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Instructional Focus Document
United States History Studies Since 1877 Sequential
TITLE : Unit 10: A Growing World Presence – New National Directions 1970-1990 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations related to a larger role the United States played in international affairs from 1970-1990 and the domestic challenges faced by the Nixon, Carter, and Reagan administrations. This unit is primarily a study of foreign relations and responses to the social changes. The decades of 1970s and 1980s were characterized by increasing globalization and with that a growing presence of the United States in international affairs. It is during this period that President Nixon reestablished relations with China and negotiated détente with the Soviet Union. It is during President Carter’s administration that U.S. involvement in the Middle East increased as officials sought to protect the sovereignty of Israel while also forging relations with oil-producing nations in the region. Carter was instrumental in negotiating the Camp David Accords, to only later be consumed by the Iran Hostage Crisis in 1979. President Reagan was committed to the United States being the defender of democracy and freedom in the world. It was during his administration that the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union transformed as the Soviet system began to collapse, yet the final end of the Cold War came during the presidency of George H.W. Bush.

Domestically the time period was characterized by many challenges including the Watergate scandal, economic stagflation of the 1970s, and an energy crisis. The decades were marked by changing settlement patterns, a growing environmentalist movement, and the resurgence of political conservatism.  An examination of the 1970s-1990 in U.S. history is important for understanding the complexity of American international relationships and policies.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students focused on events related to the Civil Rights Movement.

During this Unit

During this unit students learn about the increasing complexity of the political and economic relationships with China, the Soviet Union, and nations in the Middle East, especially with the presidencies of Nixon, Carter and Reagan. Students also study the economic changes, the growing environmentalism, and the political resurgence of conservatism that characterized the 1970s-1990. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by: 1) acquiring information from various sources, 2) identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, 3) evaluating sources for bias and validity, and 4) supporting conclusions with evidence. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study the emerging political, economic and social issues that arise in the United States at the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century.


Interactions among humans lead to change.

  • How does the world change as people become more connected?

Change creates anxiety for those who want to preserve the status quo. 

  • How do people react to changes that are perceived to threaten their current way of life?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

President Nixon was pivotal in normalizing relations with China and negotiating détente with the Soviets, yet his presidency was tarnished by the Watergate scandal.

  • Why did President Nixon seek to strengthen the relationship of the United States with both China and the Soviet Union?
  • How was the Watergate scandal resolved and what effect did it have on the American public?

Historical Processes

  • Interdependence

Civic Engagement

  • Laws, Rules, Political Processes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

During the 1970s, the relationship between the United States and countries in the Middle East became more complex.

  • Why did U.S. intervention in the Middle East escalate?
  • What was significant about the Camp David Accords and what role did President Jimmy Carter perform in these negotiations?
  • What events led to the Iran Hostage Crisis and what effect did the crisis have on U.S. involvement in the Middle East?

Historical Processes

  • Interdependence
  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

President Reagan introduced economic policy changes, advocated for “peace through strength”, and dealt with continued issues in the Middle East, including the Iran-Contra Affair.

  • What economic policy changes were made by President Reagan and what effect did these changes have?
  • What role did President Reagan have in the fall of communism in Eastern Europe?
  • How did President Reagan respond to the bombing of U.S. Marine barracks in Lebanon?
  • What was significant about the Iran-Contra Affair?

Historical Processes

  • Interdependence

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Economic Patterns

  • Scarcity/Choices
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

In the midst of a resurgence of conservatism during the 1970s-1990s, the United States experienced changing settlement patterns, growing environmentalism, a health epidemic, and increasing technological sophistication.

  • What economic changes facilitated the migration of businesses to the South?
  • What government policies were enacted to protect the environment?
  • What key organizations and leaders rose to prominence in the conservative movement during the 1970s-1990s?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration

Historical Processes

  • Interdependence
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Whole Unit Performance Task:

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

conservatism – philosophical perspective advocating for tradition and limited change
liberalism – philosophical perspective advocating for changes to the status quo to ensure individual rights and freedoms for all
normalization – to resume relationships between countries that have previously been isolated from one another
détente – negotiating between hostile countries to reduce tensions

Related Vocabulary

  • OPEC
  • Rust Belt
  •  GATT
  •  Reaganomics
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
NewUS.2 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.2A Identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics.
Readiness Standard

Identify, Describe

MAJOR ERAS IN U.S. HISTORY FROM 1877 TO PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1970-1990 – this era in U.S. history was characterized by the increasing involvement of the United States in international affairs, notably the opening of relations with China and advancing a presence in the Middle East; a resurgence of political conservatism marked the time period; economically the period saw the rise of inflation and unemployment in the 1970s, the introduction of Reaganomics in the 1980s

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed the 1960s as an era characterized by counter revolution, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights movement, and the Space Race.
NewUS.10 The student understands the impact of political, economic, and social factors in the U.S. from the 1970s through 1990. The student is expected to:
NewUS.10A Describe Richard M. Nixon's leadership in the normalization of relations with China and the policy of détente.
Supporting Standard

Describe

RICHARD M. NIXON'S LEADERSHIP IN THE NORMALIZATION OF RELATIONS WITH CHINA AND THE POLICY OF DÉTENTE

Including, but not limited to:

  • President Nixon was instrumental in bridging the gap in relations between the United States and the People’s Republic of China. President Nixon’s visit to China in 1972 was the first by a U.S. President and led to the thawing of relations and opening of communications between the two countries. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger applied “triangular diplomacy” encouraging competition between China and the Soviet Union to improve U.S. relations with both counties. Triangulation was successful in that the normalization of relations between the United States and China was instrumental in the promoting of détente between the United States and the Soviet Union, including the signing of arms reduction treaties. 
NewUS.10B Describe Ronald Reagan's leadership in domestic and international policies, including Reagan's economic policies and Peace Through Strength.
Supporting Standard

Describe

RONALD REAGAN'S LEADERSHIP IN DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL POLICIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Domestic policies
    • Ronald Reagan argued that tax cuts and financial deregulation were needed to grow the domestic economy. This policy is referred to as Reaganomics, which centered on these principles:
      • Reduce government spending
      • Reduce income and capital gains marginal tax rates
      • Reduce government regulation
      • Control the money supply to reduce inflation
  • International policies
    • Reagan supported a policy of “Peace Through Strength” which advocated for a strong military which would deter aggression against the United States and its allies. Reagan took a strong stance against communism, famously demanding that the Berlin Wall be torn down.
NewUS.10C Describe U.S. involvement in the Middle East such as support for Israel, the Camp David Accords, the Iran Hostage Crisis, Marines in Lebanon, and the Iran-Contra Affair.
Readiness Standard

Describe

U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST

Including, but not limited to:

  • The United States supported the founding of Israel and President Truman officially recognized the State of Israel. This led to the long relationship between the two nations.
  • Shortly after Israel established independence, war broke out in the region engulfing Israel in a battle with its Arab neighbors, mostly led by Egypt. In 1967 and 1973 war broke out between Israel and Arab nations in the region again and the United States began efforts to broker peace in the region.
  • The Camp David Accords – were two framework agreements signed at the White House in 1978 that led to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. The negotiations were primarily conducted by President Carter at the presidential retreat Camp David.  
  • Iran Hostage Crisis (1979) – an angry mob of students entered the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, Iran and captured 52 U.S. citizens taking them hostage for 444 days. Prior to the hostage crisis, Iran’s leader Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi had seized power (1953) with the assistance of the United States. He was an unpopular leader in Iran as a populist movement grew focused on the disparities between the rich and poor. Throughout the 1960s Iran was essentially in the midst of a revolt.  Protestors accused Pahlavi of being anti-Islamic and opposition to him grew.  In 1979 Pahlavi fled to Egypt and a popular religious cleric Ayatollah Khomeini came to power. U.S. support for the Shah had severely strained relations between Iran and the United States. In October of 1979 when President Carter allowed Pahlavi to enter the United States for medical treatment, it angered the Iranian public. In November the U.S. Embassy was overrun and the hostage crisis ensued.  President Carter immediately imposed economic sanctions on Iran to pressure for the release of the hostages. Negotiations to release the hostages lasted until the final hours of Carter’s presidency with the release finally coming on the day Ronald Reagan was sworn into office.
  • President Reagan placed U.S. Marines in Beirut – to help bring establish peace during the Lebanese Civil War. Barracks for U.S. Marines and French paratroopers in Beirut (1983) were bombed by terrorists resulting in the death of almost 300 U.S. and French servicemen. The U.S. Marines were stationed as part of a multinational peacekeeping force and President Reagan recalled American forces from Lebanon shortly after the attack.
  • The Iran-Contra Affair (1986) – a political scandal surrounding the illegal sale of weapons to Iran and using the money from the sales to illegally support a rebel group in Nicaragua.  The scandal stared with the covert sale of weapons to Iran via Israel in exchange for the release of American hostages held by an Iranian-supported terrorist group in Lebanon despite a Congressional embargo on such sales. Funds generated from the sale of weapons to Iran were diverted to help support the Contras in Nicaragua, even though Congress passed legislation declaring funding of the Contras illegal. The Contras were opponents of Nicaragua’s socialist Sandinista Party and from 1984 through 1986 received clandestine support from the United States. U.S. Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, an advisor on President Reagan’s National Security Council, was architect of the plan. In 1986, President Reagan and his administration were implicated in the scandal.  The legality of the transactions was investigated for eight years, eventually resulting in the indictment of several officials. In 1992, President George HW Bush issued several pardons for administration officials involved in the scandal.
NewUS.10D Describe the causes and key organizations of the conservative resurgence of the 1980s such as the Heritage Foundation and the Moral Majority.
Supporting Standard

Describe

CAUSES AND KEY ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS OF THE CONSERVATIVE RESURGENCE OF THE 1980s AND 1990s

Including, but not limited to:

Causes of the conservative resurgence of the 1980s

  • Americans wanted change after the upheaval of the 1960s and 1970s, including war in Vietnam, Watergate scandal, and a hostage crisis in Iran
  • Organization and political involvement of conservative Christians, significantly the Moral Majority who reacted to the social changes of the 1960s and 1970s, including rising divorce rates, increase drug use, expansion of women’s rights, and the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade
  • Perceptions that the federal government had grown too large in scope and size with programs like the New Deal, and the Great Society
  • TV and radio were effectively used by conservatives to reach a wide audience and craft a message

Key organization of the conservative resurgence of the 1980s

  • The Heritage Foundation – a conservative think tank based, in Washington, D.C., who has influenced national policy since President Reagan. Their stated mission is to “formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.”
  • The Moral Majority – a political organization founded in 1979 by conservative Christian preacher, Jerry Falwell. The organization promoted traditional values, blended politics with religious beliefs, raised funds to support political candidates, and campaigned for political candidates, including Ronald Reagan.
NewUS.10E Describe significant societal issues of this time period such as the War on Drugs and the AIDS epidemic.
Supporting Standard

Describe

SIGNIFICANT SOCIETAL ISSUES OF THIS TIME PERIOD

Including, but not limited to:

  • War on Drugs – a government initiative to curb the use of illegal drugs by targeting suppliers and illegal drug uses. The initiative began with a formal announcement from President Nixon in 1971. Funding for federal drug-control agencies was increased and the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) was created. In the late 1970s the effort waned. President Ronald Reagan revived the commitment to the War on Drugs, as first lady Nancy Reagan launched the “Just Say No” campaign. The campaign was intended to educate youth on the dangers of drug use. Legislation for mandatory sentencing was introduced as a remedy and resulted in a significant increase in incarcerations for nonviolent drug related crimes, especially affecting large number of African America males. Public opinion about the success of the War on Drugs is divided.
  • AIDS epidemic – AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is responsible for having claimed over thirty million people worldwide. In the early 1980s it came to the attention of doctors in San Francisco and New York among their homosexual patients and later injection drug users. As the number of victims including celebrities, those who had received drug transfusions, and heterosexuals grew, the public became alarmed. Complications from AIDS-related illnesses was a leading cause of death for adults 25-44 by 1995. The medical community responded with research and educational campaigns intended to prevent the spread. As AIDS became a controversial issue, emergency workers in the health professions worried about contracting the disease, misinformation about the disease spread concerns, and some blamed AIDS victims,. Successful research has resulted in the development of drugs that help reduce the virus in one’s body, yet no cure has been found.

STAAR Note:

The 2017 STAAR assessed students’ knowledge of the origin of Earth Day on April 22, 1970.

The 2018 STARR assessed students’ knowledge of the concerns in the 1970s about the growing shortage of oil. 
NewUS.13 The student understands the causes and effects of migration and immigration on American society. The student is expected to:
NewUS.13A

Analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from migration within the United States, including western expansion, rural to urban, the Great Migration, and the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt.


Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CHANGING DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERNS RESULTING FROM MIGRATION WITHIN THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Rust Belt to Sun Belt (1970s)
    • Cause: loss of manufacturing jobs in the Northeast and Midwest; invention of air conditioning made relocation to the South more attractive; increased availability of water created by dams supported larger population growth in the South
    • Effect: increase population growth in the West and South; increase political representation from the West and South, declining population growth in the North and Midwest
NewUS.14 The student understands the relationship between population growth and the physical environment. The student is expected to:
NewUS.14B

Identify the roles of governmental entities and private citizens in managing the environment such as the establishment of the National Park System, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Endangered Species Act.


Supporting Standard

Identify

ROLES OF GOVERNMENTAL ENTITIES AND PRIVATE CITIZENS IN MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – established in 1970 due to elevated concern about environmental pollution. EPA's mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment- air, water, and land.
  • Endangered Species Act – the Endangered Species Act of 1973 provides for both the conservation and protection of plant and animal species that face the threat of extinction, as well as for "the ecosystems upon which they depend."
NewUS.17 The student understands the economic effects of government policies from World War II through the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.17E

Describe the dynamic relationship between U.S. international trade policies and the U.S. free enterprise system such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo, the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).


Readiness Standard

Describe

DYNAMIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN U.S. INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICIES AND FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • OPEC – Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; consists of 14 member countries; primary goal is to stabilize the oil market by balancing supply and demand; OPEC’s oil embargo in 1973 caused a shortage in the United States that resulted in rationing and long lines at gas pumps
NewUS.18 The student understands changes over time in the role of government. The student is expected to:
NewUS.18C

Describe the effects of political scandals, including Teapot Dome, Watergate, and Bill Clinton's impeachment, on the views of U.S. citizens concerning trust in the federal government and its leaders.


Supporting Standard

Describe

EFFECTS OF POLITICAL SCANDALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Watergate – scandal concerning the burglary of the Democratic National Committee’s headquarters in the Watergate building. The story was brought to public attention by two Washington Post reporters whose investigation eventually revealed a cover up of the burglary by officials in the Nixon administration and orchestrated by President Nixon.  Senate hearings related to the scandal captivated the American public who watched the hearings on TV throughout the summer of 1973. The introduction of articles of impeachment in the House of Representatives precipitated President Nixon’s resignation August 9, 1974. The scandal marked a turning point in American attitudes towards government and politics, resulting in a cynicism towards government still evident today.
NewUS.18D

Describe the role of contemporary government legislation in the private and public sectors such as the Community Reinvestment Act of 1977, USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.


Supporting Standard

Describe

ROLE OF CONTEMPORARY GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION IN THE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 – encouraged banks and savings associations to meet the needs of borrowers in their local communities. This was an effort to reduce discriminatory practices against low and moderate-income neighborhoods.

STAAR Note:

On the 2015 STAAR the government loan given to the Chrysler Corporation by President Carter was used as an example of the role of contemporary government legislation. These types of loans are intended to protect against the potential job losses that may accompany the collapse of a major industry.

NewUS.23 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
NewUS.23A

Evaluate the contributions of significant political and social leaders in the United States such as Andrew Carnegie, Thurgood Marshall, Billy Graham, Sandra Day O'Connor, and Hillary Clinton.


Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL AND SOCIAL LEADERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Billy Graham – a powerful evangelical preacher; conducted many evangelistic crusades and counseled several U.S. Presidents from Truman through Obama
  • Sandra Day O’Connor – first woman to be appointed to the Supreme Court (1981) often giving the swing vote in important cases

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2013 STAAR assessed that Franklin D. Roosevelt-delivered evening radio speeches (Fireside Chats) to reassure the public during the Great Depression as a significant contribution by a political figure.

NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28A Analyze primary and secondary sources such as maps, graphs, speeches, political cartoons, and artifacts to acquire information to answer historical questions.
Process Standard

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION AND ANSWER HISTORICAL QUESITONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
STAAR Note:

These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards
NewUS.28B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:

These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
NewUS.29 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewUS.29A Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewUS.29B Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28C Apply the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence.

Apply

PROCESS OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating a compelling question
  • Analyzing sources by close reading, contextualizing, sourcing, and corroborating
  • Synthesizing information from sources
  • Developing conclusions based on evidence from sources
  • Reporting conclusions
NewUS.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context.
Process Standard

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author.
  • Examining historical context or the time in which the author lived, along with frame of reference or the life experiences of the author are important for understanding the influences on the author’s point of view.
NewUS.28E Identify bias and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Identify, Support

POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical interpretations, considered as a point of view on a social studies issues or event should be supported by evidence.
NewUS.30 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewUS.30A Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS

NewUS.30B Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS, AND DATABASES

NewUS.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewUS.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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