cities of Cibola supposedly located north of New Spain inspired Spanish led expeditions into Texas.
    • Cabeza de Vaca’s book, La Relación, inspired others such as Marcos de Niza to continue the search for Cibola. Niza abandoned his search after enslaved guide Estevanico was killed while scouting for the Niza expedition. 
    • Other expeditions to find gold were led by Spanish explorers, including Coronado and De Soto in Texas and Juan de Oñate who settled in New Mexico.
  • The conflicting territorial claims between France and Spain
    • Disappointment in not finding the reported cities of gold and riches in Texas, Spanish exploration of the region had pretty much ended by the late 1500’s.  When French explorer La Salle established Fort St. Louis in Texas, Spanish interest in the region was renewed.
    • Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle was given ships, colonists, and soldiers by the French King to start a new colony at the mouth of the Mississippi. He landed at Matagorda Bay instead. He tried to establish a colony, but failed because of attacks by American Indians and disease. LaSalle left the colony to find a way home and was believed to be shot by his own men. The survivors were found by Spanish soldiers. Spain feared that France would try to claim Texas and renewed their colonization efforts in Texas.
New7.2C Identify important individuals, events, and issues related to European colonization of Texas, including the establishment of Catholic missions, towns, and ranches, and the contributions of individuals such as Fray Damián Massanet, Antonio Margil de Jesús, and Francisco Hidalgo.

Identify

IMPORTANT INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, AND ISSUES RELATED TO EUROPEAN COLONIZATION OF TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The establishment of Catholic missions, towns, and ranches
    • Missions – Spain’s primary method for colonization, were expected to be self-supporting. The first missions were established in the El Paso area, then East Texas and finally in the San Antonio area. Missions were used to convert the American Indians to the Catholic faith and make loyal subjects to Spain.
    • Towns – towns and settlements were built near the missions and colonists were brought in for colonies to grow and survive. The first group of colonists to establish a community was the Canary Islanders in San Antonio (1730).
    • Ranches – ranching was more conducive to where missions and settlements were thriving (San Antonio). Cattle were easier to raise and protect as compared to farming.
  • Contributions of individuals
    • Fray Damián Massanet
      • Convinced the viceroy of New Spain to colonize East Texas and convert the Caddoes to Catholicism
      • 1690 – Alonso De León and Massanet were sent with several priests and about 100 soldiers to colonize East Texas.
    • Antonio Margil de Jesús (early 1700s)
      • Spanish Franciscan priest
      • Founded several missions in East Texas including Nuestra Señora de los Dolores and San Miguel de los Adaes.
      • Due to the problems in East Texas, he moved to San Antonio and founded San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo, one of the five missions in San Antonio today.
    • Francisco Hidalgo (early 1700s)
      • Priest at Mission San Francisco de los Tejas
      • Contacted French Catholic priests to provide religious services to the local native people when Spanish priests were not available
      • The “Chicken War” – French soldiers were sent to capture a Spanish mission at Los Adaes in East Texas because of a conflict between France and Spain in Europe. The French soldiers looted the mission and captured a Spanish soldier. The French leader was thrown from his horse because of the chickens in the courtyard. The Spanish soldier was able to escape. The story was exaggerated and embarrassed the Spanish viceroy. The Spanish became more determined to hold Texas. The incident illustrated the vulnerability of missions in East Texas and the Spanish missionaries abandoned the missions in East Texas and retreated to San Antonio de Valero.
New7.18C Identify examples of Spanish influence and the influence of other cultures on Texas such as place names, vocabulary, religion, architecture, food, and the arts.

Identify

EXAMPLES OF SPANISH INFLUENCE AND THE INFLUENCE OF OTHER CULTURES ON TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Spanish
    • Place names
      • Amarillo – in Spanish it means yellow. This was the color of the soil of the area and the beautiful wildflowers. Named by early settlers in this area
      • Rio Grande – in Spanish it means “Big River”
      • Most Texas rivers and landforms
    • Vocabulary
      • Vaquero – Spanish word for cowboy
      • Rodeo – a sport that is based on the skills of cowboys or vaqueros
    • Religion
      • Roman Catholic
    • Architecture
      • Home – hacienda
      • Presidio – fort
      • Aceqias – wells (aquifer)
      • Adobe – brick
      • Arch – style of architecture
    • Food
      • Tortillas – flat bread made of corn
      • Tamales – dumpling made of corn flour and meat
    • Arts
      • Corridos – ballads
      • Frescos – mural painting found in Catholic churches
      • Tejano Music – music that originated from the cultural convergence of Spanish, German, Czech, and Polish music and instruments
  • Other Cultures
    • Place names
      • Fredericksburg and New Braunfels (German),Beaumont (French)
    • Vocabulary
      • Kindergarten, wiener, pretzel, sauerkraut
    • Religion
      • Lutheran (Wends, Germans)
      • Catholic
    • Architecture
      • Germans – half-timbered Vereins-Kirche
    • Food
      • German – Bratwurst
      • Italian – Pasta
      • Czech – Kolaches
    • Arts
      • Painted Churches of Texas – 15 churches built to have the façade of churches in Europe
New7.20 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New7.20A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT TEXAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
New7.20B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New7.20C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Information from
    • Outlines
    • Reports
    • Databases
    • Visuals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Timelines
    • Maps
New7.20D Identify bias and points of view from the historical context surrounding an event that influenced the participants.

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT THAT INFLUENCED THE PARTICIPANTS

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New7.20E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Support

A POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

New7.20F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New7.21 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
New7.21A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Create, Interpret

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS REPRESENTING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
    • Regions of Texas
    • Major physical geographic features in Texas, including rivers and cities
    • Regions that American Indians inhabited in Texas
    • Spanish missions and settlements in Texas
    • Empresario Grants
    • Settlements in Texas by 1821
    • Battles in the Texas Revolution
    • European settlements
    • Mexican Cession
    • Civil War Battles in Texas
    • Reconstruction military districts
    • Military posts and installations in Texas
    • Texas oil fields
    • Cattle trails
    • Dust Bowl
    • Internment camps
  • Other sources of geographic data
    • Population of American Indians in Texas prior to the arrival of Europeans
    • Number of casualties in the Texas Revolution
    • Population of Texas before and after the Texas Revolution
    • Number of Texans that fought in the Civil War
    • Number of Texans that died in the Civil War
    • European immigration numbers
    • Population changes in Texas
    • Political parties membership numbers and demographics
New7.21B Analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

Analyze, Interpret

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND PATTERNS IN TEXAS DURING THE 19th, 20th, AND 21st CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 19th Century
    • Prior to the1800’s Texas was home to a variety of American Indian groups and a growing number of Spanish colonists living near Spanish missions. Spanish missions and surrounding towns were located near rivers in South Texas, East Texas and in far West Texas
    • During the early 1800’s the population of Texas grew significantly as the Mexican government promoted colonization of the region by giving land grants to Anglo and Mexican settlers. The vast majority of the new settlement in Texas during the 1800’s was by immigrants coming from the United States, some bringing enslaved Africans with them to Texas. Most land grants were located in South and East Texas where physical geography was more favorable to settlement.
    • During the mid1800s Texas experience a large wave of immigration from many European nations. This wave including the immigration of Germans, Wends, Swedes, Poles, Irish, Swiss, French, Norwegians, Hungarians, and Czechs. By 1850 Texas’ population was well over 200,000 and by 1860 the number of people living in Texas reached more than 600,000, yet in 1836 it had been approximately 50,000. Enslaved African-Americans were also brought to Texas in large numbers during this time period and mostly settled on cotton plantations in East Texas. More than 2,000 families settled in the Peters Colony in North Texas near present day Dallas during the 1840s. Many small towns were established by immigrant s and most people lived in rural areas with settlements concentrated in the eastern and central portions of the state.
    • During the late 1800s the population of Texas continued to grow to more than 3 million by 1900. The building of railroads resulted in the birth of many towns along the rail routes and the growth of towns in West Texas. Most Texans still lived in rural settings, but urban areas were growing in size.
  • 20th Century
    • In 1900 population of Texas was over 3 million. By 1930 the population of Texas has just about doubled, making Texas the fifth largest state in the United States. Immigration accounts for most of the population increase in the early 1900s with many immigrants coming from Mexico during this time period. The population of Texas remained primarily concentrated in rural areas, yet by the 1920 the size of cities in Texas was increasing.
    • By 1950 more Texans lived in urban areas than in rural areas. Houston and Dallas became the state’s largest cities. Throughout the latter half of the 20th century suburban areas of Texas also increased as the urban areas of Dallas/ Fort Worth, Houston, Austin, and Brownsville experienced significant population increases from 1970-2000.
  • 21st Century
    • Urban areas of Texas continue to grow, with some counties such as Williamson County leading the entire nation in growth rates. The population growth in Texas is concentrated in urban areas with both small cities and large cities experiencing growth. Texas has six of the nation’s largest cities- San Antonio, Houston, Fort Worth, Dallas, Austin, and El Paso.
New7.22 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New7.22A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY
New7.22B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New7.22C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL BASED ON RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New7.23 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New7.23A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 08/26/2019
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