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Instructional Focus Document
United States History Studies Since 1877 Sequential
TITLE : Unit 04: Emergence as a World Power – Spanish-American and First World Wars 1898-1920 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the rise of the United States into the position of a world power at the beginning of the twentieth century. This unit is primarily a study of foreign policy. U.S. involvement in the Spanish-American War marked a first step for the United States as an emerging world power. The war brought an end to the Spanish colonial empire and the commencement of U.S. territorial expansion. U.S. acquisition of territory in the Pacific and the Caribbean necessitated the development of U.S. foreign policy, most notably in regards to U.S. relations with Latin American nations, China, and Japan. When the First World War started the U.S. government maintained neutrality, but was committed to protecting its interests in the Western Hemisphere while trying to avoid involvement in Europe’s internal disputes. When a German plot to involve Mexico in the war was revealed, sentiments about neutrality changed and the United States entered the war. Involvement in the First World War and the leadership President Wilson took in negotiating the peace marked another step in the United States’ emergence as a world power. An examination of the Spanish-American War, the debate about imperialism, and U.S. involvement in the First World War is important for understanding the role the United States performs in world affairs.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about domestic issues that were the focus of the Progressive Era reform efforts. It is important to note that if students have taken World History prior to U.S. History they have previously learned about the First World War.

During this Unit

During this unit students examine U.S. foreign policy in the early twentieth century including, involvement in the Spanish-American War; the development of U.S. foreign policy in regards to Latin America, China and Japan; and involvement in the First World War. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by: 1) acquiring information from various sources, 2) identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, 3) evaluating sources for bias and validity, and 4) supporting conclusions with evidence. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

While the causes of the First World War are reviewed in this unit, the primary focus of study involves examining U.S. entry into the First World War as well as U.S. actions in the war (1917-1918). Students also study the varying points of view regarding ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. Though the results of the treaty (change in political boundaries in Europe and payment of repartitions) should be reviewed, the focus of study is on Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the debate regarding the League of Nations. 

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about the economic boom that characterized the 1920’s decade in the United States.


Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Involvement in the Spanish-American War demonstrated the military might of the United States resulting in expanded U.S. territorial holdings.

  • Why did the United States go to war against Spain in 1898?
  • How did the Spanish-American War change international relations for the United States?
  • What territories did the United States gain after fighting the Spanish-American War?

Historical Processes

  • Power
  • Conflict/ Cooperation

Political Patterns

  • Imperialism
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The territorial expansion of the United States created debate and increased U.S. involvement in Latin America, China, and Japan.

  • What role did economic growth play in the annexation of Hawaii?
  • What arguments were made by supporters of imperialism and anti-imperialists in the United States?
  • How did the acquisition of islands in the Pacific change U.S. foreign policy with China and Japan?
  • How did building the Panama Canal impact U.S. foreign relations and economic growth?
  • Why did policies like the Open Door policy, the Roosevelt Corollary and “dollar diplomacy” become components of U.S. foreign policy?

Economic Patterns

  • Trade
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Though committed to neutrality, the United States eventually entered the fighting of the First World War and took a leading role in the peace efforts.

  • Why did the United States enter the First World War?
  • How did involvement in the First World War affect the United States internationally and domestically?
  • How did U.S. immigration policies change because of the First World War?
  • What policies did Wilson propose to ensure peace following the First World War?
  • Why did the United States Senate reject the Versailles Treaty?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
  • Power
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Whole Unit Performance Task:

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may confuse the United Nations with the League of Nations.

Unit Vocabulary

expansionism – practice of annexing new territory
foreign policy – actions that relate to the relationships between nations
domestic policy – actions that relate to conditions within a nation
diplomacy – the practice of conducting negotiations between nations
isolationism – policy to remain free from relationships with other nations
annexation – the act of taking in new territory

Related Vocabulary

  •  Dollar Diplomacy
  •  Open Door Policy
 
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewUS.2 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.2A Identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics.
Readiness Standard

Identify, Describe

MAJOR ERAS IN U.S. HISTORY FROM 1877 TO PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Emergence As a World Power – this era was characterized by the increasing involvement of the United States in world affairs and armed conflicts, including the Spanish American War and the First World War; geographically the nation expanded to control Guam, Hawaii, Philippines, and Puerto Rico; the United States became involved in Latin American affairs most notably constructing the Panama Canal

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed the 1960s as an era characterized by counter revolution, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights movement, and the Space Race.

NewUS.2B

Explain the significance of the following years as turning points: 1898 (Spanish-American War), 1914-1918 (World War I), 1929 (the Great Depression begins), 1939-1945 (World War II), 1957 (Sputnik launch ignites U.S.-Soviet space race), 1968 (Martin Luther King, Jr. assassination), 1969 (U.S. lands on the moon), 1991 (Cold War ends), 2001 (terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and the Pentagon), and 2008 (election of first black president, Barack Obama).


Supporting Standard

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES AS TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1898 – Spanish-American War
    • United States enters the world stage ending isolationist policy
    • Added territories – Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Cuba
  • 1914-1918: First World War
    • United States joins the Allies in 1917 increasing its role in global affairs
NewUS.4 The student understands the emergence of the United States as a world power between 1898 and 1920. The student is expected to:
NewUS.4A Explain why significant events, policies, and individuals, including the Spanish-American War, U.S. expansionism, Alfred Thayer Mahan, Theodore Roosevelt, and Sanford B. Dole moved the United States into the position of a world power.
Readiness Standard

Explain

WHY SIGNIFICANT EVENTS AND INDIVIDUALS MOVED THE UNITED STATES INTO THE POSITION OF A WORLD POWER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Spanish-American War – the United States sided with Cubans fighting for independence from Spain. The controversial sinking of the battleship USS Maine in Havana harbor was used by yellow journalists to agitate the American public and pressure President McKinley into a war with Spain. The United States first attacked Spanish possessions in the Pacific including a devastating blow to Spain’s navy in the Philippines. A U.S. invasion of Cuba culminated in a decisive battle at San Juan Hill and helped then Col. Theodore Roosevelt rise to political prominence. Cuba was liberated and the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico became U.S. territories. The defeat of an old world European power with the use of superior technology and the subsequent acquisition of territory contributed to the rise of the United States as a world power.
  • U.S. expansionism – Hawaii annexed in 1898, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam ceded by Spain in 1898, some Samoan islands annexed in 1899, Panama Canal Zone leased in 1904, and Virgin Islands purchased from Denmark in 1917. Many islands served as bases to refuel American naval and trade vessels enabling the U.S. government to project military power further abroad and U.S. business to establish new markets.
  • Alfred Thayer Mahan – naval captain and historian; his book The Influence of Seapower on History (1660-1783) published in 1890 that powerfully influenced the development of U.S. Armed Forces in the early twentieth century and led to an expansion of a modern navy and power across the globe
  • Theodore Roosevelt – “Rough Rider” during the Spanish-American War; expansionist policies as president increased the role of the United States in Latin America and the world; reasserted the Monroe Doctrine in response to threats of European intervention in Latin America; referenced an African proverb “Speak softly and carry a big stick, you will go far.”  which became known as “big stick” diplomacy; established American involvement in the Panama Canal project
  • Sanford B. Dole – lawyer and Hawaiian jurist; contributed to the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy; served as the only president of an independent Republic of Hawaii and led efforts for Hawaii annexation to the United States after which McKinley appointed him the first territorial governor. The Hawaiian Islands were key to supplying U.S. naval operations across the Pacific Ocean.
NewUS.4B Evaluate American expansionism, including acquisitions such as Guam, Hawaii, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

AMERICAN EXPANSIONISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • As a result of victories in the Spanish American War, the United States acquired Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico. In 1946 the United States granted the Philippines independence yet retained many military bases in the region. Guam and Puerto Rico remain U.S. territories.
  • U.S. interest in Hawaii was connected to the sugar trade. During the 19th century the United States has policies which supported the growth of the sugar industry in Hawaii. In 1890, with the passage of the McKinley Tariff sugar growers in Hawaii had to pay higher tariffs as did all foreign sugar exporters. The tariffs resulted in a depressed sugar market in Hawaii. Many of the sugar growers were Americans, who reasoned that if Hawaii was part of the United States the tariffs would no longer apply and business would rebound. In 1893 sugar planters staged an uprising to overthrow the new monarch who had hoped to root out foreign influences in Hawaii, Queen Liliuokalani. With assistance from U.S. military forces, the coup plotters forced the queen to abdicate. Victorious Americans in Hawaii looked to Washington for support for annexation.  President Grover Cleveland withdrew the annexation treaty from the Senate, yet public sentiment supported annexation. The Spanish-American War highlighted the strategic significance of having naval bases in Hawaii.  President McKinley signed a joint resolution annexing Hawaii as a U.S. territory in 1898.
  • An evaluation of American expansionism would include an examination of supporting and opposing viewpoints along with an examination of the resulting positive and negative effects of the expansionism.
NewUS.4C Identify the causes of World War I and reasons for U.S. entry.
Readiness Standard

Identify

CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I AND REASONS FOR U.S. ENTRY

Including, but not limited to:

Causes of World War I

  • Militarism, alliance systems, imperialism, and nationalism in Europe contributed to the outbreak of the First World War. Political instability in the Balkans, which was characterized by tensions between ethnic groups seeking self-rule, culminated in the assassination of the Archduke of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist.  Years of international interference in the Balkans and the system of alliances catapulted a local conflict between the Austro-Hungarian government and the Serbian nationalists into a war which engulfed much of Europe. 

Reasons For U.S. Entry

  • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
    • German Proclamation (1915) state that the waters around the British Isles were to be considered an official war zone and Germany would attempt to sink any ship that entered this area.
    • Sussex Pledge – Germany made a pledge not to sink merchant ships without warning and did not uphold this pledge.
    • German submarine torpedoed British ocean liner Lusitania off southern coast of Ireland in May of 1915, resulting in deaths of 128 Americans.
    • Diplomacy failed to call off unrestricted submarine warfare. Germany resumed U-boat attacks on U.S. ships.
  • Ties to Great Britain
    • The United States conducted a significant amount of trade with Great Britain, which would be affected if Germany won the war.
  • Interception of the Zimmermann telegram
    • British intelligence decoded the Zimmermann telegram in February of 1917, which revealed Germany’s plan to approach the Mexican government proposing a military alliance.  At the time Mexican sentiments toward the United States were not favorable, in reaction to U.S. responses to the Mexican Revolution. This discovery ultimately resulted in a change in U.S. public opinion towards war with Germany.
    • The resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare and the interception of the Zimmermann telegram both in February of 1917 contributed to Wilson’s decision for the United States to enter the First World War.
NewUS.4D Understand the contributions of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) led by General John J. Pershing, including the Battle of Argonne Forest.
Supporting Standard

Understand

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES LED BY GENERAL PERSHING

Including, but not limited to:

  • American Expeditionary Forces – the U.S. forces sent to the Western Front, France predominately, allowed for an Allied counter attack on the western front; fought alongside British and French allied forces the last year of the First World War
  • Gen. John J. Pershing – commander of the American Expeditionary Forces
  • Battle of Argonne Forest – a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front, the objective was the capture of an important railroad/train station which would break the railroad net supporting the German Army in France. An Allied victory, the battle is credited for leading to the Armistice.
NewUS.4E Analyze the impact of machine guns, airplanes, tanks, poison gas, and trench warfare as significant technological innovations in World War I on the Western Front.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF SIGNIFICANT TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS IN WORLD WAR I

Including, but not limited to:

  • Machine guns – relatively new technology at the beginning of the war; many difficulties with keeping machine cool, but application had the effect of making it difficult or nearly impossible to cross defended ground which resulted in huge numbers of casualties
  • Airplanes – early in the war used as spotters; planes were unarmed but pilots would carry handheld weapons; later, larger planes were created and were able to bomb the enemy
  • Tanks – developed out of the need to end the stalemate on the western front; early tanks were not reliable, but effective in ending trench warfare by leading infantry charges across “no man’s land”
  • Poison gas – chlorine gas and mustard gas used; sometimes used to create a smoke screen to hide attacking soldiers; also used to force evacuation of enemy trenches
  • Trench warfare – form of warfare in which combatants occupy fighting lines, comprised of trenches. While in the trenches, there is little risk of small arms fire, and troops are protected from artillery. The area between opposing trench lines was known as “no man’s land.”
NewUS.4F Analyze major issues raised by U.S. involvement in World War I, including isolationism, neutrality, Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the Treaty of Versailles.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

MAJOR ISSUES RAISED BY U.S. INVOLVEMENT IN WORLD WAR I

Including, but not limited to:

  • Isolationism and neutrality
    • U.S. policy of isolationism and neutrality kept the United States out of the war for years. The United States, reluctantly entered the war justified by the idea that U.S. participation would “make the world safe for democracy”-establishing a precedent that if the United States went to war it was to spread democracy.
    • United States needed to prepare and train a military force. Selective Service Act (1917) was passed requiring young American men to register for the draft.
    • Executive power expanded, new agencies such, as War Trade Board, were created to regulate the economy; railroad industry was nationalized
    • Taxes increased to pay for the war; sale of war bonds funded war efforts
    • Espionage Act of 1917 restricted freedom of speech, specifically related to criticism of the war
    • The war caused many travel barriers for those wanting to come from Europe to the United States and with that the war marked the end of a great period of relatively unrestricted immigration to the United States. Participation in the First World War increased nationalism and a suspicion of immigrants and their loyalties. This growing xenophobia coupled with a rising labor movement resulted in a shift in American attitudes towards immigrants and the passage of the Immigration Act of 1917. More restrictions on immigration followed in the 1920s.
  • Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points
    • President Wilson’s plan to ensure that peace would last; included provisions for the reduction of armaments, freedom of the seas, end to secret alliances, removal of trade barriers, self-determination for nation-states, and international cooperation through an international body (the League of Nations).
    • The primary goal of the League of Nations was to provide a forum for countries to resolve their grievances without having to resort to war, thus, helping keep the United States from being led into another war. Opponents in the U.S. Congress, including Henry Cabot Lodge, argued that participation in the League of Nations would pull the United States into unnecessary military commitments and threaten U.S. sovereignty. Many in Congress believed that U.S. involvement in the League of Nations would lead to U.S. involvement in economic and military action without the direct consent of Congress (taking power away from Congress). Ultimately isolationist sentiments prevailed and the Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles to avoid participation in the League of Nations.
  • Treaty of Versailles
    • French and British leaders seemed more concerned with punishment of Germany, resulting in a treaty that  imposed severe sanctions on Germany including reparation payments
    • Established new political boundaries in Europe. Additional treaties divided the Middle East, ended the Austrian-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire and resulted in increased involvement of British and French in the Middle East and later the United States as allies of the British and French
    • By 1919 American support for isolationism regained popularity after fighting in a war that seemed to have brought little gains for Americans.
NewUS.12 The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major events. The student is expected to:
NewUS.12A

Analyze the impact of physical and human geographic factors on the Klondike Gold Rush, the Panama Canal, the Dust Bowl, and the levee failure in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.


Readiness Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Panama Canal
    • Human factors – The 14,000 mile voyage of the USS Oregon around South American during the Spanish-American War in 1898 demonstrated a need for a canal. The United States supported a revolution in Panama in the early 1900sand was permitted to build the canal and control a zone of 5 miles on each side of the canal (known as the Canal Zone). The division of the country into two parts by the U.S. territory caused tension throughout the 20th Century. President Jimmy Carter signed a treaty to return the Canal area to Panama on December 31, 1999.
    • Physical factors – the 48-mile international waterway allows ships to pass between the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean, saving about 8,000 miles from a journey around the southern tip of South America (Cape Horn).
NewUS.15 The student understands domestic and foreign issues related to U.S. economic growth from the 1870s to 1920. The student is expected to:
NewUS.15C

Explain how foreign policies affected economic issues such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the Open Door Policy, Dollar Diplomacy, and immigration quotas.


Supporting Standard

Explain

FOREIGN POLICIES AFFECTED ECONOMIC ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Open Door Policy – Secretary of State John Hay's economic policy in China giving the imperial powers equal trading rights in the country (1899-1900); Boxer Rebellion, U.S. forces suppressed the uprising
  • Dollar Diplomacy – Taft encouraged investment by U.S. banks/businesses in Latin America and Far East; promised military protection to those who invested abroad; WWI reoriented the priorities of the emerging world power and U.S. foreign policy makers returned to a goal of isolationism
NewUS.15D Describe the economic effects of international military conflicts, including the Spanish-American War and World War I, on the United States.
Readiness Standard

Describe

ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONAL MILITARY CONFLICTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The Spanish-American War demonstrated the need for faster routes between the East and West coasts of the United States resulting in the building of the Panama Canal, which reduced transportation costs for businesses and the military. The United States gained access to overseas markets and natural resources. Additionally expenditures for the navy increased with overseas expansion.
  • Participation in the First World War created a need for government revenue which was addressed by the passage of the War Revenue Act adopted in October of 1917. This legislation increased tax rates and greatly increased tax revenues. Additionally the government issued war bonds to finance the war effort. Opportunities for employment increased as war industries demanded labor.
NewUS.18 The student understands changes over time in the role of government. The student is expected to:
NewUS.18B

Explain constitutional issues raised by federal government policy changes during times of significant events, including World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the 1960s, and September 11, 2001.


Readiness Standard

Explain

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES RAISED BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT POLICY CHANGES DURING TIMES OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

 

Including, but not limited to:

  • First World War – soon after declaring war on Germany and its allies in 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act and declared that the U.S. mail could not be used for sending any material that urged "treason, insurrection or forcible resistance to any law." It punished offenders with a fine of up to $5,000 and a five-year prison term. Related to the constitutional issue of free speech. The case of Scheneck v United States tested the constitutionality of the Espionage Act. Charles Scheneck was charged in violation of the Espionage Act after disseminating materials urging men to resist the draft. His conviction was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court as the speech was deemed as a “clear and present danger” establishing this restriction on free speech.  
NewUS.23 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
NewUS.23B

Explain the importance of congressional Medal of Honor recipients such as Army First Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker, Army Corporal Alvin York, and Army Master Sergeant Raul "Roy" Perez Benavidez.


Supporting Standard

Explain

IMPORTANCE OF CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Medal of Honor recipients are recognized for their distinguished acts of valor as a U.S. military service member. The honor is awarded by the President in the name of the Congress and is considered the most esteemed personal military decoration.
  • Army Corporal Alvin York (World War I) – was the most decorated American soldier in the First World War. He received the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine gun nest, taking 32 machine guns, killing 28 German soldiers and capturing 132 others. This action occurred during the U.S.-led portion of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in France.
NewUS.26 The student understands the impact of science, technology, and the free enterprise system on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.26B Explain how specific needs result in scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture, the military, and medicine.
Supporting Standard

Explain

HOW SPECIFIC NEEDS RESULT IN SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS IN AGRICULTRE, THE MILITARY, AND MEDICINE

The adage “necessity is the mother of invention” is the central premise of the expectation. When confronted with a challenge, some individuals and governments turn to innovation and technological advances to overcome the challenge.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Agriculture
    • The need to increase agricultural output and preserve surplus agriculture resulted in the invention of the McCormick Reaper, steel plow, canned food, and refrigeration. The need to conserve water amid dwindling availability has resulted in GPS-guided precision agriculture, center pivot irrigation, and genetically-modified crops that produce greater yields in harsher conditions.
  • Military
    • Conflict and war have often spurred technological innovation in order for individuals and nations to preserve and expand power. The desire for greater offensive capabilities has resulted in weapons and technologies that can strike at a distance, land with precision, maximize/minimize damage, and strike with stealth such as machine guns, submarines, poisonous gas, long-range missiles, combat aircraft, stealth technologies, laser-guided bombs, and nuclear weapons.
    • Efforts to control territory resulted in the invention of mines for both land and sea, placement of sophisticated walls and barriers, and high-tech monitoring.
    • The desire for defensive capabilities has led to an international arms buildup with most nations maintaining standing armies and some nations keeping a nuclear force to deter attacks from enemies.
    • The need to detect incoming aircraft led to the invention of radar.
  • Medicine
    • Antibiotics including penicillin are designed to combat bacterial infections.
    • Vaccines came about to guard human populations against highly contagious diseases such as polio, measles, rubella, mumps and most recently chicken pox. 
    • The use of blood plasma was pioneered during the Second World War for expanding medical needs in Great Britain.
    • War and conflict continue to spur medical advances such as in the cases of remote medicine for treatment at a distance, advance capabilities to deal with traumatic injuries, and biological research.
  • Impact of new technologies
    • New technologies often influence everyday life by leading to the creation of new jobs. Increased efficiency, greater convenience, greater speed, and cheaper costs are often associated with the impact of new technologies. However, new technologies can also introduce unintended consequences such as atomic research leading to nuclear weapons, antibiotic use increasing drug-resistant forms of disease, and the elimination of outdated forms of employment like telegraph operators, ice cutters, and lamplighters.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
NewUS.29 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewUS.29A Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewUS.29B Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28A Analyze primary and secondary sources such as maps, graphs, speeches, political cartoons, and artifacts to acquire information to answer historical questions.
Process Standard

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION AND ANSWER HISTORICAL QUESITONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewUS.28C Apply the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence.

Apply

PROCESS OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating a compelling question
  • Analyzing sources by close reading, contextualizing, sourcing, and corroborating
  • Synthesizing information from sources
  • Developing conclusions based on evidence from sources
  • Reporting conclusions
NewUS.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context.
Process Standard

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author.
  • Examining historical context or the time in which the author lived, along with frame of reference or the life experiences of the author are important for understanding the influences on the author’s point of view.
NewUS.28E Identify bias and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Identify, Support

POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical interpretations, considered as a point of view on a social studies issues or event should be supported by evidence.
NewUS.30 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewUS.30A Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS

NewUS.30B Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS, AND DATABASES

NewUS.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewUS.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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