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Instructional Focus Document
United States History Studies Since 1877
TITLE : Unit 03: Reforming America – the Progressive Era 1898-1920 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the development of the reform movements of the Progressive Era. This unit is primarily a study of reforming social conditions. The Progressive Movement, which advanced between 1900 and the beginning of the First World War, arose to address the problems resulting from industrialization and urbanization. While the movement has roots in the populist movement of the late 1800s, the base of the progressives was in the middle class of America. Progressives, who were influenced by writers, journalists, religious leaders, and college professors, sought to remedy social issues by instituting reforms at the local, state, and national levels. Generally, progressive reforms targeted the exploitation of workers and corruption in government along with promotion of civil rights. While the progressives were successful at introducing reforms to improve working conditions and to expand civic participation, they were not as successful at expanding civil rights for African Americans. The efforts of some reformers, including those of W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington can be seen as the origins of the modern civil rights movement in America. The last significant reform of the progressives was the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment granting women the right to vote. An examination of the Progressive Era is important for understanding the American ideal that the people can instigate reforms to create a better society for all.  

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the settlement of the West, the rise of big business, industrialization, immigration, and urbanization that occurred at the end of the nineteenth century in the United States.

During this Unit

During this unit, students learn about how progressive reformers brought about social and political change at the local, state, and national level; the emergence of the Progressive Party; and how reform legislation changed the relationship between business and government. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by: 1) acquiring information from various sources, 2) identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, 3) evaluating sources for bias and validity, and 4) supporting conclusions with evidence. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about emergence of the United States as a world power.


People act for change when they can no longer tolerate the conditions in which they live.

  • How do people act effectively to address intolerable conditions in society?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

In response to industrialization, government corruption, and social injustice reformers advocated for social and political changes, yet efforts to limit the rights of African-Americans expanded.

  • Who were some of the leading reformers of the Progressive Era?
  • What reform causes were supported by the progressives?
  • How did the Social Gospel Movement impact the progressive reform movement?
  • What tactics were used by progressive reformers to bring about change?
  • Why were reforms needed?
  • What political and social changes resulted from the efforts of the progressive reformers?
  • How did the emergence of Jim Crow laws and the Ku Klux Klan impact the civil rights of African-Americans?

Historical Processes

  • Change/Continuity
  • Empathy/Identity

Political Patterns

  • Human Rights
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The emergence of the Progressive party reflected efforts to expand democratic opportunities and reform government.

  • How did initiatives, referendums, and recall expand the democratic process?
  • Why was the Progressive Party formed?
  • How did the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment expand civic participation?
  • How were municipal governments changed with the end of political machines?
  • How successful were the Progressives in elections or at making policy changes?

Civic Engagement

  • Democratic Principles

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The relationship between government and big business changed with the passage of regulatory legislation.

  • What legislation was passed because of the efforts of progressive reformers?
  • Why was the Federal Reserve created?
  • What actions were taken by the government to address the business trusts?
  • Why were the Department of Labor and the Interstate Commerce Commission created?
  • What legislation and policies were introduced by the Progressive Era Presidents?

Economic Patterns

  • Competition
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Whole Unit Performance Task:

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may have difficulty distinguishing between federal progressive reforms from state progressive reforms.
  • Students may not understand that this era of reform extended through to beginning of the 1920s.

Unit Vocabulary

muckraker – term used to describe early a twentieth century journalist who worked to expose corruption and abuses in politics and society
reform – making changes to address abuses or injustices
progressives – refers to those who advocate making reforms to the social and political status quo
suffrage – the right to vote
recall – political procedure used to remove elected officials from office prior to the end of their term
referendum – political procedure in which the elector votes directly on a legislative measure
initiative – political procedure where votes can propose a legislative measure directly for a popular vote

Related Vocabulary

  •  civic
  •  Populism
  •  monetary policy
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
NewUS.2 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.2A Identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics.

Identify, Describe

MAJOR ERAS IN U.S. HISTORY FROM 1877 TO PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Progressive Era – this era of U.S. history was characterized by a rise in reform movements that grew to prominence in reaction to the social and political conditions of the Gilded Age; muckrakers and ministers of the Social Gospel Movement brought attention to social problems; reformers opposed corruption and waste in the government, advocated for civil service reform, and supported causes such as women’s suffrage and prohibition along with labor reforms, including addressing child labor, reducing hours  in the work day, and increasing worker safety; politically the era was characterized by increased government intervention, including passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and anti-trust acts, along with the creation of the Federal Reserve; the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Amendments were passed during the era

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed the 1960s as an era characterized by counter revolution, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights movement, and the Space Race.
NewUS.5 The student understands the effects of reform and third-party movements in the early 20th century. The student is expected to:
NewUS.5A Analyze the impact of Progressive Era reforms, including initiative, referendum, recall, and the passage of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th amendments.

Analyze

IMPACT OF PROGRESSIVE ERA REFORMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Initiative – (a) the power or right of citizens to introduce a new legislative measure and (b) the right and procedure by which citizens can propose a law by petition and ensure its submission to the electorate
  • Referendum – the submission of a proposed public measure or actual statute to a direct popular vote; this allows the people to have more influence on the decision-making process
  • Recall – the procedure by which a public official may be removed from office by popular vote; intent of recall is to hold elected officials accountable to the people
    • Collectively the Progressive Era reforms of initiative, referendum and recall were intended to increase direct participation by the people in government, thereby expanding democracy and improving accountability for elected official
  • Sixteen Amendment – resulted in the creation of a federal income tax which was used to raise revenue for government programs and reduce reliance on tariffs
  • Seventeenth Amendment– resulted in the direct election of Senators, which was intended to increase direct participation of voters as opposed to party leadership
  • Eighteenth Amendment – effectively made the manufacturing, sale and/or distribution of alcohol illegal; gave rise to the creation of a widespread black market for alcohol; resulted in the rise of organized crime groups established to illegally supply alcohol; clandestine taverns/bars known as speakeasies were established; federal agents worked extensively to fight against organized crime associated with the prohibited distribution of alcohol; crime rates rose; was eventually repealed with the Twenty-first Amendment
  • Nineteenth Amendment– prohibited discrimination in voting on the basis of gender, thereby granting women the right to vote
NewUS.5B Evaluate the impact of muckrakers and reform leaders such as Upton Sinclair, Susan B. Anthony, Jane Addams, Ida B. Wells, and W. E. B. DuBois on American society.

Evaluate

IMPACT OF MUCKRACKERS AND REFORM LEADERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Upton Sinclair – author of The Jungle in which he hoped to expose the poor working conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry;  while the novel did not result in the worker reforms Sinclair had aimed for it did cause a public uproar about the way meat was processed instigating the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act; as a prolific author he created a large body of books focused on the plight of American workers; as a critic of “yellow journalism” his work led the first journalistic code of ethics
  • Susan B. Anthony – reformer and abolitionist,  who led the National American  Women’s Suffrage Association, was instrumental in organizing the meeting of women at Seneca Falls; as a Quaker she advocated for the education of all children regardless of race or gender; formed the Workingwomen’s Central Association; published The Revolution and used it as a platform to advocate for social causes including anti-lynching, ending racial prejudice, and better working conditions and pay for women; founded the Women’s State Temperance Society of New York with Cady Stanton; her efforts helped to motivate many women to join the women’s suffrage movement eventually resulting in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment
  • Jane Addams – co-founder of Hull House which helped new immigrant women with job skills, educational, and artistic programs to become successful and productive citizens, facilitated assimilation of immigrants
  • Ida B. Wells – reformer who used her journalistic talents to bring attention to problems in segregated schools for blacks and the injustice of lynching, along with working for women’s rights in the workplace; formed the National Association of Colored Women (1896) and is considered one of the founding members of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
  • W.E.B. DuBois – sociologist, historian, author, and was one of the founding members of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People); as a professor he encouraged a liberal arts education for African Americans; was instrumental in the Niagara Movement of African American men; his arguments for full civil rights for African Americans differed from those of Booker T. Washington; published his collection of essays The Souls of Black Folk, which was heralded as a pioneering work in the field of sociology
  • Muckrakers – popular authors and reformers, such as Upton Sinclair and Ida B. Wells who published extensively about social issues, including exposing poor working conditions in factories, the ills of child labor, and the overcrowding of cities.
NewUS.5C Analyze the impact of third parties, including the Populist and Progressive parties.

Analyze

IMPACT OF THIRD PARTIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Third parties often focus on issues the main parties ignore
  • Third-party candidates can split the major party with which they are most similar, leading to the other major party's victory
  • Populist Party – established in 1890s; comprised of poor farmers from the south; generally opposed to banks, railroads and upper class; William Jennings Bryan most popular candidate; in the election of 1896 Bryan at the age of 36 ran as the Democratic Party nominee after delivering his famous “Cross of Gold” speech at the nominating convention and was defeated by Republican Party candidate William McKinley
  • Progressive Party – formed in 1912 as a result of a split in the Republican Party; also known as the “Bull Moose Party;” Theodore Roosevelt most popular candidate; the party advocated for workers’ rights and an end to corrupt business and political alliances; Roosevelt ran as the party’s candidate in the presidential election of 1912, where he garnered more votes than the Republican candidate, but lost to Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson
NewUS.9 The student understands the impact of the American civil rights movement. The student is expected to:
NewUS.9B Explain how Jim Crow laws and the Ku Klux Klan created obstacles to civil rights for minorities such as the suppression of voting.

Explain

HOW JIM CROW LAWS AND THE KU KLUX KLAN CREATED OBSTACLES TO CIVIL RIGHTS FOR MINORITIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Jim Crow laws – with the end of Reconstruction, legislatures in the southern states passes laws intended to enforce racial segregation. Jim Crow laws also encompassed laws which required the ownership of property, paying a poll tax, or being able to read as conditions to vote. The intent and consequence was a limiting of the voting rights of African Americans. These laws were enforced by government officials as well as by the violence and intimidation of vigilante groups such as the Ku Klux Klan.
  • Ku Klux Klan – supposedly secret organization originally formed in the late 1860s by ex-Confederate soldiers in opposition to Reconstruction, but later disbanded. White nativists revived the organization in 1915, inspired by a nostalgic vision of the former South and the movie Birth of a Nation. The 1920s witnessed the next resurgence of the Klan whose leaders capitalized on the social tension of the time, appealing to those uncomfortable with the shift towards an industrial, urban society. The organization advocates devout patriotism and white supremacy. In addition to targeting African Americans they also view Catholics, Jews, and foreigners as threats to the American way of life. During the 1920s the Klan was successful at infiltrating local and state politics with its support for candidates. Members of the group have also been implicated in vigilante acts of violence generally directed at African Americans, especially lynching’s in the 1920s.
NewUS.14 The student understands the relationship between population growth and the physical environment. The student is expected to:
NewUS.14B

Identify the roles of governmental entities and private citizens in managing the environment such as the establishment of the National Park System, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Endangered Species Act.

Identify

ROLES OF GOVERNMENTAL ENTITIES AND PRIVATE CITIZENS IN MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • National Park System (NPS) – John Muir helped persuade Theodore Roosevelt to set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves and over 50 wildlife sanctuaries and several national parks. The National Park Service, created in 1916 as a U.S. federal agency with the passage of the Organic Act, manages all national monuments and national parks, including places of historical and environmental significance.
NewUS.15 The student understands domestic and foreign issues related to U.S. economic growth from the 1870s to 1920. The student is expected to:
NewUS.15B Describe the changing relationship between the federal government and private business, including the growth of free enterprise, costs and benefits of laissez-faire, Sherman Antitrust Act, Interstate Commerce Act, and Pure Food and Drug Act.

Describe

CHANGING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE BUSINESS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The relationship between the federal government and private business has been characterized by a growing role of the government in regulating private business including the passage of anti-trust acts, the Interstate Commerce Act, and various legislative acts, including the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Family and Medical Leave Act. The effects of industrialization precipitated a need for regulation aimed at protecting consumers and workers, as well as promoting fair business practices.
  • Cost and benefits of laissez-faire
    • Cost – a lack of government regulations lead some enterprises to resort to corrupt, unethical practices that harm the public good, workers, and consumers, such as monopolies, price collusion, and manufacturing of unsafe products; a lack of patent and other legal protections for intellectual property and innovations limits the ability of entrepreneurs to capitalize on new ideas
    • Benefit – lower barriers for the creation of a business; less government bureaucracy reduces business costs
  • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) – first law outlawing trusts. Set the foundation for later legislation regulating monopolies and price collusion
  • Interstate Commerce Act (1887) – first federal law regulating business; resulted in the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) as the first independent federal agency; the agency was initially charged with monitoring railroad pricing; the ICC’s regulatory authority was later expanded to include other businesses, such as oil companies, shipping on inland waterways, and trucking; the agency was abolished in 1995, yet served as a model for other federal level agencies
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) – passed in response to Upton Sinclair’s work The Jungle;this legislation was intended to protect consumers from harmful, adulterated, misbranded, or poisonous foods, drugs, medicines and liquors; the manufacture, sale or transportation of such items was regulated
NewUS.22 The student understands the promises of the Declaration of Independence and the protections of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. The student is expected to:
NewUS.22A Identify and analyze methods of expanding the right to participate in the democratic process, including lobbying, non-violent protesting, litigation, and amendments to the U.S. Constitution.

Identify, Analyze

METHODS OF EXPANDING THE RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN THE DEMOCRATIC PROCESS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lobbying – the act of persuading legislators to vote for legislation; advocacy groups and political action committees frequently pool money to fund activities related to lobbying government officials and influencing public opinion
  • Non-violent protesting – advocated by Martin Luther King and evidenced in such events as the March on Washington (1963)
  • Court decisions – court decisions can declare discriminatory laws as unconstitutional, hence promoting equal access to civil liberties, such as in the case of White v. Regester
  • Litigation – involves the process of taking a case to court; many cases involving participation in the democratic process are eventually adjudicated in the U.S. Supreme Court
  • Amendments to the U.S. Constitution – theFifteenth Amendment, Nineteenth Amendment, Twenty-fourth Amendment, and Twenty-sixth Amendment have expanded the rights of Americans to participate specifically in voting

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed student knowledge that issues related to the election of senators was addressed by a constitutional amendment.
NewUS.22C Explain how participation in the democratic process reflects our national identity, patriotism, and civic responsibility.

Explain

HOW PARTICIPATION IN THE DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY REFLECTS OUR NATIONAL IDENTITY, patriotism, and civic responsibility

Including, but not limited to:

  • Participation in the U.S. democratic society is manifest in a variety of ways; including voting, lobbying, peaceably assembling, advocating the redress of social injustices, seeking and serving in public office, serving in the military, supporting political candidates for office, acting out of civic virtue, and reporting for jury duty.
NewUS.24 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
NewUS.24A Describe how the characteristics and issues in U.S. history have been reflected in various genres of art, music, film, and literature.

Describe

CHARACTERISTICS AND ISSUES IN U.S. HISTORY HAVE BEEN REFLECTED IN VARIOUS GENRES OF ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Progressive Era- the writings of authors such as Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) reflected the reform efforts of the time, as did those of Ida Tarbell. Realism as a genre popular during the late 19th and early 20th centuries reflected the focus on the social changes brought about by industrialization. Examples include the literary works of Mark Twain as well as in the art of James McNeill Whistler.

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2013 STAAR included changes in fashion that reflected the times, such as 1920’s flappers, 1960’s counterculture, 1980’s “preppy”

The Spring 2015 STAAR included Woodstock festival as an event that showcased protest music
NewUS.25 The student understands how people from various groups contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:
NewUS.25A Explain actions taken by people to expand economic opportunities and political rights for racial, ethnic, gender, and religious groups in American society.

Explain

ACTIONS TAKEN BY PEOPLE TO EXPAND ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES AND POLITICAL RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Supporting political candidates
  • Organizing and leading protests and boycotts
  • Using media to change public opinion
  • Lobbying for legislation
  • Taking action in the courts

STAAR Note:

The 2014 STAAR assessed the actions and attitude of Booker T. Washington indicating that the focus of the student expectation may include actions of individuals, not just groups.

The 2015 STAAR assessed the action of Cesar Chavez as an instrumental leader in organizing a boycott to gain rights for migrant farm workers.

The 2016 STAAR assessed the purpose of the United Farm Workers movement.

The 2017 STAAR assessed a comparison of the Trail of Broken Treaties protest in 1972 with the 1964 March on Washington protest.

The 2018 STAAR assessed student knowledge of constitutional amendments that were argued in a case involving religious discrimination.

NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:

These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
NewUS.28E Identify bias and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Identify, Support

POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical interpretations, considered as a point of view on a social studies issues or event should be supported by evidence.
NewUS.29 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewUS.29A Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewUS.29B Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28A Analyze primary and secondary sources such as maps, graphs, speeches, political cartoons, and artifacts to acquire information to answer historical questions.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION AND ANSWER HISTORICAL QUESITONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewUS.28C Apply the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence.

Apply

PROCESS OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating a compelling question
  • Analyzing sources by close reading, contextualizing, sourcing, and corroborating
  • Synthesizing information from sources
  • Developing conclusions based on evidence from sources
  • Reporting conclusions
NewUS.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author.
  • Examining historical context or the time in which the author lived, along with frame of reference or the life experiences of the author are important for understanding the influences on the author’s point of view.
NewUS.30 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewUS.30A Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS

NewUS.30B Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS, AND DATABASES

NewUS.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewUS.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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