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Instructional Focus Document
United States History Studies Since 1877 Sequential
TITLE : Unit 05: Boom Time – 1920s America 1920-1929 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural changes taking place during the 1920s, sometimes referred to as the Roaring Twenties. This unit is primarily a study of contrasts in society. Following the end of the First World War, Americans weathered a temporary economic depression moving from a wartime economy to a peacetime economy from 1919-1921. The remainder of the decade was characterized by unprecedented economic prosperity, supported by the pro-business policies of three presidential administrations. This prosperity was coupled with isolationist foreign policies, and heightened fears of communists, immigrants, and anarchists that manifested in the rise of nativism. The time period was also characterized by changing social values which threatened traditional values, as evidence by prohibition and the Scopes Trial. During the 1920s, African-Americans migrated in large numbers to northern cities as a flourishing of African-American culture reached a pinnacle with the Harlem Renaissance. The crash of the stock market in 1929 brought the economic prosperity of the decade to an end, but the legacy of culture change continued. An examination of the 1920s is important for understanding the tension, conflict, and polarization brought about by fear and changing social values.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the rise of the United States as a world power during the Spanish-American War and the First World War.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the economic prosperity of the 1920s; the rising of nativism in 1920s society; and the social and cultural changes of the1920s that resulted in clashes between those embracing new values and those wanting to preserve traditional society. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by: 1) acquiring information from various sources, 2) identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, 3) evaluating sources for bias and validity, and 4) supporting conclusions with evidence. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students learn about the economic bust of the Great Depression and the efforts to address the crisis.


Change creates anxiety for those who want to preserve the status quo.

  • How do people react to changes that are perceived to threaten their current way of life?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

New innovations, reduced taxes, and increased production efficiencies led to economic prosperity and mass consumerism in the United States during the 1920s.

  • What effect did “buying on margin” have on economic growth in 1920s America?
  • What did Harding mean by a “return to normalcy”?
  • What was characteristic of economic growth in 1920s America?
  • How did the introduction of the automobile change life in America?
  • How did the Teapot Dome scandal reflect the consumerism of the 1920s?

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Mechanization
  • Transportation

Economic Patterns

  • Scarcity/Choices
  • Factors of Production

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Americans’ fear of communism and immigrants resulted in increased nativist and racist sentiments in 1920s society.

  • What was characteristic of the Red Scare?
  • How were nativist sentiments of the 1920s evident in American society?
  • How did many African Americans living in the South respond to racism?
  • What legislation was passed in the 1920s regarding immigration and the rights of American Indians?

Cultural Patterns

  • Belief Systems
  • Prejudice and Discrimination

Political Patterns

  • Human Rights
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

 

As new cultural and social patterns emerged in 1920s, American attitudes became more polarized. 

  • What was characteristic of the changing roles of women in 1920s America?
  • What was the nature of the arguments among African American leaders such as Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. DuBois?
  • How did Tin Pan Alley and the Harlem Renaissance reflect cultural changes in the 1920s?
  • Why was the creation of Jazz a significant accomplishment?
  • How did the Eighteenth Amendment affect society in the 1920s?
  • How did Prohibition and the Scopes Trial reflect the efforts to preserve traditional social values?

Cultural Patterns

  • Artistic Expressions
  • Customs/Traditions
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Whole Unit Performance Task:

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may lack a general understanding of how the stock market operates.

Unit Vocabulary

migration – movement from one place to another
consumerism – increased buying of products
tradition – relating to long established styles or ideas
modernity – relating to recent or contemporary styles or ideas
red – American slang referencing communism

Related Vocabulary

  • prosperity
  • nativism
  • immigration
  • normalcy
  • flapper
  • racism
  • lynch
  • jazz
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewUS.2 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.2A Identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics.
Readiness Standard

Identify, Describe

MAJOR ERAS IN U.S. HISTORY FROM 1877 TO PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Boom Time- 1920’s – this era in U.S. history was characterized by international isolationism in reaction to involvement in the First World War coupled with a fear of the spread of communism or a Red Scare and nativist sentiments; economically the nation prospered as mass production and mass consumerism fueled an economic boom that eventually ended with the crash of the stock market; socially the period was characterized by drastic social changes as women pressed for more rights, and African American culture experienced a renaissance with the Jazz Age; prohibition resulted in the time period being one of the most violent and crime ridden in U.S. history

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed the 1960s as an era characterized by counter revolution, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights movement, and the Space Race.

NewUS.5 The student understands the effects of reform and third-party movements in the early 20th century. The student is expected to:
NewUS.5A

Analyze the impact of Progressive Era reforms, including initiative, referendum, recall, and the passage of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th amendments.


Readiness Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF PROGRESSIVE ERA REFORMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Eighteenth Amendment – effectively made the manufacturing, sale and/or distribution of alcohol illegal; gave rise to the creation of a widespread black market for alcohol; resulted in the rise of organized crime groups established to illegally supply alcohol; clandestine taverns/bars known as speakeasies were established; federal agents worked extensively to fight against organized crime associated with the prohibited distribution of alcohol; crime rates rose; was eventually repealed with the Twenty-first Amendment
  • Nineteenth Amendment– prohibited discrimination in voting on the basis of gender, thereby granting women the right to vote
NewUS.6 The student understands significant events, social issues, and individuals of the 1920s. The student is expected to:
NewUS.6A Analyze causes and effects of events and social issues such as immigration, Social Darwinism, the Scopes Trial, eugenics, race relations, nativism, the Red Scare, Prohibition, and the changing role of women.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS AND SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE 1920S

Including, but not limited to:

  • Immigration- during the 1920s immigrants came seeking a better life in the United States as large numbers of came from Eastern and Southern Europe; immigrants moved into cities creating over-crowded conditions; immigrants supplies labor for factories in the cities; Congress responded to growing concerns about immigration with passage of the Immigration Act of 1924, which instituted a quota system to regulate immigration; the act was primarily aimed at immigration from Eastern and Southern European nations, banned Arab and Asian immigration, and severely restricted immigration from Africa
  • Social Darwinism - belief that Darwin’s principles of natural selection could be applied to development of individuals and groups of people as a justification for why some had more power than others; the idea was rooted in a desire by some to maintain the economic and social divisions in society as well as to justify nativist and racist policies; provided a rationalization for  the eugenics movement
  • Scopes Trial – sometimes referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial was conducted in 1925. Substitute teacher John Scopes was tried for violating a Tennessee law prohibiting the teaching of evolution in publicly funded schools. The trial featured Clarence Darrow as defense attorney and William Jennings Bryan as prosecuting attorney.  Scopes was found guilty, yet the conviction was later overturned on a technicality. The debate surrounding the trial illustrated the growing cultural conflict in the United States during the early 20th century between those in support of more traditionalist values and those in support of more modernism.
  • Eugenics – study of human improvement by genetic means, which advocates for higher reproduction of those deemed to have strong genetic traits and reduction of reproduction of those deemed to have undesirable genetic traits; racialism veiled as an attempt to better society and the human race; resulted in discrimination and persecution towards target groups and individuals such as  Hitler’s actions in the Holocaust
  • Race relations - from 1910-1920 many African Americans had migrated to industrial cities in the North filling jobs in a labor shortage that had occurred because of the First World War; African Americans in northern cities still faced discrimination and segregation, yet many African American men found fewer barriers to voting in the North and as the population of African Americans in the North increased they became influential in elections; the Harlem Renaissance coupled with the idea of the “New Negro” gave African Americans a sense of optimism that the American system would ultimately work for them; these social changes coupled with immigration resulted in a backlash from some Americans evidenced in the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, increasing nativist sentiments, the institution of Jim Crow laws, the creation of immigration quotas, and the rise in the number of lynching’s
  • Nativism – fearing that immigrants took jobs away from soldiers returning from the First World War coupled with the influx of immigrants prior to the First World War mainly from Eastern and Southern Europe and not from western Europe as had been in the past resulted in an anti-immigrant sentiment fostered in nativism, discrimination, heightened racial tensions, and the rejuvenation of the Ku Klux Klan
  • Red Scare - a reaction not only to the communist revolution in Russia, but also to the influx of immigrants to the United States prior to First World War and fears of labor agitation; after a plot to mail bombs to prominent political leaders and businessmen was uncovered, US Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer order what would become known as “Palmer Raids”; the raids were intended to find leftist, anarchist agitators for deportation; the Red Scare culminated in the deportation of hundreds suspected of having communist, socialist sympathies
  • Prohibition – rooted in the belief that alcohol was leading to the decline of society, alcohol was blamed for many of society's ills, among them severe health problems, destitution, and crime; largely led by women, the temperance movement was finally successful in 1920 in getting the 18th Amendment ratified; the prohibition on the sale of alcohol resulted in the formation of a large organized crime network that met the demand for alcohol; crime rates in nation soared
  • Changing role of women – during the 1920s some women began to exert a sense of independence after having worked outside their homes during the First World War and gaining the right to vote, yet the majority of women still held very traditional roles; working in the labor force and having political rights raised the expectation of some women resulting in a small increase in the number of women attending college;  these social changes became embodied in the flappers of the 1920s who joined in the exuberant spirit of the times and challenging traditional ideas by cutting their hair short, wearing short skirts, and putting on make-up, along with drinking and smoking in public, much to the disapproval of many more conservative women; the changing fashion for women reflected a rejection of the constricted styles of the Victorian era
NewUS.6B Analyze the impact of significant individuals such as Henry Ford, Marcus Garvey, and Charles A. Lindbergh.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Henry Ford – founder of Ford Motors, innovated the auto industry with the assembly line and invented the Model T and Model A cars, with an affordable price
  • Marcus Garvey – publisher, journalist, and Black Nationalist; founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League
  • Charles Lindbergh – first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean

 

STAAR Note:
Spring 2014 STAAR included an excerpt from campaign speech from Warren G. Harding and his promise to help the nation recover after the previous decade.

NewUS.13 The student understands the causes and effects of migration and immigration on American society. The student is expected to:
NewUS.13A

Analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from migration within the United States, including western expansion, rural to urban, the Great Migration, and the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt.


Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CHANGING DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERNS RESULTING FROM MIGRATION WITHIN THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • The Great Migration of African Americans to the North (roughly 1910-1930)
    • Cause: escape racism; left sharecropping and tenant farming in the South for economic opportunities in industrial centers in the Northeast and Midwest
    • Effect: large increase in the African American population of cities like Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit and New York City
NewUS.15 The student understands domestic and foreign issues related to U.S. economic growth from the 1870s to 1920. The student is expected to:
NewUS.15C

Explain how foreign policies affected economic issues such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the Open Door Policy, Dollar Diplomacy, and immigration quotas; and


Supporting Standard

Explain

FOREIGN POLICIES AFFECTED ECONOMIC ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Immigration quotas – concerns over immigration rose in the 1880s and continued with the influx of immigrants from Europe during and after the First World War. Immigration restrictions started early in 1917 based on national security concerns. Congress implemented a literacy test to limit immigration in 1917. By 1920, many veterans were entering the civilian work force at the same time factories were retooling after ending war production. Unemployment along with a recession prompted further public concern about immigration.  Further exacerbating the 1920 recession was the low prices on agricultural products in the United States as well as those imported from Europe. The recession ended in July 1921, yet the high unemployment generated support for limits on immigration.  Congress passed the Emergency Quotas Act in 1921. This law set the quota of legal immigrants to 3% of their current ethnic makeup in the United States. This quota was changed three years later by the National Origins Act of 1924 that reduced the percentage to 2% as well as effectively barred immigration from Asian nations.
NewUS.16 The student understands significant economic developments between World War I and World War II. The student is expected to:
NewUS.16A Analyze causes of economic growth and prosperity in the 1920s, including Warren Harding's Return to Normalcy, reduced taxes, and increased production efficiencies.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

CAUSES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND PROSPERITY IN THE 1920s

Including, but not limited to:
Causes of economic growth:

  • Stock market investment especially done  by buying on margin created quick wealth
  • Warren Harding’s “Return to Normalcy”, referring to life before the First World War became synonymous with a return to pro-business, laissez-faire economic policies, including raising protective tariffs and reducing taxes
  • Taxes were lowered for all Americans significantly reducing the taxes paid by wealthy Americans; taxes on luxury items were eliminated; taxes on many foodstuffs and consumer goods were lowered or eliminated; the elimination of taxes on freight and transportation added to the profits of businesses
  • Increased production efficiencies fromassembly line production and standardization of product sizes, weights, and packaging units increased efficiency and thereby production of goods to meet rising consumer demand; eager consumers began using installment plans to purchase goods
NewUS.18 The student understands changes over time in the role of government. The student is expected to:
NewUS.18C

Describe the effects of political scandals, including Teapot Dome, Watergate, and Bill Clinton's impeachment, on the views of U.S. citizens concerning trust in the federal government and its leaders.


Supporting Standard

Describe

EFFECTS OF POLITICAL SCANDALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Teapot Dome – scandal concerning the lease of oil rights to private companies from government-owned land in Wyoming during the Harding administration granted without a bidding process; while the leases in and of themselves were not illegal the payments made to political officials in return for favorable leasing terms were; damaged the reputation of the Harding administration and was considered the most sensational scandal in American politics until Watergate
NewUS.22 The student understands the promises of the Declaration of Independence and the protections of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. The student is expected to:
NewUS.22B

Evaluate various means of achieving equality of political rights, including the 19th, 24th, and 26th amendments and congressional acts such as the American Indian Citizenship Act of 1924.


Supporting Standard

Evaluate

VARIOUS MEANS OF ACHIEVING EQUALITY OF POLITICAL RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Assembly – forming organizations, holding rallies
  • Nineteenth Amendment – women’s right to vote
  • American Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 – granted citizenship to all American Indians born in the United States
NewUS.24 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
NewUS.24A Describe how the characteristics and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature.
Supporting Standard

Describe

CHARACTERISTICS AND ISSUES IN U.S. HISTORY HAVE BEEN REFLECTED IN VARIOUS GENRES OF ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1920s- social changes that characterized the time period were reflected in the creation of Jazz music; themes related to economic prosperity were reflected in literary works such as F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Great Gatsby; the attention to issues of the African American community were reflected in the Harlem Renaissance, especially the works of Langston Hughes; the art-deco movement reflected the cultural modernism that characterized the 1920’s

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2013 STAAR included changes in fashion that reflected the times, such as 1920’s flappers, 1960’s counterculture, 1980’s “preppy”
The Spring 2015 STAAR included Woodstock festival as an event that showcased protest music

NewUS.24B

Describe the impacts of cultural movements in art, music, and literature such as Tin Pan Alley, the Harlem Renaissance, the Beat Generation, rock and roll, the Chicano Mural Movement, and country and western music on American society.


Readiness Standard

Describe

IMPACTS OF SIGNIFICANT EXAMPLES OF CULTURAL MOVEMENTS IN ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Tin Pan Alley – known for an era of songwriting when many musical ideas mixed together to form American Popular Music (started in late 1800s in New York City)
  • Harlem Renaissance – African American literature, art, music, dance, and social commentary began to flourish in 1920s Harlem, a section of New York City; more than just a literary movement, the Harlem Renaissance exalted the cultural contributions of African Americans and established jazz as a unique America cultural musical form; the collective voice of African Americans during the Harlem Renaissance contributed to the burgeoning Civil Rights Movement
NewUS.24C Identify and analyze the global diffusion of American culture through various media.
Supporting Standard

Identify, Analyze

GLOBAL DIFFUSION OF AMERICAN CULTURE THROUGH VARIOUS MEDIA

Including, but not limited to:

  • American culture spread via movies, television, and music exposes other societies to American styles, attitude, values, and worldview.

STAAR Note:
On the Spring 2016 STAAR students were assessed on their knowledge about the cultural diffusion of Jazz music.

NewUS.25 The student understands how people from various groups contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:
NewUS.25B Describe the Americanization movement to assimilate immigrants and American Indians into American culture.
Supporting Standard

Describe

AMERICANIZATION MOVEMENT TO ASSIMILATE IMMIGRANTS AND AMERICAN INDIANS INTO AMERICAN CULTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • American Indian children were taken away from their homes and traditional culture and sent to boarding schools to become “Americanized.”
  • Immigrants – schools were “Americanization” centers for new immigrants to learn English and patriotism.
NewUS.25C Explain how the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, gender, and religious groups shape American culture.
Readiness Standard

Explain

HOW THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PEOPLE OF VARIOUS RACIAL, ETHNIC, GENDER, AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS HAVE HELPED SHAPE AMERICAN CULTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • America’s history is characterized by waves of immigration creating a cultural mosaic that reflects the contributions of people from a variety of groups. The contributions of individuals and groups are too numerous to separately list, but collectively make American culture unique.
  • Migration within the United States has resulted in cultural diffusion.

STAAR Note:
The 2013 STAAR assessed the historical significance of Jackie Robinson as the first African American to play on a major league baseball team, leading to the integration of baseball.
The 2014 STAAR assessed the historical significance of women’s contributions in the efforts to pass the Eighteenth Amendment.
The 2016 STAAR assessed the cultural spread of gospel music as resulting from the Great Migration.
The 2017 STAAR assessed the cultural contributions made by Mexican-American artists who painted murals in California.
The 2018 STAAR assessed the contribution of Lacrosse as made by American Indians.

NewUS.26 The student understands the impact of science, technology, and the free enterprise system on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.26C

Describe the effect of technological innovations in the workplace such as assembly line manufacturing and robotics.


Supporting Standard

Describe

EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Innovations in technology, such as assembly line manufacturing contributed to longer workdays and higher levels of production
  • Light bulbs enabled factories to remain open at night
STAAR Note:
The 2013 STAAR connected the rise in computer use in the workplace with the need for employees to sign Internet-usage agreements.
NewUS.27 The student understands the influence of scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the free enterprise system on the standard of living in the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.27A Analyze how scientific discoveries, technological innovations, space explorations, and the application of these by the free enterprise system improve the standard of living in the United States, including changes in transportation and communication.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

HOW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES,TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS, AND SPACE EXPLORATIONS IMPROVE THE STANDARD OF LIVING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use of railroads allowed for increased access to markets at lower transportation costs, especially for the movement of agricultural products from farms to distant markets.
  • Introduction of electricity improved quality of life by bring light into homes and allowing for the use of labor saving appliances.
  • The availability of automobiles and access to mass transportation in the United States has facilitated access to jobs, retail, recreation venues as well as allowing for a wider spatial distribution of the population. The introduction of hybrid vehicles resulted in reduced fuel consumption. Users of hybrid vehicles also save on the cost of fuel. 
  • An expansion of air travel has allowed for both business and leisure travel.
  • Communication innovations starting with the telegraph and later the telephone has allowed for easier and quicker spread of information and increased connectivity between individuals. The introduction of satellite and cellular technologies has enhanced telephone service to be faster and farther reaching.
  • Access to information has been facilitated by the expansion of radio, television and computer technologies, and most significantly by the creation of the Internet.
  • Space exploration contributed to the development of new consumer products. GPS, cellular phones, plastics, high-strength textiles, polarized lenses and other products developed for space travel, have become everyday items.
  • Aerospace industry is responsible for the development of Earth-imaging technologies, remote medical diagnosis, high-resolution optical scanners, satellites, heat shielding insulating materials, and ultraviolet-filtering lenses; satellite technologies have aided in more accurate weather forecasting; climate control technology in homes has promoted energy efficiency
  • Telecommunications developed for the military have led to the widespread use of cell phones and micro-technology. The Internet developed for military use and has now spread worldwide allowing for read access to information, access to new markets, and increasing connectedness.

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed student knowledge of robotics as a technological advance.

NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28A Analyze primary and secondary sources such as maps, graphs, speeches, political cartoons, and artifacts to acquire information to answer historical questions.
Process Standard

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION AND ANSWER HISTORICAL QUESITONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewUS.28B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
NewUS.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context.
Process Standard

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author.
  • Examining historical context or the time in which the author lived, along with frame of reference or the life experiences of the author are important for understanding the influences on the author’s point of view.
NewUS.29 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewUS.29A Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewUS.29B Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28C Apply the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence.

Apply

PROCESS OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating a compelling question
  • Analyzing sources by close reading, contextualizing, sourcing, and corroborating
  • Synthesizing information from sources
  • Developing conclusions based on evidence from sources
  • Reporting conclusions
NewUS.28E Identify bias and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Identify, Support

POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical interpretations, considered as a point of view on a social studies issues or event should be supported by evidence.
NewUS.30 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewUS.30A Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS

NewUS.30B Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS, AND DATABASES

NewUS.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewUS.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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