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Instructional Focus Document
United States History Studies Since 1877 Sequential
TITLE : Unit 07: Total War – the Second World War 1939-1945 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address U.S. involvement in the Second World War. This unit is primarily a study of wartime mobilization. In the midst of the economic depression that characterized the1930s dictators came to power in Italy, Germany, and Japan. Their aggressive actions coupled with unresolved issues of the First World War brought about a Second World War in 1939. At that time Americans supported a policy of neutrality and were resistant to involvement in European affairs. As the scale of the war increased, President Roosevelt proposed to sell, lease, or lend war materials to countries whose defense was important to the United States resulting in the initial involvement of the United States in the war. On December 7, 1941 the Japanese military launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. One day later President Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war against Japan. When Germany and Italy declared war on the United States four days later, Americans became engaged in a two front war fighting with the Allied Powers.

The Second World War became a “total war” as mobilization for the war effort affected all Americans. Women entered the workforce in greater numbers, many Americans volunteered for military service, Japanese Americans were relocated to internment camps, the government instituted rationing, families planted victory gardens, and industries shifted to wartime production. After heroic campaigns in Europe, the Allied Powers were victorious and with that the liberation of concentration camps which revealed the horrors of the Holocaust. American forces continued to fight in Asia until President Truman authorized the use of atomic weapons. On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima, Japan. Three days later the bombing of Nagasaki, Japan was followed by the surrender of the Japanese government and the end of the Second World War. The United States was instrumental in securing the peace following the Second World War including prosecuting war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials, occupying parts of Germany, and rebuilding Japan. An examination of the United States’ involvement in the Second World War is important for understanding how the United States became a world superpower.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the economic devastation of the Great Depression.

During this Unit

During this unit students study about the rise of dictatorships in Europe and how that contributed to the cause of a second world war.  Students examine the reasons for the United States’ entry into the war, and the responses on the home front, including Executive Order 9066 as well as the economic and social changes brought about by U.S. involvement in the war.  Additionally, students study the military involvement of the United States in the fighting of the Second World War by examining significant battles, the fighting on two fronts, the military and political leadership during the war, and the decision to drop atomic bombs. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by: 1) acquiring information from various sources, 2) identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, 3) evaluating sources for bias and validity, and 4) supporting conclusions with evidence. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students learn about the economic prosperity that characterized the United States in the 1950s and 1960s and U.S. involvement in the Cold War.


Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The aggressive actions of dictators in Italy, German and Japan along with the attack on Pearl Harbor led to U.S. involvement in the Second World War.

  • What aggressive actions on the part of European and Japanese leaders led to the outbreak of the Second World War?
  • What role did the United States play in the war prior to entry into the fighting?
  • Why was Pearl Harbor attacked?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems
  • Ideologies
  • Nationalism
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Americans contributed to the war effort in a variety of ways as well as were affected by the war.

  • In what ways did Americas respond to produce for the war effort?
  • How did the U.S. Office of War Information influence public attitudes?
  • What was significant about the contributions of The Tuskegee Airmen, the Flying Tigers, the Navajo Code Talkers and Vernon J. Baker?
  • Why was Executive Order 9066 issued and what impact did it have on Japanese Americans?
  • How did women’s roles change as a result of the Second World War?
  • What impact did the Second World War have the economy of the United States?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Civic Engagement

  • Civic Virtue
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The U.S. Armed Forces fought on several fronts, eventually liberating Europe and dropping two atomic bombs to end the war.

  • How did the role the U.S. Armed Forces play during the war differ between the European and Pacific theaters?
  • Which U.S. Armed Forces leaders rose to prominence during the Second World War? Why?
  • What was characteristic of the leadership of Presidents Roosevelt and Truman during the Second World War?
  • Why did President Truman make the decision to use atomic weapons?
  • What implications did the use of atomic weapons have for the future?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Civic Engagement

  • Civic Virtue

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Mechanization
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Whole Unit Performance Task:

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may believe that the atomic bombs were dropped immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Students may assume that the Second World War began in 1941, because of the United States’ entry into the war in that year.
  • Students may not realize that Japanese aggression in Asia had been occurring for years prior to the German invasion of Poland.

Unit Vocabulary

totalitarianism – form of government in which all aspects of daily life are controlled by a central authority
neutrality – a policy of non-involvement in wars or the affairs of other nations
mobilization – the making ready of military forces for war

Related Vocabulary

  • dictator
  • lend-lease
  • domestic front
  • civilians
  • rationing
  • casualties
  •  genocide
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewUS.2 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.2A Identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics.
Readiness Standard

Identify, Describe

MAJOR ERAS IN U.S. HISTORY FROM 1877 TO PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Second World War – this period in U.S. history was characterized by an economic recovery brought about by war time production; the bombing of Pearl Harbor precipitated U.S. entry into the war on the side of the Allies; the war became a total war affecting those on the home front as evidenced by rationing of goods; Japanese, German and Italian citizens were moved to internment camps

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed the 1960s as an era characterized by counter revolution, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights movement, and the Space Race.

NewUS.2B

Explain the significance of the following years as turning points: 1898 (Spanish-American War), 1914-1918 (World War I), 1929 (the Great Depression begins), 1939-1945 (World War II), 1957 (Sputnik launch ignites U.S.-Soviet space race), 1968 (Martin Luther King, Jr. assassination), 1969 (U.S. lands on the moon), 1991 (Cold War ends), 2001 (terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon), and 2008 (election of first black president, Barack Obama).


Supporting Standard

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES AS TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1939-1945 – Second World War
    • United States becomes a global leader
NewUS.7 The student understands the domestic and international impact of U.S. participation in World War II. The student is expected to:
NewUS.7A Identify reasons for U.S. involvement in World War II, including the aggression of Italian, German, and Japanese dictatorships, especially the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Readiness Standard

Identify

REASONS FOR U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD WAR II

Including, but not limited to:

  • Aggression of Italian, German, and Japanese dictatorships
    • Increasingly a global political division emerged between democratic societies and totalitarian states as fascist regimes came to power in Italy under Benito Mussolini (1922) and in Germany under the Nazi control of Adolf Hitler (1933); the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin (1924) evolved into a totalitarian state; Germany’s expansion into Austria, Czechoslovakia, and finally, Poland (1939) initiated a second world war in Europe; Japan’s campaign of imperial expansion into Manchuria and then further into China (1930s) brought them into the global conflict as well 
  • Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
    • On the morning of December 7, 1941, “a date which will live in infamy” according to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Japanese forces launched an attack on the U.S. naval station in Hawaii; U.S. forces were unprepared for the attack, as the Japanese had not made a declaration of war against the United States; following the attack President Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war and the United States officially entered the Second World War
    • The U.S. economic sanctions embargoed steel and oil exports to Japan and froze Japanese economic assets in the United States hindering Japan’s expansion efforts; the economic sanctions strained relations between the United States and Japan; the attack on Pearl Harbor was a part of Japan’s plan to end relations with the United States, to expand its empire, and gain access to resources
NewUS.7B Evaluate the domestic and international leadership of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman during World War II, including the U.S. relationship with its allies.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL LEADERSHIP OF FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND HARRY TRUMAN DURING WORLD WAR II

Including, but not limited to:

  • Franklin Roosevelt
    • Domestic leadership – the Lend-Lease program encouraged American industry to convert America's industrial base to produce armaments and other war materials rather than civilian goods. Mobilization increased after 1941 when the United States declared war on the Axis powers.
    • International leadership – Roosevelt’s relationship with Winston Churchill led to the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed the United States to support Britain’s war effort before U.S. entry in the war. Roosevelt’s delay in entering the war enabled the industrial might of the United States to be transformed into the “arsenal of democracy.”
  • Harry Truman
    • Domestic – proposed his “Fair Deal” including full-employment and fair-employment practices bills, federal control of the unemployment compensation program, a large housing program, and the development of natural resources
    • International relationship – Truman attended the Potsdam conference at the end of the Second World War where he became suspicious of the Soviet intentions under Stalin. This eventually affected his leadership in the early years of Cold War and led to the Truman Doctrine, where the U.S. supported Greece and Turkey in their attempt to resist communist threats.
    • Truman’s decision to use atomic weapons in the Second World War sparked an international arms race to gain nuclear technology and to stockpile weapons
NewUS.7C Analyze major issues of World War II, including the Holocaust, the internment of Japanese Americans as a result of Executive Order 9066, and the development of atomic weapons.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

MAJOR ISSUES OF WORLD WAR II

Including, but not limited to:

  • Holocaust – Jews, gypsies, and those with mental disabilities were rounded up and placed in concentration camps where the Nazi regime orchestrated a bureaucratic system of state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews, political prisoners, and disabled
  • The internment of Japanese Americans/ Executive Order 9066 – following the attack on Pearl Harbor President Franklin Roosevelt authorized the military to relocate Americans to designated military camps to live during the duration of the Second World War; Gen. John DeWitt, administrator of the Western district, used the authority of Executive Order 9066 to require the relocation of numerous Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps; the case of Korematsu v. United States (1944) contended that the executive order violated the Fourth and Fourteenth amendment rights of Korematsu. In a 6-3 decision the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the government, citing that the “military necessity” outweighed the civil rights of Japanese Americans. A formal apology from the U.S. government was made in 1988, with each surviving internee being paid $20,000. Additionally the government acknowledged that racial prejudice and war hysteria had impacted the internment.
  • The development of atomic weapons began in 1939 with the Manhattan Project and accelerated throughout the course of the Second World War. After the fall of France to Nazi forces, Roosevelt was quick to approve extensive federal support for the research and development of atomic weapons. Development of atomic weapons increased the destructive capability of a military strike while reducing the potential loss of life to any troops necessary for an invading force; changed how some battles were fought from using ground troops to using bombs; after dropping atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan surrendered and the Second World War came to an end.

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed student’s knowledge of where atomic weapons were developed, including Hanford, Washington; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and Los Alamos, New Mexico

NewUS.7D Analyze major military events of World War II, including fighting the war on multiple fronts, the Bataan Death March, the U.S. military advancement through the Pacific Islands, the Battle of Midway, the invasion of Normandy, and the liberation of concentration camps.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

MAJOR EVENTS OF WORLD WAR II

Including, but not limited to:

  • Fighting the war on multiple fronts – the United States was at war with Japan and Germany/Italy; the war in Europe was predominately fought on land, and the war in the Pacific was fought both at sea and on land
  • The Bataan Death March – took place in Philippines in 1942 after the Japanese took over the Philippine Islands; American and Filipino prisoners of war were forcibly marched 60 miles through the jungle resulting in many fatalities
  • The U.S. military advancement through the Pacific Islands – known as “Island Hopping,” the goal was to attain a position close enough to mainland Japan to conduct an attack.
  • Battle of Midway – significant battle in the Pacific (considered the turning point). After the battle, Japan's shipbuilding and pilot training programs were unable to keep pace in replacing their losses, while the U.S. steadily increased output in both areas.
  • The invasion of Normandy – June 6,1944, Allied invasion of northern France to liberate France from occupation by German forces
  • The liberation of concentration camps – American, British, and Soviet forces liberated concentration camps from the Nazi forces. Liberators confronted unspeakable conditions in the Nazi camps, where piles of corpses lay unburied. Only after the liberation of these camps was the full scope of Nazi horrors exposed to the world.
NewUS.7E Describe the military contributions of leaders during World War II, including Dwight Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, and Chester W. Nimitz.
Supporting Standard

Describe

MILITARY CONTRIBUTIONS OF LEADERS DURING WORLD WAR II

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dwight Eisenhower – commander of Allied forces in Europe for the D-Day invasion
  • Douglas MacArthur – commander of the U.S. Army in the Pacific
  • Chester W. Nimitz – commander of the U.S. Navy and Allied land and sea forces in the Pacific
NewUS.7F Explain issues affecting the home front, including volunteerism, the purchase of war bonds, and Victory Gardens and opportunities and obstacles for women and ethnic minorities.
Supporting Standard

Explain

ISSUES AFFECTING THE home front

Including, but not limited to:

  • Volunteerism – volunteerism was an essential part of life on the home front. Americans made bandages, knitted socks, collected books, and enrolled in the Red Cross, Victory Corps, and Civilian Defense organizations to support the troops abroad
  • The purchase of war bonds – the government sold war bonds and stamps to provide funds for the war
  • Victory Gardens – as part of the war effort, the government rationed foods such as sugar, butter, milk, cheese, eggs, coffee, meat, and canned goods; labor and transportation shortages made it hard to harvest and move fruits and vegetables to market; a government campaign developed to encourage citizens to plant "Victory Gardens” in an effort to provide their own fruits and vegetables
  • Obstacles for women and ethnic minorities – when the war ended, many women and minorities found it difficult to find or keep their jobs because of the millions of non-minority men that re-entered the work force.
NewUS.7G Explain how American patriotism inspired high levels of military enlistment and the bravery and contributions of the Tuskegee Airmen, the Flying Tigers, and the Navajo Code Talkers.
Supporting Standard

Explain

HOW AMERICAN PATRIOTISM INSPIRED EXCEPTIONAL ACTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • High levels of military enlistment – numbers rose dramatically after the United States entered the war (1940: 348,683; 1941: 1,094,781; 1942: 3,030,40 – source: National Archives)
  • The bravery and contributions of:
    • Tuskegee Airmen – the first African American military aviators in the U.S. Armed Forces at a time when the military still practiced racial segregation; participated in over 15,000 sorties and earned over 100 Flying Crosses; their service reduced opposition to integration in the armed forces
    • Flying Tigers –1st American Volunteer Group of the Chinese Air Force in the early 1940s; all were former Navy, Marine, or Army pilots; went to China to support the Chinese in battle against the Japanese government
    • Navajo Code Talkers – Navajo American Indians were recruited by the military to encode, transmit, and decode messages; the Navajo language was used to develop a code that was not broken by the enemy.
NewUS.17 The student understands the economic effects of government policies from World War II through the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.17A Describe the economic effects of World War II on the home front such as mobilization, the end of the Great Depression, rationing, and increased opportunity for women and minority employment.
Readiness Standard

Describe

ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF WORLD WAR II ON THE HOME FRONT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mobilization – preparation for and entry into the Second World War led American industry to dedicate production toward war materiel. Auto production ceased to focus on tanks and planes. Nylon stocking were hard to find as the nylon was devoted to parachutes. Copper pennies were replaced by steel to divert to electrical wiring. As millions of men entered combat and tens of millions were needed in factory production, women, unemployed, and retirees entered the workforce. By 1945, the United States was the world top industrial producer.
  • End of the Great Depression – WW II marked the end of the Great Depression as the United States transitioned into a wartime economy.
  • Rationing – in order to ensure the fair distribution of scarce goods a system of rationing was created; many items were controlled by the government for use in the war effort: gas, tires, scrap metal, nylon, food stuff, etc.; Ration Cards
  • Female employment – women entered the workforce to replace men who had left to fight in the war or worked in newly created jobs producing for the war effort; women who entered the workforce were symbolized by “Rosie the Riveter”; women also went into the military through the Women’s Army Corps (WACS) and the Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES); women also served by joining the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps; National War Labor Board (1942) adopted the policy of “equal pay for equal work” in support of women who produced for the war effort
  • Minority employment – war industry production resulted in an increase in higher paying defense industry jobs, which African Americans were excluded from; in response African American union leaders threatened to march on Washington, which moved FDR to act to reduce discrimination in employment; this was addressed by issuing executive orders and passing federal labor laws along with enforcement of non-discrimination policies by federal regulatory agencies; despite these efforts minority employment opportunities remained limited, resulting in civil unrest particularly in Detroit, El Paso, Beaumont and elsewhere, sometimes resulting in the deployment of federal troops to restore order
  • Production shifts from consumer goods to wartime goods, such as from cars to military vehicles; nylon stockings to nylon parachutes; rubber products needed for war (rafts, gas masks, plane parts)
  • The Second World War brought economic prosperity and affluence to the United States, but greatly increased the national debt.
  • Western migration; growth of suburbs
NewUS.18 The student understands changes over time in the role of government. The student is expected to:
NewUS.18B

Explain constitutional issues raised by federal government policy changes during times of significant events, including World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the 1960s, and September 11, 2001.


Readiness Standard

Explain

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT POLICY CHANGES DURING TIMES OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

 

Including, but not limited to:

  • Second World War – soon after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which authorized the military to remove Japanese-Americans from America's West Coast and into internment camps. Related to the constitutional of due process.
NewUS.23 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
NewUS.23B

Explain the importance of congressional Medal of Honor recipients such as Army First Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker, Army Corporal Alvin York, and Army Master Sergeant Raul "Roy" Perez Benavidez.


Supporting Standard

Explain

IMPORTANCE OF CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Medal of Honor recipients are recognized for their distinguished acts of valor as a U.S. military service member. The honor is awarded by the President in the name of the Congress and is considered the most esteemed personal military decoration.
  • Army First Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker (World War II) – fought in Italy and received a Purple Heart, a Bronze Star, and the Distinguished Service Cross. In 1996, more than fifty years after the assault on Castle Aghinolfi, he received a telephone call from a man working on a federal grant to reevaluate the heroism of African Americans in the Second World War. It was during this phone call he learned he was to receive the Medal of Honor. He was the only African American veteran of the Second World War to receive the Medal of Honor while he was alive.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28A Analyze primary and secondary sources such as maps, graphs, speeches, political cartoons, and artifacts to acquire information to answer historical questions.
Process Standard

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION AND ANSWER HISTORICAL QUESITONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards
NewUS.28B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
NewUS.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context.
Process Standard

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author.
  • Examining historical context or the time in which the author lived, along with frame of reference or the life experiences of the author are important for understanding the influences on the author’s point of view.
NewUS.29 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewUS.29A Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewUS.29B Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28C Apply the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence.

Apply

PROCESS OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating a compelling question
  • Analyzing sources by close reading, contextualizing, sourcing, and corroborating
  • Synthesizing information from sources
  • Developing conclusions based on evidence from sources
  • Reporting conclusions
NewUS.28E Identify bias and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Identify, Support

POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical interpretations, considered as a point of view on a social studies issues or event should be supported by evidence.
NewUS.30 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewUS.30A Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS

NewUS.30B Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS, AND DATABASES

NewUS.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewUS.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
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ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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