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Instructional Focus Document
United States History Studies Since 1877 Sequential
TITLE : Unit 02: Growing Pains – the Gilded Age 1877-1898 SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address life in America in the late 1800s following Reconstruction, a time period, often referred to as the Gilded Age. This unit is primarily a study in how economic changes bring about changes in population patterns. Additionally, the expansion of railroads and the proliferation of telegraph lines along with key legislation brought about the closing of the western frontier and the creation of a national market. The time period was politically characterized by the institution of political machines in urban areas and the rise of a populist movement amongst the rural population. An examination of the Gilded Age is important for understanding the emergence of the United States as a leading industrial power, the domestic division between rural and urban society in the United States, and the continued sectional characteristics.

Prior to this Unit

During 8th grade social studies, students learned about the concept of Manifest Destiny and the initial settlement of the West. Students also studied about the first wave of industrialization in the United States during the mid-nineteenth century, as well as the reconstruction of the union.  It may be beneficial to review these events and their connection to the events studied in this unit. 

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the final settlement of the frontier; the industrialization and rise of big business in America; and the urbanization of America, along with the rise of political machines and eventual civil service reform. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by: 1) acquiring information from various sources, 2) identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, 3) evaluating sources for bias and validity, and 4) supporting conclusions with evidence. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In a subsequent unit, students study about the efforts of progressive reformers to address the negative consequences of industrial growth and urbanization.


Adopting new ideas and innovations has unintended consequences.

  • Do new ideas and innovations improve the lives of people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The settlement of the Great Plains continued the conflicts with American Indian tribes and resulted in the closing of the western frontier.

  • How did the population and economic patterns of the American West change because of governmental policies, such as the Homestead Act?
  • How did the building of the Transcontinental Railroad and the Klondike Gold Rush bring about changes to the American West?
  • How did the lifestyles of the American Indians change with the closing of the American frontier?
  • How did government assimilation policies change the lives of American Indians?
  • What was characteristic of the conflicts between settlers, the military, and American Indian tribes of the late 1800s and early 1900s?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration
  • Population Distribution
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Technological innovation and new types of business organization spurred the growth of industries, the rise of big business, and the formation of organized labor.

  • What innovations helped large industries and big businesses to grow?
  • How did workers respond to the rise of large industries?
  • How was farming and the cattle industry transformed at this time?
  • What were the positive and negative consequences of the industrialization in the late nineteenth century?
  • What contributions to American society were made by business leaders such as Andrew Carnegie and others referred to as “robber barons”?

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Mechanization
  • Communication Systems
  • Transportation
  • Infrastructure

Economic Patterns

  • Factors of Production
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Industrialization fueled urbanization, immigration and a divide between rural and urban America.

  • What was characteristic of immigration to the United States during the late nineteenth century?
  • What was daily life like for women, children, and immigrants living in urban areas of the United States in the late nineteenth century?
  • What political and social effects did growing nativist sentiments have in late nineteenth century America?
  • What were the positive and negative consequences of political machines?
  • Why was civil service reform enacted?
  • What was characteristic of life in rural America in the late 1800s?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration
  • Population Distribution

Cultural Patterns

  • Demographics
  • Ethnicity
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Whole Unit Performance Task:

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may have the misconception that the American West was completely settled as a result of the early nineteenth settlement along the westward trails.
  • Students generally lack an understanding of the term “gilded” and how that reference applies to the conditions of this time period.

 

Unit Vocabulary

immigration – moving from one’s homeland to live in another place
urbanization – the migration of people to live in cities
industrialization – economic activity characterized by manufacturing of goods
robber baron – term used to refer to wealthy U.S. industrialists from the late nineteenth century who exploited resources to amass wealth
nativism – policy advocating for the protection of the native population at the expense of immigrants
assimilate – adopting the culture of a nation or group

Related Vocabulary

  • Social Gospel 
  • urban
  •  civil service
  •  settlement 
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
NewUS.2 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history from 1877 to the present. The student is expected to:
NewUS.2A Identify the major eras in U.S. history from 1877 to the present and describe their defining characteristics.
Readiness Standard

Identify, Describe

MAJOR ERAS IN U.S. HISTORY FROM 1877 TO PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Gilded Age – this era of U.S. history was characterized by the expansion of big business, the rise of labor unions, and  increasing industrialization, immigration and urbanization; westward expansion continued with the growth of the railroad industry necessitating the need for policies to address the American Indians tribes affected by the migration; the era was distinguished by political machines which controlled local politics; during this era some industrialists took advantage of corrupt government officials to profit politically and economically

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed the 1960s as an era characterized by counter revolution, the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights movement, and the Space Race.
NewUS.3 The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in the United States from 1877 to 1898. The student is expected to:
NewUS.3A Analyze political issues such as Indian policies, the growth of political machines, and civil service reform.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

POLITICAL ISSUES FROM 1877 TO 1898

Including, but not limited to:

  • Indian policies
    • The migration of many Americans to settle the Great Plains brought to the forefront conflicts with American Indian tribes living in the region. Most significantly were the Ghost Dance Wars (1890-1891).
    • Government responded to the growing tensions with policies that devastated American Indian tribal culture. Policies included destroying buffalo populations, stationing federal troops in the region, attempts at forced assimilation, removal of American Indians from tribal lands to reservations, and the passage of the Dawes Act, which granted small parcels of land to individual tribe members.
  • Political machines
    • Leaders of the political machines known as political bosses gained support of the populous by making improvements to urban infrastructures, providing jobs to immigrants and the poor, and giving favors to local businessmen. Because of the rapid increase in immigrant populations, local governments could not provide basic services quickly; therefore, local political machines filled the void by providing such services. The expectation was to then have support from these groups, especially immigrants, at the ballot box. The growth of political machines manifested in growing government corruption. The most prominent political machine was Tammany Hall in New York led by Boss Tweed. The corruption of the political machines was often the subject of Thomas Nast’s political cartoons and illustrations.
  • Civil service reform
    • Efforts to address political corruption were targeted at creating a civil service that hired individuals based on merit not as political favors. The assassination of President Garfield by Charles J. Guiteau in 1881 propelled the topic from a local issue to a national stage. The assassination reportedly occurred because Guiteau felt he was owed a government position due to his support in Garfield’s election. President Arthur was instrumental in getting civil service reform with the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883, which ended the practice of “patronage” and instituted an exam system for government jobs.
NewUS.3B Analyze economic issues such as industrialization, the growth of railroads, the growth of labor unions, farm issues, the cattle industry boom, the growth of entrepreneurship, and the pros and cons of big business.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

ECONOMIC ISSUES FROM 1877 TO 1898

Including, but not limited to:

  • Industrialization
    • Industries and big business grew in response to technological innovations such as the Bessemer Steel Process, which enabled faster production of a stronger steel product. (e.g., Steel and railroad manufacturing businesses became big business as the demand for steel increased, and railroads began to be built from steel.)
    • Other breakthroughs in electricity, mass communication, and shipping allowed factories to produce more, at a faster rate.
    • Large numbers of immigrants provided industrialists with more workers.
    • Shift from rural to urban society
  • Growth of railroads
    • Industry relied on railroads for shipping.
    • Railroads grew in response to increased demands of industrialization and Western Expansion.
    • Railroads expanded westward to meet demands of settlement and economic development of the West. Railroads carried people and products to new markets in the West and across the United States.
    • Railroad shipping facilitated the growth of ranching, farming, and mining industries in the West.
    • Industrial and technological innovations in manufacturing and mass communication enabled rapid growth of railroads.
  • Growth of labor unions
    • Labor leaders criticized company owners and managers for reducing competition, paying low wages and maintaining unsafe working conditions for their employees. Unions such as the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor formed as advocates for protecting workers’ interests.
    • Factory workers formed and joined labor unions in order to engage in collective bargaining with employers.
    • Many workers went on strike in the 1880s.
    • Three significant events of the time period included the “Great Strikes,” Homestead, Pullman, and Haymarket Riot.
  • Farm issues
    • Westward expansion
    • Late 1800s famers began to rely on mechanization to improve and increase agricultural production. As a result, overproduction occurred and farmers went into debt.
    • Farmers generally supported adoption of a free silver coinage monetary policy. This would increase money supply and inflate prices benefiting them when agricultural products were sold.
  • Cattle industry boom
    • Coincided with the declining culture of the Plains American Indian tribes and the growth of wild cattle herds
    • Population increases in cities resulted in growing demand for beef
    • Railroads provided method of transportation of cattle to urbanized areas, where a meatpacking industry was expanding
    • Invention of refrigerated railroad cars facilitated the transportation of beef products to markets
    • Introduction of barbed wire and windmills supported the expansion of ranching industry
  • Growth of entrepreneurship
    • An entrepreneur is someone who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business; an agent of change; discovers new ways to combine resources.
    • In the 1800s, many were considered entrepreneurs because they created value by moving resources out of less productive areas and into more productive ones.
    • Other example: skilled immigrants used their trade skills to establish businesses of their own.
  • Big business
    • Industrialists and business leaders used horizontal and vertical alignment to reduce competition and expand their companies; many times big businesses reduced competition and concentrated capital which resulted in monopolies and trusts
    • Industrialists such as Carnegie, Rockefeller, Morgan, and Vanderbilt amassed fortunes some of which was contributed to philanthropic causes; some people viewed these men as “captains of industry,” while critics viewed them as “robber barons”
    • Socio-economic divisions widened as industries grew; jobs were created; labor unions formed
NewUS.3C Analyze social issues affecting women, minorities, children, immigrants, and urbanization.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

SOCIAL ISSUES FROM 1877 TO 1898

Including, but not limited to:

  • Affecting women
    • Many young, single women worked in factories that made textiles, where wages were typically lower than men’s wages.
  • Affecting minorities
    • The post-Reconstruction period was characterized by the introduction of legal discriminatory measures intended to reinforce the existing social order. Most measures were targeted at African-Americans and included poll taxes, and grandfather clauses. The most extreme violence against African-Americans included lynching and racially motivated riots, such as in Atlanta in 1909. The time period was characterized by segregation of minority groups from Anglos.
  • Affecting children
    • Many children worked in factories, performing dangerous jobs for lower wages than adult workers received. As the twentieth century approached many communities were enacting compulsory education for young children.
  • Affecting immigrants
    • Many immigrants entered the United States via ports of entry such as Ellis Island in New York, Angel Island in San Francisco, and Galveston Island in Texas. The immigrant experience at these ports of entry included physical examinations, interrogation, language and intelligence testing. Immigrants faced language and cultural barriers, and sometimes were separated from family members, detained for health or legal reasons, or deported before entering the United States. Immigrants faced the threat of poverty often living in crowded city tenements. Some migrated to the Midwest for available farm land. Skilled immigrants used their trade skills to establish businesses of their own.
    • Nativists opposed the new waves of immigrants and supported restrictions on immigration. Immigrants were seen as uneducated and in competition for jobs and living space. Some groups faced exclusion from employment or housing, and discrimination because of ethnic differences, including discrimination against Irish immigrants for being predominately Roman Catholic.
    • The Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) passed in response to nativists claims related to competition for jobs.  Prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the United States.
    • Immigrants were encouraged to assimilate and public schools assumed a large role in the assimilation of immigrants.
  • Urbanization
    • Industrialization of cities was accompanied by urbanization. Cities were crowded and living conditions were often unhealthy as many cities lacked services to provide for sanitation and clean drinking water. The close proximity of people in cities facilitated the spread of diseases and the poverty resulted in high crime rates. At the twentieth century approached cities began to create local police and fire department and began to address sanitation issues with city codes.
    • Ethnic neighborhoods were established in cities where immigrants settled.
NewUS.12 The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major events. The student is expected to:
NewUS.12A

Analyze the impact of physical and human geographic factors on the Klondike Gold Rush, the Panama Canal, the Dust Bowl, and the levee failure in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.


Readiness Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Klondike Gold Rush – late 1800s, in Northern Washington and Alaska
    • Human factors – thousands, hoping to ease the woes of economic depression, sold farms, dropped businesses, and boarded ships to follow their dreams north.
    • Physical factors – Alaska was seen as a large and distant source of raw materials.
NewUS.13 The student understands the causes and effects of migration and immigration on American society. The student is expected to:
NewUS.13A

Analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from migration within the United States, including western expansion, rural to urban, the Great Migration, and the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt.


Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CHANGING DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERNS RESULTING FROM MIGRATION WITHIN THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Western Expansion
    • Cause: Homestead Act, Klondike Gold Rush
    • Effect: populated the western Unites States, especially with generations of European descendants, forced American Indians off lands
  • Rural to urban – urbanization during the Gilded Age
    • Cause: growing economic opportunities in cities because of industrialization
    • Effect: densely populated cities mainly in the Northeast
NewUS.13B Analyze the causes and effects of changing demographic patterns resulting from immigration to the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF CHANGING DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERNS RESULTING FROM IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Migration contributes to changing demographic patterns. Economic conditions and political persecution, led many immigrants to enter the United States legally and illegally.
  • Large influxes of immigrants caused rapid growth in ports of entry and cities with heavy industry, as well as the growth of cultural enclaves within cities
  • Southern border states have experienced greater cultural diffusion from Mexico and a higher density of the Hispanic population due to proximity
  • Western states have experienced greater cultural diffusion from Asia and a higher density of Asian populations due to proximity
  • Businesses have responded to growing immigrant populations by providing telecommunications in a variety of languages, promoting products consumed by various cultural groups, and marketing and product packaging in multiple languages
  • Cultural changes that  resulted from immigration include the spread of Catholicism with the influx of Irish immigrants, the introduction of various cultural celebrations, and the proliferation of new foods and music
  • Changing demographic patterns may result in increased fears about loss of political power and economic opportunities, which may result in legislation such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and immigration quotas
 
NewUS.14 The student understands the relationship between population growth and the physical environment. The student is expected to:
NewUS.14A Identify the effects of population growth and distribution on the physical environment.
Readiness Standard

Identify

EFFECTS OF POPULATION GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION ON THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Urbanization as workers migrated to cities in search of jobs
  • Cities became polluted; waterways contaminated; air quality diminished; ecosystems disrupted
  • Urban sprawl; growth of suburbs
  • Settlement in animal habitats; deforestation
  • Increased demand for resources especially water and energy,  resulting in the building of dams
  • Building of railroads, roads, and infrastructure to meet transportation and communication needs
  • Increased demand for food resulting in the conversion of natural habitats to farmland
  • Establishment of the National Park System to protect land from population growth
  • Creation of private nonprofit organizations dedicated to protecting the physical environment

STAAR Note:

The 2017 STAAR assessed student’s knowledge with a display of two photographs related to urbanization in Miami from 1913 and 1997.
NewUS.15 The student understands domestic and foreign issues related to U.S. economic growth from the 1870s to 1920. The student is expected to:
NewUS.15A Describe how the economic impact of the Transcontinental Railroad and the Homestead Act contributed to the close of the frontier in the late 19th century.
Supporting Standard

Describe

HOW ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD AND THE HOMESTEAD ACT CONTRIBUTED TO THE CLOSE OF THE FRONTIER IN THE LATE 19th CENTURY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Transcontinental Railroad (completed 1869)
    • Attracted settlers to the West, attracted immigrants for jobs working on the railroad, and significantly reduced travel time across the United States
    • Allowed for the transport of crops and cattle to markets creating economic expansion of the agricultural sector
    • Large cities grew where railroads converged, such as Chicago, Kansas City, and Denver
    • Towns thrived along railroad stops, local economy grew
  • Homestead Act (1862)
    • Attracted European immigrants to settle the Great Plains
    • 270 million acres were claimed by homesteaders
    • Homesteaders were able to successfully farm the land
  • In combination, the building of the Transcontinental Railroad and the passage of the Homestead Act allowed for economic development and settlement of the West thereby closing the vast frontier
NewUS.15C

Explain how foreign policies affected economic issues such as the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, the Open Door Policy, Dollar Diplomacy, and immigration quotas.


Supporting Standard

Explain

FOREIGN POLICIES AFFECTED ECONOMIC ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 – the first major law restricting immigration to the United States. It was enacted in response to economic fears, especially on the West Coast, where native-born Americans attributed unemployment and declining wages to Chinese workers, whom they also viewed as racially inferior.
NewUS.23 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
NewUS.23A

Evaluate the contributions of significant political and social leaders in the United States such as Andrew Carnegie, Thurgood Marshall, Billy Graham, Sandra Day O'Connor, and Hillary Clinton.


Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL AND SOCIAL LEADERS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Andrew Carnegie – a powerful industrialist in the Gilded Age whose companies manufactured steel and built railroads; authored “The Gospel of Wealth” article which promoted philanthropic actions such as the building of libraries and schools

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2013 STAAR assessed that Franklin D. Roosevelt-delivered evening radio speeches (Fireside Chats) to reassure the public during the Great Depression as a significant contribution by a political figure.

NewUS.25 The student understands how people from various groups contribute to our national identity. The student is expected to:
NewUS.25B Describe the Americanization movement to assimilate immigrants and American Indians into American culture.
Supporting Standard

Describe

AMERICANIZATION MOVEMENT TO ASSIMILATE IMMIGRANTS AND AMERICAN INDIANS INTO AMERICAN CULTURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • American Indian children were taken away from their homes and traditional culture and sent to boarding schools to become “Americanized.”
  • Immigrants – schools were “Americanization” centers for new immigrants to learn English and patriotism.
NewUS.26 The student understands the impact of science, technology, and the free enterprise system on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.26A Explain the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations such as electric power, telephone and satellite communications, petroleum-based products, steel production, and computers on the economic development of the United States.
Readiness Standard

Explain

EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Electric power
    • Facilitated increased production in factories by allowing for use of machinery, which was later applied to assembly line methods of production
    • The invention of the lightbulb and its application to factories facilitated the lengthening of the workday
  • Telephone
    • 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone, revolutionizing communications
    • Long-distance communication made possible the expansion of national markets
  • Satellite communications
    • First used in the 1960’s to facilitate long-distance telephone communications resulting in expanded markets
    • Later applied to transmission of television signals, allowing for the growth of advertisement
    • Most recently used to broadcast digital radio signals, and facilitate connectivity to the Internet, creating new industries, new platforms for advertising, and expanding markets
    • The resulting increased efficiencies in telecommunications has promoted a higher standard of living in the United States
  • Petroleum-based products
    • Edwin L. Drake struck oil in 1859, enabling kerosene production and paving the way for future products such as gasoline.
    • Later invention of the internal-combustion engine fueled by gasoline, improved transportation allowing for expanded markets and lower transportation costs
  • Steel production
    • Bessemer process introduced in the 1850s revolutionized the steel production process by significantly speeding up the process
    • Greatly impacted industrialization in the 1900s as more products were made of steel
    • Was necessary to help build the transcontinental railroads, facilitating expansion of markets and lower transportation costs
  • Computers
    • First conceptualized in the early 1900s, development continued with the first consumer computers available in the 1970s generally used by businesses, and later in the 1980s personal computers were introduced
    • Allows for storing massive amounts of data, processing of information, and communicating faster
    • Replaced many larger devices, created new industries and new jobs, changed the nature of education, allows for delivery of information from long-distance
    • Allows for work to be produced in remote areas, increasing telecommuting and job-sharing
    • Greatly expanded markets and changed the nature of consumerism with the introduction of the Internet

STAAR Note:

The 2017 STAAR assessed students’ knowledge of wind power as a renewable resource.
NewUS.26B Explain how specific needs result in scientific discoveries and technological innovations in agriculture, the military, and medicine.
Supporting Standard

Explain

HOW SPECIFIC NEEDS RESULT IN SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS IN AGRICULTRE, THE MILITARY, AND MEDICINE

The adage “necessity is the mother of invention” is the central premise of the expectation. When confronted with a challenge, some individuals and governments turn to innovation and technological advances to overcome the challenge.

Including, but not limited to:

  • Agriculture
    • The need to increase agricultural output and preserve surplus agriculture resulted in the invention of the McCormick Reaper, steel plow, canned food, and refrigeration. The need to conserve water amid dwindling availability has resulted in GPS-guided precision agriculture, center pivot irrigation, and genetically-modified crops that produce greater yields in harsher conditions.
  • Military
    • Conflict and war have often spurred technological innovation in order for individuals and nations to preserve and expand power. The desire for greater offensive capabilities has resulted in weapons and technologies that can strike at a distance, land with precision, maximize/minimize damage, and strike with stealth such as machine guns, submarines, poisonous gas, long-range missiles, combat aircraft, stealth technologies, laser-guided bombs, and nuclear weapons.
    • Efforts to control territory resulted in the invention of mines for both land and sea, placement of sophisticated walls and barriers, and high-tech monitoring.
    • The desire for defensive capabilities has led to an international arms buildup with most nations maintaining standing armies and some nations keeping a nuclear force to deter attacks from enemies.
    • The need to detect incoming aircraft led to the invention of radar.
  • Medicine
    • Antibiotics including penicillin are designed to combat bacterial infections.
    • Vaccines came about to guard human populations against highly contagious diseases such as polio, measles, rubella, mumps and most recently chicken pox. 
    • The use of blood plasma was pioneered during the Second World War for expanding medical needs in Great Britain.
    • War and conflict continue to spur medical advances such as in the cases of remote medicine for treatment at a distance, advance capabilities to deal with traumatic injuries, and biological research.
  • Impact of new technologies
    • New technologies often influence everyday life by leading to the creation of new jobs. Increased efficiency, greater convenience, greater speed, and cheaper costs are often associated with the impact of new technologies. However, new technologies can also introduce unintended consequences such as atomic research leading to nuclear weapons, antibiotic use increasing drug-resistant forms of disease, and the elimination of outdated forms of employment like telegraph operators, ice cutters, and lamplighters.
NewUS.26C

Describe the effect of technological innovations in the workplace such as assembly line manufacturing and robotics.


Supporting Standard

Describe

EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS IN THE WORKPLACE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Innovations in technology, such as assembly line manufacturing contributed to longer workdays and higher levels of production
  • Light bulbs enabled factories to remain open at night
STAAR Note:

The 2013 STAAR connected the rise in computer use in the workplace with the need for employees to sign Internet-usage agreements.
NewUS.27 The student understands the influence of scientific discoveries, technological innovations, and the free enterprise system on the standard of living in the United States. The student is expected to:
NewUS.27A Analyze how scientific discoveries, technological innovations, space explorations, and the application of these by the free enterprise system improve the standard of living in the United States, including changes in transportation and communication.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

HOW SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES,TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS, AND SPACE EXPLORATIONS IMPROVE THE STANDARD OF LIVING

Including, but not limited to:

  • Use of railroads allowed for increased access to markets at lower transportation costs, especially for the movement of agricultural products from farms to distant markets.
  • Introduction of electricity improved quality of life by bring light into homes and allowing for the use of labor saving appliances.
  • The availability of automobiles and access to mass transportation in the United States has facilitated access to jobs, retail, recreation venues as well as allowing for a wider spatial distribution of the population. The introduction of hybrid vehicles resulted in reduced fuel consumption. Users of hybrid vehicles also save on the cost of fuel. 
  • An expansion of air travel has allowed for both business and leisure travel.
  • Communication innovations starting with the telegraph and later the telephone has allowed for easier and quicker spread of information and increased connectivity between individuals. The introduction of satellite and cellular technologies has enhanced telephone service to be faster and farther reaching.
  • Access to information has been facilitated by the expansion of radio, television and computer technologies, and most significantly by the creation of the Internet.
  • Space exploration contributed to the development of new consumer products. GPS, cellular phones, plastics, high-strength textiles, polarized lenses and other products developed for space travel, have become everyday items.
  • Aerospace industry is responsible for the development of Earth-imaging technologies, remote medical diagnosis, high-resolution optical scanners, satellites, heat shielding insulating materials, and ultraviolet-filtering lenses; satellite technologies have aided in more accurate weather forecasting; climate control technology in homes has promoted energy efficiency
  • Telecommunications developed for the military have led to the widespread use of cell phones and micro-technology. The Internet developed for military use and has now spread worldwide allowing for read access to information, access to new markets, and increasing connectedness.

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed student knowledge of robotics as a technological advance.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing and contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations, making predictions, drawing inferences, and drawing conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewUS.29 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewUS.29A Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information using effective communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewUS.29B Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewUS.30 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewUS.30A Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, AND CHARTS

NewUS.30B Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, charts, and available databases.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS SHOWN ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS, AND DATABASES

TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewUS.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewUS.28A Analyze primary and secondary sources such as maps, graphs, speeches, political cartoons, and artifacts to acquire information to answer historical questions.
Process Standard

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION AND ANSWER HISTORICAL QUESITONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewUS.28C Apply the process of historical inquiry to research, interpret, and use multiple types of sources of evidence.

Apply

PROCESS OF HISTORICAL INQUIRY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creating a compelling question
  • Analyzing sources by close reading, contextualizing, sourcing, and corroborating
  • Synthesizing information from sources
  • Developing conclusions based on evidence from sources
  • Reporting conclusions
NewUS.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author, including points of view, frames of reference, and historical context.
Process Standard

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an author expresses in a document.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author.
  • Examining historical context or the time in which the author lived, along with frame of reference or the life experiences of the author are important for understanding the influences on the author’s point of view.
NewUS.28E Identify bias and support with historical evidence a point of view on a social studies issue or event.

Identify, Support

POINT OF VIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical interpretations, considered as a point of view on a social studies issues or event should be supported by evidence.
NewUS.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewUS.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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