Hello, Guest!

Instructional Focus Document
United States History Studies Since 1877
TITLE : Unit 08: Differing Ideologies – The Cold War 1945-1970s SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address issues surrounding Cold War policies both domestic and foreign as well as the prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s in the United States. This unit is primarily a study of responses to perceived threats. Following the Second World War, Americans experienced an economic boom characterized by increased consumer consumption and economic growth fueled by advances in science and technology. In the midst of this economic prosperity, the United States and the Soviet Union were poised in an ideological struggle termed a “cold war”. The two former allies emerged from the Second World War as superpowers with competing ideologies – the United States committed to freedom and democracy and the Soviet Union committed to the spread of communism. U.S. policy to contain the spread of communism manifested itself in providing aid to western European nations, forming the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and entering the Korean conflict.  At the height of the Cold War U.S. officials responded to communist threats in Cuba, and deployed American military forces to fight in Vietnam. Domestic national security concerns about the spread of communism resulted in Congressional investigations along with the accusations of “un-American” actions on the part of some Americans. An examination of the Cold War is important for understanding how policy can be used to shape the response to national threats and when military intervention is necessary.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about United States involvement in the Second World War.

During this Unit

During this unit, students examine the Cold War policies developed to address Soviet aggression and the involvement of the United States in Korea; the economic prosperity of the 1950s and 1960s; the domestic issues surrounding the Cold War; and the fighting of the Vietnam War along with the public response to the war in Vietnam. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by: 1) acquiring information from various sources, 2) identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, 3) evaluating sources for bias and validity, and 4) supporting conclusions with evidence. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students learn about the expansion of democratic rights in the United States with the Civil Rights Movement of the latter half of the twentieth century.


Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Following the Second World War the United States responded to Soviet aggression with a containment policy that eventually resulted in military involvement in Korea.

  • What foreign policies were developed to address Soviet aggression in Europe?
  • What was characteristic of the U.S. occupation of Germany?
  • How did the United States respond to the blockade of Berlin?
  • Why was the Berlin Wall built?
  • Why did the United States become involved in the Korean conflict and what was the outcome of the conflict?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

America in the 1950s and 1960s was characterized by economic prosperity, increased consumer consumption, changing educational priorities, and advances in science and technology.

  • How did the GI Bill and defense spending affect economic growth in the 1950s and 1960s?
  • What new technology and scientific advances were made during the 1950s and 1960s?
  • What changes were made to American education during the Cold War era?
  • How did economic prosperity impact settlement patterns in the 1950s and 1960s?

Economic Patterns

  • Resources
  • Factors of Production

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Exploration
  • Transportation
  • Infrastructure
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Cold War tensions were intensified by an arms race, the space race, McCarthyism, and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

  • Why did an arms race and space race between the Soviet Union and the United States intensify in the 1960s?
  • What was significant about the House Un-American Activities Committee’s work?
  • How did President Kennedy respond to the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

United States involvement in Vietnam in the 1960s divided the nation culturally and politically.

  • Why did the United States become involved in fighting in Vietnam?
  • What role did the media play in Americans’ response to the Vietnam War?
  • In what ways did the American public respond to U.S. involvement in Vietnam?
  • How were mainstream culture and counter culture of the 1950s and 1960s reflected in music, art, and literature?
  • What is the legacy of the Vietnam War?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies

Cultural Patterns

  • Artistic Expressions
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Whole Unit Performance Task:

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may not be familiar with the distinction between the historic Soviet Union and the current Russian Federation.

Unit Vocabulary

containment – policy focused on stopping the territorial spread of communism
communism – political and economic system characterized by centralized government control of property and society
prosperity – flourishing economic activity resulting in wealth for a large number of people
ideology – guiding principles and beliefs
Vietnamization – policy advocating for South Vietnam to take over the fighting in Vietnam, in order for US troops to withdraw
Silent Majority – a reference by President Nixon to describe who he considered to be a large number of people that are not vocal about their support of U.S. foreign and domestic policies
counterculture – refers to those who adopt ideas and lifestyles which differ from the mainstream culture
domino theory – a foreign policy theory asserting that when communism spreads to a new nation, it will eventually infect neighboring nations

Related Vocabulary

  • escalation
  • Baby Boom
  • credibility gap
  • airlift
  •  quarantine
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
NewUS.2 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.2A Identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics.

Identify, Describe

MAJOR ERAS IN U.S. HISTORY FROM 1877 TO PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cold War – this era of U.S. history was characterized by heightened tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union and spans from the end of the Second World War through the 1980s; politically the policy of containment influenced many of the events of the time period, including the formation of NATO, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Berlin Airlift and the decisions to go to war in Korea and Vietnam; the period was marked by intense competition between the United States and the Soviet Union which triggered an arms race and a space race; domestic efforts to address communism gave rise to McCarthyism; social protest about the war in Vietnam divided the nation

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed the 1960s as an era characterized by counter revolution, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights movement, and the Space Race.
NewUS.2B

Explain the significance of the following years as turning points: 1898 (Spanish-American War), 1914-1918 (World War I), 1929 (the Great Depression begins), 1939-1945 (World War II), 1957 (Sputnik launch ignites U.S.-Soviet space race), 1968 (Martin Luther King, Jr. assassination), 1969 (U.S. lands on the moon), 1991 (Cold War ends), 2001 (terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon), and 2008 (election of first black president, Barack Obama).

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES AS TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1957 – Sputnik launch ignites United States – Soviet space race
    • A sense of urgency grows to compete with the Soviet Union
    • Funding towards education in mathematics and science increased
    • Federal government establishes National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958 for the purposes of exploring space
  • 1969 – U.S. astronauts land on the moon
NewUS.8 The student understands the impact of significant national and international decisions and conflicts in the Cold War on the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.8A Describe U.S. responses to Soviet aggression after World War II, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Berlin airlift, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and John F. Kennedy's role in the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Describe

U.S. RESPONSES TO SOVIET AGGRESSION AFTER WORLD WAR II

Including, but not limited to:

  • Soviet Aggression – between 1918 to 1920 communists defeated anti-communists in Russia. In 1922 the communists created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or the Soviet Union). European countries and the United States feared that communist expansion threatened established governments particularly democratic governments. Following World War II, communists sought to take over Greece and to establish an airbase in Turkey. Soviet communists were successful in establishing puppet governments throughout Eastern Europe, resulting in what Winston Churchill described as an “iron curtain” between democratic Western European nations and communist-controlled Eastern European nations. Soviet aggression was physically symbolized by the Berlin Wall. The wall was constructed in 1961 by the Soviet-backed East German government (GDR) to halt the flow of human resources from the East to the West.
  • Containment – a U.S. policy regarding the Soviet Union’s influence and preventing the spread of its communist influence throughout the world
  • Truman Doctrine – (1947) policy of the Truman administration to support Greece and Turkey with military and economic aid to enable them to “survive as a free nation.” Several policies of President Harry S. Truman were directed at containing Soviet (communist) aggression, and he persuaded Congress that this was a global struggle of freedom over communism. Truman believed that the United States should support “free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures,” a belief that was the basis of his Truman Doctrine, and which guided American foreign policy for many years
  • Marshall Plan – in 1947 Secretary of State George Marshall proposed an economic program to contain communism; Marshall’s plan was enacted as law by Congress and subsequently provided economic aid to Europe; the infusion of money into Europe helped to generate trade and increase ties between the United States and European nations, stabilized democratic institutions, facilitated economic recovery in Europe, and provided assistance to rebuild factories;  Marshall was awarded the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize for the plan
  • Berlin Airlift – in 1948-1949 during the Communist blockade of West Berlin, British and U.S. planes flew humanitarian supplies into Berlin for nearly a year
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – in 1948 Stalin attempted to eliminate involvement of the West in Berlin and enacted the Berlin blockade. This prompted the United States to join Canada, Iceland, and nine other western European nations in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Each pledged loyalty to the other in case of attack
  • Cuban Missile Crisis – U.S. spy planes discovered the Soviets placing missiles in Cuba. President John F. Kennedy imposed a “quarantine” or naval blockade to halt further missile installation. During the October 1962 crisis, President Kennedy warned Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev that an attack launched on the United States from missiles based in Cuba would be considered an attack from the Soviet Union. Negotiations between the Soviets and the United States eventually resulted in the removal of the missiles.  In 1963 Kennedy secured a nuclear test-ban treaty with the Soviets. Direct communication between the White House and the Kremlin was enacted so the nations’ leaders could communicate in times of crisis.
NewUS.8B Describe how Cold War tensions were intensified by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), McCarthyism, the arms race, and the space race.

Describe

HOW COLD WAR TENSIONS WERE INTENSIFIED

Including, but not limited to:

  • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) – an investigative committee of the U.S. House of Representatives created in 1938 to inquire into subversive activities in the United States and was abolished in 1975. In the mid-1940s, the committee focused its investigations on searching for communists in the United States. Most famous for investigating Alger Hiss and for the “blacklisting” of many Hollywood actors in response to a fear that communists could infiltrate the American entertainment industry. The committee is often inaccurately associated with Joseph McCarthy, who was a Senator; McCarthy chaired the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations 1953-1954
  • McCarthyism – term coined by political cartoonist Herbert Block (Herblock) in a 1950 cartoon in reference to Senator Joseph McCarthy (R, Wisconsin, 1947-1957). The fear of communism (a second Red Scare) increased throughout the 1950s; extreme opposition to communism gained the name “McCarthyism” from the efforts of Senator McCarthy who, in 1950, announced that communists worked in the State Department. He worked to identify known communists and accused others based on association
  • Arms Race – the U.S. acquisition of atomic weapons technology during the Second World War catapulted the United States to superpower status; in 1949 the Soviet Union became a superpower after testing an atomic device; as ideological rivals the Unites States and the Soviet Union competed in an arms race for nearly 50 years; each worked to build the most powerful military forces and the largest stockpile of weapons; in the United States the arms race prompted fear of nuclear attack leading some Americans to build bomb shelters and stockpile supplies
  • Space Race – began with the Soviet launch of Sputnik I in 1957; the Soviet Union launch of the first spacecraft to orbit the Earth led to the creation of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) along with increased funding for math and science education as the United States strived to become and remain technologically superior; the first U.S. manned space flight took place in 1961 when Alan Shepard commanded the first manned Mercury mission; the first U.S. manned spacecraft to orbit the Earth was Friendship 7, commanded by John Glenn, February 20, 1962
NewUS.8C Explain reasons and outcomes for U.S. involvement in the Korean War and its relationship to the containment policy.

Explain

REASONS AND OUTCOMES FOR U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN THE KOREAN WAR AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE CONTAINMENT POLICY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Korean War (1951-1953) – following the Second World War, the Korean peninsula was divided into Soviet occupied territory in the north and U.S. occupied territory in the south. In 1950, following the withdrawal of Soviet and U.S. troops, communist troops from North Korea with aid from the Soviet Union invaded South Korea. The United States committed troops to a United Nations led intervention to defend South Korea as a part of U.S. containment policy, yet public sentiment on American involvement differed greatly. UN forces successfully pushed North Korean forces to the Chinese border at the Yalu River, prompting the Chinese to cross into North Korea to engage UN forces. A cease-fire was signed in 1953 with the two regions remaining divided at the 38th parallel. North Korea remained communist and South Korea instituted democratic political structures.  
  • The conflict created more friction between the United States and the Soviet Union; concern over a domino effect resulting in the spread of communism throughout Southeast Asia emerged
NewUS.8D Explain reasons and outcomes for U.S. involvement in foreign countries and their relationship to the Domino Theory, including the Vietnam War.

Explain

REASONS AND OUTCOMES FOR U.S INVOLVEMENT IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE DOMINO THEORY

Including, but not limited to:

Reasons for U.S. involvement in foreign countries during the Cold War

  • Truman Doctrine – foreign policy established by President Truman asserting that the United States would provide assistance to all democratic nations threatened by authoritarian forces; policy originated with Truman’s request to provide assistance to the Greek government in the midst of a civil war in 1947 against the Greek Communist Party; Truman argued that the assistance was needed because the British had stopped giving support to both Greece and Turkey making the region vulnerable to the spread of communism; reoriented foreign policy from one in which the United States tried to avoid foreign entanglements to one of possible intervention in foreign conflicts
  • Containment policy – became the cornerstone of U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union from 1947-1989; advocated for a long-term, patient, and vigilant effort to stop the spread of communism; basis for U.S. involvement in Cuba and Korea in the 1950s, Vietnam in the 1960s, Afghanistan in the 1970s, and Nicaragua in the 1980s, along with the 1948-1949 Berlin Airlift, covert operations in Iran in 1953 to overthrow the Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh, and Suez Canal Crisis in 1956
  • Marshall Plan – provided funding to Western European nations to assist with rebuilding after the Second World War
  • Domino theory – phrase coined by President Eisenhower suggesting that the fall of French Indochina to communist control would ultimately result in the spread of communism throughout Southeast Asia; the domino theory dominated concerns U.S. officials had about Vietnam and was used to justify involvement in the region

Outcomes of U.S. involvement in foreign countries during the Cold War

  • Creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to counterbalance communist threat of the Soviet Union in Europe
  • Passage of the National Security Act of 1947 resulting in the reorganization of the foreign policy and military establishments of the U.S. government, including the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  • Loss of American lives in Korean and Vietnam conflicts
  • Stability for post war recovery in France, Britain, and Japan
  • Growth of military industrial complex in the United States to produce for possible military actions
  • Solidification of United States role as a superpower
  • Alliances at times with oppressive or autocratic leaders who opposed communism, such as Batista in Cuba and the Shah in Iran
NewUS.8E Analyze the major events of the Vietnam War, including the escalation of forces, the Tet Offensive, Vietnamization, and the fall of Saigon.

Analyze

MAJOR EVENTS OF THE VIETNAM WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • French left Vietnam after being defeated at Dien Bien Phu by Ho Chi Minh’s nationalist forces
  • President Eisenhower fearing spread of communism to Vietnam sent advisors to train South Vietnamese forces in 1956
  • Numbers of American forces and military advisors in Vietnam increases during the Kennedy administration
  • By the time Johnson came to office, following the assassination of JFK, the situation in Vietnam had deteriorated with South Vietnam experiencing a military coup, and public support for the war was already beginning to wane
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) – Congressional approval given to President Johnson stating that  "Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repeal any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent any further aggression"; resulted in an expansion of the war in Vietnam; by the summer of 1964 rebel forces controlled much of South Vietnam leading some in the United States to call for more aggressive actions in Vietnam; August 2, 1964 the U.S. destroyer Maddox reported being fired upon by North Vietnamese torpedo boats; days later the Maddox and other boats report being attacked; President Johnson used the reports to sway congressional leaders ultimately getting the joint resolution passed and effectively giving the President power to pursue military action without a declaration of war
  • Escalation of forces (1964-1968)  – increase of U.S. forces by President Lyndon B. Johnson
  • Tet Offensive (1968) – full-scale offensive initiated by the North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong to attack the strategic targets in South Vietnam on the Vietnamese New Year or Tet; the attacks resulted in heavy losses for U.S. and South Vietnamese troops and demonstrated that the capabilities of the North Vietnamese troops were stronger than the Johnson administration claimed; media reports of the offensive made victory in Vietnam seem more improbable and public support for the war weakened as protests intensified; military leaders asked for more troops, Johnson responded by announcing that the bombing of North Vietnam above the 20th parallel would cease; marked a turning point away from escalation and most likely impacted Johnson’s decision to not seek a second term as president
  • Vietnamization – change in U.S. military policy in Vietnam instituted by President Nixon aimed at ending U.S. involvement in the war; policy focused on equipping, training, and giving more responsibility for combat actions to local South Vietnamese forces as U.S. ground forces started to be drawn down and transitioned to more of an advisory role; by 1970 the war in Vietnam had expanded to include bombings in Cambodia and Laos even as plans were being made to withdraw troops and end the war
  • Fall of Saigon –  on April 30, 1975 the war in Vietnam effectively ended when North Vietnamese forces breached the gates of the Presidential Palace in Saigon; from 1969 - Jan 1973 the Nixon administration had worked to negotiate a peace settlement with North Vietnam, yet neither side held to the commitments reached; for some time U.S. troops had been evacuating making it easy for the North Vietnamese troops to advance on the city of Saigon in March of 1975; small numbers of Americans left Saigon in March and in April the pace of evacuations increased ; initially the evacuations were slowed when many Americans refused to leave Vietnamese friends and dependents behind; beginning on April 29 and into the next morning the final evacuation of the U.S. embassy involved a 19 hour operation of 81 helicopters successively landing on the embassy roof; more than 1,000 Americans and 5,000 Vietnamese were evacuated in what is the largest helicopter evacuation on record
NewUS.8F Describe the responses to the Vietnam War such as the draft, the 26th Amendment, the role of the media, the credibility gap, the silent majority, and the anti-war movement.

Describe

RESPONSES TO THE VIETNAM WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • Draft – in response to an increase of U.S. military presence in Southeast Asia, the draft was reinstituted during the war ; college campuses became focal points in many anti-draft protests; many opposed to the draft expressed concerns about the over-representation of less affluent and less educated in the combat ranks; eventually draft calls were suspended in January 1973
  • 26th Amendment – reduced the voting age from 21 to 18. This gave the young men being drafted to fight in Vietnam a way to influence policies that affected them.
  • Role of the media – the media is embedded in Vietnam providing real-time coverage of the war. Media coverage contributed to changing public opinions about the war.
  • Credibility gap – refers to the public's skepticism over President Johnson’s administration’s statements and policies on the Vietnam War
  • Silent majority – term coined by President Nixon to represent the large number of Americans that were not joining in the protest movements or speaking out against the war in Vietnam
  • Anti-war movement – peace movement of the 1960s advocated the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam and the end to the draft; staged many large protest demonstrations especially at the end of the 1960s and in the early 1970s;  those opposed to the war were sometimes referred to as “Doves”, while advocates of war were sometimes referred to as “Hawks”; much of the anti-war movement was vocal on college campuses with sit-ins, teach-ins, strikes, and large demonstrations; after the killing of four students at Kent State in 1970 by National Guard soldiers during an anti-war demonstration the anti-war movement intensified
NewUS.14 The student understands the relationship between population growth and the physical environment. The student is expected to:
NewUS.14A Identify the effects of population growth and distribution on the physical environment.

Identify

EFFECTS OF POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION ON THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Urbanization as workers migrated to cities in search of jobs
  • Cities became polluted; waterways contaminated; air quality diminished; ecosystems disrupted
  • Urban sprawl; growth of suburbs
  • Settlement in animal habitats; deforestation
  • Increased demand for resources especially water and energy,  resulting in the building of dams
  • Building of railroads, roads, and infrastructure to meet transportation and communication needs
  • Increased demand for food resulting in the conversion of natural habitats to farmland
  • Establishment of the National Park System to protect land from population growth
  • Creation of private nonprofit organizations dedicated to protecting the physical environment

STAAR Note:

The 2017 STAAR assessed student’s knowledge with a display of two photographs related to urbanization in Miami from 1913 and 1997.
NewUS.17 The student understands the economic effects of government policies from World War II through the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.17B Identify the causes of prosperity in the 1950s, including the Baby Boom and the impact of the GI Bill (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944), and the effects of prosperity in the 1950s such as increased consumption and the growth of agriculture and business.

Identify

CAUSES OF PROSPERITY IN THE 1950s

Including, but not limited to:

  • Baby Boom – with the increase in marriages and general prosperity came a demand for housing, federal highway construction, new industries, and increased military spending all of which helped create jobs
  • Impact of the GI Bill (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944) – provided federal aid to help veterans adjust to civilian life in the areas of hospitalization, purchase of homes and businesses, and especially, education. The Federal Government subsidized tuition, fees, books, and educational materials for veterans and contributed to living expenses incurred while attending college or other approved institutions. Resulted in increased home ownership.
  • Effects of prosperity in the 1950s
    • Increased consumption – in part due to increase in population and growing middle class with an increased disposable income combined with an expanding economy and increased employment opportunities
    • Growth of agriculture and business – in part due to increase in population, technological improvements
    • Increased suburbanization – resulted from increased demand for housing, mass development of housing coupled with greater use of automobiles and improved infrastructure
NewUS.17C Describe the economic impact of defense spending on the business cycle and education priorities from 1945 to the 1990s.

Describe

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF DEFENSE SPENDING ON THE BUSINESS CYCLE AND EDUCATION PRIORITIES FROM 1945 TO THE 1990s

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cold War fueled businesses, especially high tech industries and research and development (e.g., Rand Corp.) and steadily increased government defense spending.
  • Cold War led to creation of a huge national security apparatus
  • Military Industrial Complex and weapons of mass destruction, NASA, Space Race
  • NDEA – National Defense Education Act (passed in 1958) in response to the launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union (education priorities were focused on math and science)
NewUS.18 The student understands changes over time in the role of government. The student is expected to:
NewUS.18B

Explain constitutional issues raised by federal government policy changes during times of significant events, including World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the 1960s, and September 11, 2001.

Explain

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT POLICY CHANGES DURING TIMES OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

 

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1960s
    • The debate regarding the Gulf of Tonkin incident caused the creation of the War Powers Act, which placed restrictions on the executive branch’s ability to send American troops into combat. Related to the constitutional issues of separation of powers.
    • The release by the New York Times of the Pentagon Papers, which provided statistics from the Vietnam War, revealed that the federal government had underreported casualty rates. The release of classified information resulted in a debate about freedom of the press.
NewUS.19 The student understands the changing relationships among the three branches of the federal government. The student is expected to:
NewUS.19A Describe the impact of events such as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and the War Powers Act on the relationship between the legislative and executive branches of government.

Describe

IMPACT OF EVENTS ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE BRANCHES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Johnson authorization to use conventional military force in Southeast Asia without a formal declaration of war by Congress.
  • Without a formal declaration of war in the Korean and Vietnam conflicts, many legislators became concerned that the power of Congress to declare war was being appropriated by the executive branch. Congress attempted to remedy this with the passage of the War Powers Act (1973), which requires the President to seek authorization for long-term commitments of troops into combat areas.

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2016 STAAR assessed the relationship of the legislative and executive branches in the context of government shutdowns.
NewUS.20 The student understands the impact of constitutional issues on American society. The student is expected to:
NewUS.20A

Analyze the effects of landmark U.S. Supreme Court decisions, including Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Hernandez v. Texas, Tinker v. Des Moines, and Wisconsin v. Yoder.

Analyze

EFFECTS OF LANDMARK U.S. SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Tinker v. Des Moines (1969) – the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that students had the right to wear armbands to school to protest the Vietnam War. It defined the constitutional rights of students (freedom of speech protected by the 1st Amendment) 
    • Effects: opened opportunities for interpretation of free speech to also mean freedom of expression

STAAR Note:

On the 2013 STAAR and 2015 STAAR, the case of Miranda v. Arizona (1966) was assessed – The U.S. Supreme court ruled that suspects must be informed of their constitutional rights (right to legal counsel, etc.) prior to being interrogated by police.

The 2017 STAAR assessed the effect of the ruling in the Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)decision.

NewUS.20B Explain why landmark constitutional amendments have been proposed and ratified from 1877 to the present.

Explain

WHY LANDMARK CONSTITUTION AMENDMENTS HAVE BEEN PROPOSED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Historically the U.S. Constitution has been amended to address governmental procedural issues or policies. Examples include the adoption of the Sixteenth Amendment (income tax), Seventeenth Amendment (direct election of Senators), Twentieth Amendment (inauguration date), Twenty-second Amendment (presidential term limits), Twenty-fifth Amendment (presidential succession) and the Twenty-seventh Amendment (legislators’ compensation).
  • Additionally the U.S. Constitution has been amended in response to changing social conditions, such as the Eighteenth Amendment’s prohibition on the sale of alcohol, the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in response to perceived government corruption and the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in response to the changing views of women in society.
  • Generally the adoption of amendments to the U.S. Constitution results in an expansion of rights such as with the Nineteenth Amendment (women’s suffrage), Twenty-third Amendment (Washington, D.C. electors), and Twenty-sixth Amendment (voting age at 18). Some amendments redress the suppression of rights, such as the Twenty-fourth Amendment ending poll taxes.  Even the Twenty-first Amendment which repealed prohibition reaffirmed the extension of rights which had been previously restricted.
NewUS.22 The student understands the promises of the Declaration of Independence and the protections of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. The student is expected to:
NewUS.22B

Evaluate various means of achieving equality of political rights, including the 19th, 24th, and 26th amendments and congressional acts such as the American Indian Citizenship Act of 1924.

Evaluate

VARIOUS MEANS OF ACHIEVING EQUALITY OF POLITICAL RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Twenty-sixth Amendment – right to vote at age 18
NewUS.23 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
NewUS.23B

Explain the importance of congressional Medal of Honor recipients such as Army First Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker, Army Corporal Alvin York, and Army Master Sergeant Raul "Roy" Perez Benavidez.

Explain

IMPORTANCE OF CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Medal of Honor recipients are recognized for their distinguished acts of valor as a U.S. military service member. The honor is awarded by the President in the name of the Congress and is considered the most esteemed personal military decoration.
  • Army Master Sergeant Raul “Roy” Benavidez (Vietnam War) – a Texan and Hispanic American hero whose unquestioned bravery and self-sacrifice in the face of incredible danger saved the lives of several of his fellow soldiers.
NewUS.24 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
NewUS.24A Describe how the characteristics and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature.

Describe

CHARACTERISTICS AND ISSUES IN U.S. HISTORY HAVE BEEN REFLECTED IN VARIOUS GENRES OF ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cold War- the Beat Generation reflected the growing tension between traditionalists and the counterculture movement. Rock and Roll music reflected the influence that African–Americans were having on culture in the United States. Some artists used their music to protest against the Vietnam War and voice their concerns about the inequalities in American society
  • 1960s- literature of the time reflected a growing environmental movement as exemplified by Rachel Carson’s work The Silent Spring, while other writers such as Joseph Heller and Kurt Vonnegut dealt with the subject of war; the Motown Sound that emerged from Detroit illustrated the contributions African Americans were making to music; other musical artists such as Jimi Hendrix exemplified the antiwar, counter-culture that was evident in the 1960’s.  A popular cultural movement in art was reflected in the works of Jackson Pollock and Andy Warhol.

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2013 STAAR included changes in fashion that reflected the times, such as 1920’s flappers, 1960’s counterculture, 1980’s “preppy”

The Spring 2015 STAAR included Woodstock festival as an event that showcased protest music
NewUS.24B

Describe the impacts of cultural movements in art, music, and literature such as Tin Pan Alley, the Harlem Renaissance, the Beat Generation, rock and roll, the Chicano Mural Movement, and country and western music on American society.

Describe

IMPACTS OF SIGNIFICANT EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MOVEMENTS IN ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Beat Generation – also known as the Beat movement, were a group of American writers who emerged in the 1950s. Elements of "Beat" culture embraced originality and individuality in the way people thought and acted.
  • Rock and roll – a form of popular music that evolved in the 1950's from rhythm and blues; characterized by the use of electric guitars, a strong rhythm with an accent on the off-beat (syncopation), and youth-oriented lyrics. It characterized a generational divide between youths and adults.
  • Chicano Mural Movement – beginning in the 1960s, artists began using the walls of city buildings, housing projects, schools, and churches to depict Mexican-American cultural pride.
  • Country and western music – rooted in British folk music blended with local cultural traditions in the South and Appalachia. It emerged beginning in the 1920s and rose in popularity after the Second World War starting with small radio stations scattered across the rural South and West. By the 1970s, country and western music was entering mainstream popular music and blended several genres (gospel, jazz, blues, and folk) of music to form the distinct sound of  American country music; the themes and subject matter of country and western music was often viewed as relatable to average Americans especially those in rural areas
NewUS.26 The student understands the impact of science, technology, and the free enterprise system on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.26A

Explain the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as electric power, telephone and satellite communications, petroleum-based products, steel production, and computers on the economic development of the United States.

Explain

EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Satellite communications
    • First used in the 1960’s to facilitate long-distance telephone communications resulting in expanded markets
    • Later applied to transmission of television signals, allowing for the growth of advertisement
    • Most recently used to broadcast digital radio signals, and facilitate connectivity to the Internet, creating new industries, new platforms for advertising, and expanding markets
    • The resulting increased efficiencies in telecommunications has promoted a higher standard of living in the United States
  • Petroleum-based products
    • Edwin L. Drake struck oil in 1859, enabling kerosene production and paving the way for future products such as gasoline.
    • Later invention of the internal-combustion engine fueled by gasoline, improved transportation allowing for expanded markets and lower transportation costs
  • Computers
    • First conceptualized in the early 1900s, development continued with the first consumer computers available in the 1970s generally used by businesses, and later in the 1980s personal computers were introduced
    • Allows for storing massive amounts of data, processing of information, and communicating faster
    • Replaced many larger devices, created new industries and new jobs, changed the nature of education, allows for delivery of information from long-distance
    • Allows for work to be produced in remote areas, increasing telecommuting and job-sharing
    • Greatly expanded markets and changed the nature of consumerism with the introduction of the Internet

STAAR Note:

The 2017 STAAR assessed students’ knowledge of wind power as a renewable resource.
NewUS.26B Explain how specific needs result in scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture, the military, and medicine.

Explain

HOW SPECIFIC NEEDS RESULT IN SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS IN AGRICULTRE, THE MILITARY, AND MEDICINE

The adage “necessity is the mother of invention” is the central premise of the expectation. When confronted with a challenge, some individuals and governments turn to innovation and technological advances to overcome the challenge.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Agriculture
    • The need to increase agricultural output and preserve surplus agriculture resulted in the invention of the McCormick Reaper, steel plow, canned food, and refrigeration. The need to conserve water amid dwindling availability has resulted in GPS-guided precision agriculture, center pivot irrigation, and genetically-modified crops that produce greater yields in harsher conditions.
  • Military
    • Conflict and war have often spurred technological innovation in order for individuals and nations to preserve and expand power. The desire for greater offensive capabilities has resulted in weapons and technologies that can strike at a distance, land with precision, maximize/minimize damage, and strike with stealth such as machine guns, submarines, poisonous gas, long-range missiles, combat aircraft, stealth technologies, laser-guided bombs, and nuclear weapons.
    • Efforts to control territory resulted in the invention of mines for both land and sea, placement of sophisticated walls and barriers, and high-tech monitoring.
    • The desire for defensive capabilities has led to an international arms buildup with most nations maintaining standing armies and some nations keeping a nuclear force to deter attacks from enemies.
    • The need to detect incoming aircraft led to the invention of radar.
  • Medicine
    • Antibiotics including penicillin are designed to combat bacterial infections.
    • Vaccines came about to guard human populations against highly contagious diseases such as polio, measles, rubella, mumps and most recently chicken pox. 
    • The use of blood plasma was pioneered during the Second World War for expanding medical needs in Great Britain.
    • War and conflict continue to spur medical advances such as in the cases of remote medicine for treatment at a distance, advance capabilities to deal with traumatic injuries, and biological research.
  • Impact of new technologies
    • New technologies often influence everyday life by leading to the creation of new jobs. Increased efficiency, greater convenience, greater speed, and cheaper costs are often associated with the impact of new technologies. However, new technologies can also introduce unintended consequences such as atomic research leading to nuclear weapons, antibiotic use increasing drug-resistant forms of disease, and the elimination of outdated forms of employment like telegraph operators, ice cutters, and lamplighters.
NewUS.27 The student understands the influence of scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the free enterprise system on the standard of living in the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.27A Analyze how scientific discoveries, technological innovations, space explorations, and the application of these by the free enterprise system improve the standard of living in the United States, including changes in transportation and communication.

Analyze

HOW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES,TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS, AND SPACE EXPLORATIONS IMPROVE THE STANDARD OF LIVING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use of railroads allowed for increased access to markets at lower transportation costs, especially for the movement of agricultural products from farms to distant markets.
  • Introduction of electricity improved quality of life by bring light into homes and allowing for the use of labor saving appliances.
  • The availability of automobiles and access to mass transportation in the United States has facilitated access to jobs, retail, recreation venues as well as allowing for a wider spatial distribution of the population. The introduction of hybrid vehicles resulted in reduced fuel consumption. Users of hybrid vehicles also save on the cost of fuel. 
  • An expansion of air travel has allowed for both business and leisure travel.
  • Communication innovations starting with the telegraph and later the telephone has allowed for easier and quicker spread of information and increased connectivity between individuals. The introduction of satellite and cellular technologies has enhanced telephone service to be faster and farther reaching.
  • Access to information has been facilitated by the expansion of radio, television and computer technologies, and most significantly by the creation of the Internet.
  • Space exploration contributed to the development of new consumer products. GPS, cellular phones, plastics, high-strength textiles, polarized lenses and other products developed for space travel, have become everyday items.
  • Aerospace industry is responsible for the development of Earth-imaging technologies, remote medical diagnosis, high-resolution optical scanners, satellites, heat shielding insulating materials, and ultraviolet-filtering lenses; satellite technologies have aided in more accurate weather forecasting; climate control technology in homes has promoted energy efficiency
  • Telecommunications developed for the military have led to the widespread use of cell phones and micro-technology. The Internet developed for military use and has now spread worldwide allowing for read access to information, access to new markets, and increasing connectedness.

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed student knowledge of robotics as a technological advance.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:

These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
NewUS.29 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewUS.29A Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewUS.29B Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28A Analyze primary and secondary sources such as maps, graphs, speeches, political cartoons, and artifacts to acquire information to answer historical questions.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION AND ANSWER HISTORICAL QUESITONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
STAAR Note:

These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards
NewUS.28C Apply the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence.

Apply

PROCESS OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating a compelling question
  • Analyzing sources by close reading, contextualizing, sourcing, and corroborating
  • Synthesizing information from sources
  • Developing conclusions based on evidence from sources
  • Reporting conclusions
NewUS.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author.
  • Examining historical context or the time in which the author lived, along with frame of reference or the life experiences of the author are important for understanding the influences on the author’s point of view.
NewUS.28E Identify bias and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Identify, Support

POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical interpretations, considered as a point of view on a social studies issues or event should be supported by evidence.
NewUS.30 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewUS.30A Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS

NewUS.30B Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS, AND DATABASES

NewUS.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewUS.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
Loading
Data is Loading...