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Instructional Focus Document
United States History Studies Since 1877 Sequential
TITLE : Unit 11: A New Century Turns – History During Our Own Lives 1990-Present SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address important events and their impact from 1990 to the present. This unit is primarily a study of presidential leadership. By 1990 the U.S. economy had gradually slid back into a recession. President George H.W. Bush spent much of his administration working to address the recession and the large budget deficit left by the previous administration. The end of the Cold War during his presidency allowed for an examination of military spending, yet the failure of the administration to relieve the recession prompted a third party challenger in the 1992 election.

Third party challenger Ross Perot was more successful than any other third party candidate in U.S. history in an election that brought Bill Clinton to office.  President Clinton’s administration successfully implemented policies aimed at restoring the economy, balancing the nation’s budget, and reforming welfare. During the 1990s, Americans witnessed increasing globalization, genocide in the Balkans, and the growth of computer-related industries. Despite his policy successes, President Clinton became the focus of a major scandal which resulted in his impeachment. It was also during the 1990s that Americans were introduced to First Lady Hillary Clinton who, after her husband left office, remained in public service first as a senator from New York and later as Secretary of State in the Obama administration. Clinton became the first female presidential candidate from a major political party in the United States as the Democratic Party nominee in the 2016 presidential election.

The controversial 2000 election ended with Al Gore winning the popular vote and George W. Bush winning the electoral college. Not long after President Bush was in office, the United States was attacked by terrorists on September 11, 2001. President Bush responded by declaring a global war on terror, which included the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, where terrorists had bases, and the invasion of Iraq. The creation of the Department of Homeland Security and the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act were also measures supported by the Bush administration to fight terrorism. By 2008, the Bush administration was working to provide assistance to private businesses to address a looming financial crisis brought about by the collapse of the mortgage industry.

It was in the midst of this financial crisis that the first African-American elected as president, Barack Obama took office. President Obama’s administration worked with Congress to pass the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, intended to stimulate the economy and prevent an economic depression. He also worked to pass legislation to regulate banks, reform health care, and address environmental issues. It was during the Obama administration that two women Supreme Court Justices were appointed, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan. By the end of the Obama administration the economy had recovered, yet the expanded role of government in the economy, and the economic implications of immigration endured as a subjects of debate for Americans. An examination of the foreign and domestic policies of the presidential administrations from 1990-2016 is important for understanding the issues that Americans continue to deliberate into the 21st century.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the larger role the United States played in international relations as well as the changing political, economic and social characteristics of the United States from 1970-1990.

During this Unit

During this unit students learn about the foreign and domestic policies of the presidential administrations from 1990-2016, along with the challenges faced by these administrations. Students also examine how increasing globalization, along with changing technologies and business practices affected economics in the United States during this period. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by: 1) acquiring information from various sources, 2) identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, 3) evaluating sources for bias and validity, and 4) supporting conclusions with evidence. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The end of the Cold War, during the presidency of George H.W. Bush, resulted in a redefining of foreign policies along with an ever increasing U.S. presence in global affairs into the 21st century.

  • What role did the United States play in ending the Cold War?
  • Why did President George H.W. Bush authorize fighting in Panama and the Persian Gulf War?
  • Why is it challenging to reduce the federal budget deficit?
  • What impact does the popularity and prevalence of American culture and products have on the rest of the world?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Economic Patterns

  • Monetary/Fiscal Policy
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

President Bill Clinton overcame third-party challengers to lead an administration that oversaw unprecedented economic growth, yet scandal and impeachment marked his administration.

  • How did the Ross Perot’s candidacy affect the 1992 election?
  • What affect did NAFTA, American entrepreneurship, and new technologies have on economic growth in the United States in the 1990s?
  • What was characteristic of the American economy at the end of the 20th century?
  • Why was President Clinton impeached but not removed from office?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Economic Patterns

  • Monetary/Fiscal Policy
  • Globalization
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

After a disputed election, George W. Bush became president and during his administration the United States suffered the attacks of 9/11, the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, and a worsening economic recession.

  • How was the 2000 election decided?
  • How did President Bush’s administration respond to the attacks of 9/11?
  • What geographic and political factors were responsible for the devastation of Hurricane Katrina?
  • What was characteristic of the American economy by 2008?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Following a historic election, Barack Obama took office and his administration worked to prevent an economic depression, extended opportunities to women and minorities, and acted to protect the environment.

  • What was significant about the election of Barack Obama in 2008?
  • What is significant about the accomplishments of Hillary Clinton, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan?
  • What financial challenges were addressed by the Reinvestment Act of 2009?
  • What political and social issues continued to challenge U.S. policy makers in the 21st century?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Whole Unit Performance Task:

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Student may not understand that it is challenging for historians to determine the significance of recent historical events and people often because not enough time has passed to realize fully the impact of historical changes.

Unit Vocabulary

Key Content Vocabulary:
impeachment
– a process used by a legislative body to bring charges against a government official
budget deficit
– occurs when expenses are more than revenues
recession
– a condition of economic decline characterized by a decline in trade and industrial output
third party
– not one of the two prominent political parties
multinational corporations
– corporations which operate or hold assets in more than one country

Related Vocabulary

  • immigration
  • Electoral College
  • levee
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • entitlement programs
  • terrorism
  • globalization
  • mortgage
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
NewUS.2 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.2A Identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics.
Readiness Standard

Identify, Describe

MAJOR ERAS IN U.S. HISTORY FROM 1877 TO PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1990- present – during this period the role of the United States in the world has become more complex with the fall of communism; the United States was involved in the Persian Gulf War, the Balkan Crisis and wars in Iraq and Afghanistan during this time; the events of September 11, 2001 brought to light the challenges presented by global terrorism; in 2008 Barack Obama became the first African American elected to the highest office in the United States; socially Americans continue during this time period to grapple with issues involving immigration, rising costs of healthcare, and rights for minority populations

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed the 1960s as an era characterized by counter revolution, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights movement, and the Space Race.
NewUS.2B

Explain the significance of the following years as turning points: 1898 (Spanish-American War), 1914-1918 (World War I), 1929 (the Great Depression begins), 1939-1945 (World War II), 1957 (Sputnik launch ignites U.S.-Soviet space race), 1968 (Martin Luther King, Jr. assassination), 1969 (U.S. lands on the moon), 1991 (Cold War ends), 2001 (terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon), and 2008 (election of first black president, Barack Obama).


Supporting Standard

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES AS TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1991 – Cold War ends
  • 2001 – terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon
  • 2008 – election of first African American president, Barack Obama
NewUS.11 The student understands the emerging political, economic, and social issues of the United States from the 1990s into the 21st century. The student is expected to:
NewUS.11A Describe U.S. involvement in world affairs, including the end of the Cold War, the Persian Gulf War, the events surrounding September 11, 2001, and the global War on Terror.
Readiness Standard

Describe

U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD AFFAIRS

Including, but not limited to:

  • End of the Cold War – throughout the 1980s, the Soviet Union battled with a failing economy and unrest. When Mikhail Gorbachev became the new Soviet leader, he promoted political liberty and opened the “doors” to capitalism. The signing of an arms treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union led by Gorbachev signaled the easing of tensions between the two nations. Eastern European countries along with the Soviet Union were encountering economic instability and unrest. When the Soviets failed to respond to the opening of borders in many eastern bloc countries, communists leaders were overthrown and free elections were held, ousting longstanding Communist regimes. The symbolic end of the Cold War came in 1989 with the tearing down of the Berlin Wall followed by the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
  • Persian Gulf War – following United Nations Security Council sanctions against Iraq for the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, the United States led a UN-authorized coalition force of 34 nations, to expel Iraqi forces from the country of Kuwait. The war was decisively won with the liberation of Kuwait by the coalition forces but Saddam Hussein remained in power.
  • Events surrounding September 11, 2001 – an attack by al-Qaeda operatives on the United States. Using hijacked planes the terrorists attacked the World Trade Center Towers and the Pentagon.  A fourth plane crashed in Pennsylvania after passengers aboard learned about the attacks and attempted to overcome the terrorists on board. The attack resulted in close to 3,000 casualties and 6,000 injured, making it the deadliest terrorist attack in history and surpassing the death toll from Pearl Harbor.  In response to the attacks the United States initiated the global War on Terror and the invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan.
  • The global War on Terror – an effort started by the George W. Bush administration in response to the 9/11attacks. The Bush administration defined the following goals for the War on Terror:
    • Defeat terrorists such as Osama Bin Laden and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and destroy their organizations
    • Identify, locate, and destroy terrorists along with their organizations
    • Deny sponsorship, support, and sanctuary to terrorists
    • Diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit
    • Defend U.S. citizens and interests at home and abroad
NewUS.11B Identify significant social and political issues such as health care, immigration, and education from different viewpoints across the political spectrum.
Supporting Standard

Identify

SIGNIFICANT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ISSUES ACROSS THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Health care
  • Immigration
  • Education
  • Funding for social programs such as Medicare, food stamps, Social Security
  • Civil Rights
  • Election fraud
NewUS.11C Analyze the impact of third parties on the 1992 and 2000 presidential elections.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF THE THIRD PARTIES ON THE 1992 AND 2000 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Third parties can greatly impact presidential elections. They provide the populace an additional candidate on the ballot that represents another viewpoint. In a close election, a third party candidate may draw votes away from the established political parties, termed the “spoiler effect.” The challenge of third parties in elections often serves as a catalyst for established parties to address issues raised by the third party.
  • 1992 Election – third party candidate Ross Perot received 19% of the vote. Incumbent George H.W. Bush received 37% and William J. Clinton received 43%. While Clinton led in the polls throughout the entire campaign, Bush supporters felt that Perot extracted votes from those who would have supported Bush and thereby cost him the election. 
  • 2000 Presidential Election – the election between George W. Bush and Al Gore was ultimately decided by voters in Florida as third party candidate Ralph Nader only garnered 3% of the overall popular. However, Nader gained almost 100,000 votes in Florida while Bush and Gore were separated by approximately 500 votes. Gore’s supporters felt that had a portion of Nader’s votes gone to Gore he would have been awarded the electoral votes from Florida and won the election, as he had won the popular vote.
NewUS.11D Identify the impact of international events, multinational corporations, government policies, and individuals on the 21st century economy.
Supporting Standard

Identify

IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL EVENTS, MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS, GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND INDIVIDUALS ON THE 21ST CENTURY ECONOMY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Increased globalization has created unprecedented economic interdependence in the twenty-first century, resulting in a situation where economic conditions in other parts of the world impact the U.S. economy.  Additionally multinational corporations have expanded into many overseas markets, free trade zones have expanded, outsourcing of jobs from the United States has increased, and the need for knowledge about other cultures has become imperative in the business world.
  • International events can include destructive events such as natural disasters, wars, strained diplomatic relations, and economic instability can adversely affect national and global economics including increasing national debts, destabilizing international trade, raising inflation, and introducing volatility to currency exchanges. Constructive events such as international agreements on diplomacy and economics can calm volatile markets and improve economic conditions.
  • Multinational corporations operate in multiple regions and may wield influence over government policy by moving corporate headquarters to tax-friendly nations, contributing to political candidates in democratic elections, and choosing in which nation to conduct business. Multinational corporations can contribute to economic instability by being “too big to fail” requiring governments to intervene when the collapse of a critical corporation threatens widespread economic damage.
  • Government policies can influence the twenty-first century economy in a multitude of ways such as by establishing regulations for fair business practices, controlling currency supplies, setting interest rates, establishing international trade relations, and participating in international trade organizations.
  • Individuals can influence the economy in a variety of ways either by acting as a social, political, or business leader, or by making choices that collectively influence democratic societies and free markets.

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2016 STAAR assessed the contributions made by Steve Jobs to the 21st century economy.

The Spring 2017 STAAR assessed how the invention of the world wide web by Tim Berners-Lee.
NewUS.12 The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major events. The student is expected to:
NewUS.12A

Analyze the impact of physical and human geographic factors on the Klondike Gold Rush, the Panama Canal, the Dust Bowl, and the levee failure in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.


Readiness Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Levee failure in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina
    • Human factors – engineering failure of the levees
    • Physical factors – the wind and storm surge of the hurricane hit at high tide; New Orleans lies below sea level; New Orleans is surrounded by bodies of water
NewUS.13 The student understands the causes and effects of migration and immigration on American society. The student is expected to:
NewUS.13B Analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from immigration to the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CHANGING DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERNS RESULTING FROM IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Migration contributes to changing demographic patterns. Economic conditions and political persecution, led many immigrants to enter the United States legally and illegally.
  • Large influxes of immigrants caused rapid growth in ports of entry and cities with heavy industry, as well as the growth of cultural enclaves within cities
  • Southern border states have experienced greater cultural diffusion from Mexico and a higher density of the Hispanic population due to proximity
  • Western states have experienced greater cultural diffusion from Asia and a higher density of Asian populations due to proximity
  • Businesses have responded to growing immigrant populations by providing telecommunications in a variety of languages, promoting products consumed by various cultural groups, and marketing and product packaging in multiple languages
  • Cultural changes that  resulted from immigration include the spread of Catholicism with the influx of Irish immigrants, the introduction of various cultural celebrations, and the proliferation of new foods and music
  • Changing demographic patterns may result in increased fears about loss of political power and economic opportunities, which may result in legislation such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and immigration quotas
 

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2013 STAAR tested the concept of geographic proximity as a cause of immigration patterns to the United States such as the East Coast receiving more European immigrants while the West Coast receives more Asian immigrants.

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed students’ knowledge of reasons for Jewish immigration during the Second World War era.
NewUS.17 The student understands the economic effects of government policies from World War II through the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.17E

Describe the dynamic relationship between U.S. international trade policies and the U.S. free enterprise system such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo, the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).


Readiness Standard

Describe

DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN U.S. INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICIES AND FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • GATT– General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade formed in 1948; encouraged free trade between member nations by regulating and reducing tariffs; GATT was replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995; the WTO is a global organization formed to ensure the smooth flow of free trade
  • NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement; free trade agreement between Canada, the United States, and Mexico
  • Advocates of free trade argue that it promotes competition in the market place thereby reducing prices for consumers.
  • Opponents of free trade argue that it adversely affects jobs.
NewUS.18 The student understands changes over time in the role of government. The student is expected to:
NewUS.18B

Explain constitutional issues raised by federal government policy changes during times of significant events, including World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the 1960s, and September 11, 2001.


Readiness Standard

Explain

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT POLICY CHANGES DURING TIMES OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

Including, but not limited to:

The debate regarding the Gulf of Tonkin incident caused the creation of the War Powers Act, which placed restrictions on the executive branch’s ability to send American troops into combat. Related to the constitutional issues of separation of powers.

  • September 11, 2001 –  USA PATRIOT Act (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism), purpose of the USA PATRIOT Act is to deter and punish terrorist acts in the United States and around the world, to enhance law enforcement investigatory tools, and other purposes. Instigated debates about issues of due process and privacy. 
NewUS.18C

Describe the effects of political scandals, including Teapot Dome, Watergate, and Bill Clinton's impeachment, on the views of U.S. citizens concerning trust in the federal government and its leaders.


Supporting Standard

Describe

EFFECTS OF POLITICAL SCANDALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • President Clinton’s impeachment – resulted from a scandal in which it was revealed that President Clinton had lied to a grand jury during an investigation about an affair with a White House intern. In 1994 a special prosecutor began investigating President Clinton and his administration for involvement in the death of Vincent Foster and real estate transactions related to Whitewater. This initial investigation culminated in an interim report that did not find evidence implicating Clinton of wrong doing in either incident. At this point the special prosecutor was replaced by an independent counsel who continued to investigate President Clinton. When it was brought to the attention of the independent counsel that Clinton had been involved in an affair with an intern, the focus of the investigation changed. During testimony to a grand jury on an unrelated civil suit, Clinton was questioned about the affair to which he denied. Independent counsel then accused Clinton of perjury by having lied to the grand jury. The scandal drew the attention of Congressional leaders, who proceed to draft articles of impeachment. Clinton becomes the second American president to have faced an impeachment trial. After a 21 day trial in the Senate, President Clinton is acquitted. The scandal highlighted a partisanship in American politics that was frustrating to many Americans. 
NewUS.18D

Describe the role of contemporary government legislation in the private and public sectors such as the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.


Supporting Standard

Describe

ROLE OF CONTEMPORARY GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION IN THE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • USA PATRIOT Act (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) of 2001 – purpose of the act is to deter and punish terrorist acts in the United States and around the world, and to enhance law enforcement investigatory capacity
  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 – economic stimulus package intended to create jobs, promote investment, and increase consumer spending during the recession
  • Economic  initiatives – can be both legislative and by executive initiative, such as those made by the White House Economic Council

STAAR Note:

On the 2015 STAAR the government loan given to the Chrysler Corporation by President Carter was used as an example of the role of contemporary government legislation. These types of loans are intended to protect against the potential job losses that may accompany the collapse of a major industry.

NewUS.19 The student understands the changing relationships among the three branches of the federal government. The student is expected to:
NewUS.19B

Evaluate the impact of relationships among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government, including Franklin D. Roosevelt's attempt to increase the number of U.S. Supreme Court justices and the presidential election of 2000.


Readiness Standard

Evaluate

IMPACT OF RELATIONSHIPS AMONG BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Presidential Election of 2000- Candidate George W. Bush won the electoral votes in Florida by a slim margin, triggering a recount of the ballots. Lawsuits followed to stop the recount in various Florida counties. Eventually the legal challenge was brought to the U.S. Supreme Court which ruled the recount was unconstitutional thereby stopping the recounting.  Bush was awarded Florida’s electoral votes and thereby won the election. Gore won the popular vote, Bush won the electoral vote.
    • Impact –  brought into question the Supreme Court’s authority to decide elections and highlighted the potential political partisanship of the Justices
  • The changing nature of political party representation can affect the nature of the relationship between branches of government, such as the need to reach compromise when the legislative and executive branches are differing parties.

STAAR Note:

The 2017 STAAR assessed how the Supreme Court ruling about the line item veto illustrated the changing relationship among the branches.
NewUS.23 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
NewUS.23A

Evaluate the contributions of significant political and social leaders in the United States such as Andrew Carnegie, Thurgood Marshall, Billy Graham, Sandra Day O'Connor, and Hillary Clinton.


Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL AND SOCIAL LEADERS

  • Hillary Clinton –  First Lady (Bill Clinton); Senator from New York State (2001-2009); Secretary of State during the Obama administration; first female presidential nominee from a major political party, Democratic Party (2016)

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2013 STAAR assessed that Franklin D. Roosevelt-delivered evening radio speeches (Fireside Chats) to reassure the public during the Great Depression as a significant contribution by a political figure.

NewUS.24 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
NewUS.24C Identify and analyze the global diffusion of American culture through various media.
Supporting Standard

Identify, Analyze

GLOBAL DIFFUSION OF AMERICAN CULTURE THROUGH VARIOUS MEDIA

Including, but not limited to:

  • American culture spread via movies, television, and music exposes other societies to American styles, attitude, values, and worldview.

STAAR Note:

On the Spring 2016 STAAR students were assessed on their knowledge about the cultural diffusion of Jazz music.
NewUS.25 The student understands how people from various groups contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:
NewUS.25D

Identify the contributions of women such as Rosa Parks, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Sonia Sotomayor to American society.


Supporting Standard

Identify

CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN TO AMERICAN SOCIETY

  • Sonia Sotomayor – first Hispanic to serve on the Supreme Court, nominated by President Obama

STAAR Note:

The 2015 STAAR assessed the significance of Shirley Chisholm’s election to Congress.
NewUS.26 The student understands the impact of science, technology, and the free enterprise system on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.26C

Describe the effect of technological innovations in the workplace such as assembly line manufacturing and robotics.


Supporting Standard

Describe

EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Innovations in technology, such as assembly line manufacturing contributed to longer workdays and higher levels of production
STAAR Note:

The 2013 STAAR connected the rise in computer use in the workplace with the need for employees to sign Internet-usage agreements.
NewUS.27 The student understands the influence of scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the free enterprise system on the standard of living in the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.27A Analyze how scientific discoveries, technological innovations, space explorations, and the application of these by the free enterprise system improve the standard of living in the United States, including changes in transportation and communication.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

HOW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES,TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS, AND SPACE EXPLORATIONS IMPROVE THE STANDARD OF LIVING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use of railroads allowed for increased access to markets at lower transportation costs, especially for the movement of agricultural products from farms to distant markets.
  • Introduction of electricity improved quality of life by bring light into homes and allowing for the use of labor saving appliances.
  • The availability of automobiles and access to mass transportation in the United States has facilitated access to jobs, retail, recreation venues as well as allowing for a wider spatial distribution of the population. The introduction of hybrid vehicles resulted in reduced fuel consumption. Users of hybrid vehicles also save on the cost of fuel. 
  • An expansion of air travel has allowed for both business and leisure travel.
  • Communication innovations starting with the telegraph and later the telephone has allowed for easier and quicker spread of information and increased connectivity between individuals. The introduction of satellite and cellular technologies has enhanced telephone service to be faster and farther reaching.
  • Access to information has been facilitated by the expansion of radio, television and computer technologies, and most significantly by the creation of the Internet.
  • Space exploration contributed to the development of new consumer products. GPS, cellular phones, plastics, high-strength textiles, polarized lenses and other products developed for space travel, have become everyday items.
  • Aerospace industry is responsible for the development of Earth-imaging technologies, remote medical diagnosis, high-resolution optical scanners, satellites, heat shielding insulating materials, and ultraviolet-filtering lenses; satellite technologies have aided in more accurate weather forecasting; climate control technology in homes has promoted energy efficiency
  • Telecommunications developed for the military have led to the widespread use of cell phones and micro-technology. The Internet developed for military use and has now spread worldwide allowing for read access to information, access to new markets, and increasing connectedness.

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed student knowledge of robotics as a technological advance.
NewUS.27B Describe how the free enterprise system drives technological innovation and its application in the marketplace such as cell phones, inexpensive personal computers, and global positioning products.
Supporting Standard

Describe

HOW THE FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM DRIVES TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • The ability for an individual to produce an idea, develop the idea, and bring the idea to market for profit continues to spur innovation and improve our standard of living. Current and ever-improving technology and accessibility of information has reduced the time cycle need to develop new products. Innovators asses current technology, determine improvements to meet demand, and then produce. This cycle is seen in the 6 months to year turn over in new cell phone, computer, and global positioning products.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:

These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
NewUS.28C Apply the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence.

Apply

PROCESS OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating a compelling question
  • Analyzing sources by close reading, contextualizing, sourcing, and corroborating
  • Synthesizing information from sources
  • Developing conclusions based on evidence from sources
  • Reporting conclusions
NewUS.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context.
Process Standard

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author.
  • Examining historical context or the time in which the author lived, along with frame of reference or the life experiences of the author are important for understanding the influences on the author’s point of view.
NewUS.28E Identify bias and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Identify, Support

POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical interpretations, considered as a point of view on a social studies issues or event should be supported by evidence.
NewUS.29 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewUS.29A Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewUS.29B Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28A Analyze primary and secondary sources such as maps, graphs, speeches, political cartoons, and artifacts to acquire information to answer historical questions.
Process Standard

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION AND ANSWER HISTORICAL QUESITONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
STAAR Note:

These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards
NewUS.30 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewUS.30A Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS

NewUS.30B Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS, AND DATABASES

NewUS.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewUS.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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