Hello, Guest!

Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 11: Reconstruction – Rebuilding the Union 1865-1877 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the issues faced by the government and citizens of the United States after the Civil War as the process to reconstruct the union began. This unit is primarily a study of reform. The emancipation of former enslaved African-Americans was a drastic social and economic change for the South. Many southern legislatures passed “black codes’, intended to control the lives of former slaves. Outrage over the black codes in the North facilitated political support for more restrictive policies of reconstruction. This new phase of reconstruction came to be known as radical reconstruction. During radical reconstruction the former confederacy was divided into military districts. Additionally, newly enfranchised African-American males gained a political voice and many were elected to state legislatures in the south and to the U.S. Congress. The success of reconstruction policies which extended rights and political voice to former enslaved African-Americans was met with resistance, including the rise of white supremacy groups and the instituting of restrictions on voting, such poll taxes and literacy tests. It is important to emphasize that with the emancipation of enslaved people, thousands were left without work or income. One of the biggest challenges was creating a system to give land to freedmen so they could farm and make a living. This system never developed due to political disagreements. The South experienced poverty for generations with sharecropping and tenancy replacing slavery, while northern businesses prospered.

Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of 1877 which was brought about with the election of Rutherford B. Hayes as President of the United States.  This time period was also characterized by the settlement of the central plains region of the United States, most facilitated by the passage of the Homestead Act and the building of the Transcontinental Railroad. Studying about Reconstruction is important for understanding the nature of federalism in the United States and for understanding the economic patterns that continued to characterize the North and the South.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the Civil War.

During this Unit

During this unit students learn about the challenges to rebuilding and readmitting the southern states to the Union, and about the economic and social changes that resulted from Reconstruction policies, including the three constitutional amendments that helped reshape American citizenship and the life of African Americans after the Civil War. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Rebuilding the Union required addressing political, economic and social problems in the southern states.

  • What pressing political, economic, and social problems did the southern states face following the end of the Civil War?
  • How was the U.S. Constitution amended because of the Civil War?
  • How did the U.S. legislature address the problems in the southern states following the Civil War?
  • What conditions were established for readmission of the southern states to the Union?
  • What compromise was made to eventually reconstruct the Union?

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Reconstruction brought changes in social and economic patterns in the South.

  • How did the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments change the United States and the lives of Americans?
  • How did some in the South respond to the changes brought about by Reconstruction?
  • What was characteristic of the economy in the South after Reconstruction?
  • How were the lives of people, including the former enslaved population, living in the South changed by Reconstruction?
  • What stayed the same about life in the United States following Reconstruction?

Historial Processes

  • Change/Continuity
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students often believe that there were no enslaved people in the northern colonies.

Unit Vocabulary

Reconstruction – process of rebuilding the Union with the readmission of the southern states
sharecropping – the practice of receiving a portion of the crops in exchange for living and farming on a large estate
carpetbagger – referred to Northerners who moved to the South following the Civil War to take advantage of the unsettled political situation
scalawag – referred to Southerners who cooperated with federal authorities during Reconstruction, often gaining an advantage
homestead – a tract of land with a home on it

Related Vocabulary

  • legislation
  • Black Codes
  • land grant
  • amendment
  • civil rights
  • due process
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reconstruction – this era was characterized by the rebuilding of the United States with the readmission of the Confederate states to the union; constitutional amendments were ratified to end slavery, provide citizenship to formerly enslaved persons, to extend due process rights to all citizens, and to provide voting rights to formerly enslaved persons and African Americans; Reconstruction during the presidency of Andrew Johnson was characterized by leniency for the former Confederate states resulting in the passage of “black codes”; political reaction to Johnson’s policies fractured his relationship with Congress and culminated in his impeachment; the Reconstruction Act of 1867 divided the South into military districts and ushered in Radical Reconstruction; the success of Reconstruction at providing political rights to African Americans elicited reactionary measures by many in the South including violence and intimidation to keep African Americans from voting; some in the South resented the arrival of northerners, referred to as “carpetbaggers”, as well as white southerners who supported Reconstruction policies referred to as “scalawags; the Compromise of 1877 which provided for the certification of Rutherford B. Hayes as president marked the end of Reconstruction; this time period was also characterized by settlement of the central United States with the passage of the Homestead Act of 1862
New8.9 The student understands the effects of Reconstruction on the political, economic, and social life of the nation. The student is expected to:
New8.9A Evaluate legislative reform programs of the Radical Reconstruction Congress and reconstructed state governments.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

LEGISLATIVE REFORM PROGRAMS OF THE RADICAL RECONSTRUCTION   CONGRESS AND RECONSTRUCTED STATE GOVERNMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Freedmen’s Bureau – established in the War Department as the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands in March, 1865. The Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freedmen providing assistance including issuing rations, clothing, and medicine to tens of thousands of poor whites and former slaves. The Bureau also assumed custody of confiscated lands or property in the former Confederate states, border states, District of Columbia, and Indian Territory. Additionally the bureau provided legal assistance, operated hospitals, helped to locate family members, provided employment, supervised labor contracts, investigated racial confrontations, and worked with African American soldiers and sailors to recover back pay, bounty payments, and pensions.
  • 13th Amendment – abolish slavery
  • Reconstruction Act of 1867 – military occupation of the former confederate states; strict guidelines on representation and requirements for readmission to Union
  • 14th Amendment – citizenship (equal protection clause and due process clause)
  • 15th Amendment – right to vote (universal male suffrage)
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866 – granted citizenship to persons born in the United States, except members of American Indian tribes; first time Congress passed a law protecting racial minorities

 Reconstructed State Governments reforms

  • Passed civil right laws
  • Reformed the tax system
  • Created economic development programs
  • Established the South’s first state funded public schools
  • Prohibited racial discrimination in public transportation and accommodation

 Evaluating reconstruction reforms

  • Initially the reforms were successful at reuniting the states, reconstituting state governments, and providing political opportunities for African Americans. Most notably was the expanded representation of African Americans in Congress. Sixteen seats in Congress from 1867-1877 were held by African Americans. The first African American senator served and the first African American governor was elected, serving in Louisiana. Many African Americans were elected as sheriffs and to school boards. About 600 African Americans served as legislators on the local level.
  • Upon the election of Rutherford B. Hayes federal troops were withdrawn from the South. Almost immediately all reforms that provided political power to African Americans were ended. Institutionalized segregation was implemented across the South and efforts to limit the voting rights of African Americans were instigated.
New8.9B Explain the impact of the election of African Americans from the South such as Hiram Rhodes Revels.
Supporting Standard

Explain

IMPACT OF THE ELECTION OF AFRICAN AMERICANS FROM THE SOUTH

Including, but not limited to:

  • During Reconstruction many African Americans were elected to public office including sixteen seats in Congress from 1867-1877. The first African American senator Hiram Rhodes Revels served and the first African American governor was elected, serving in Louisiana. Many African Americans were elected as sheriffs and to school boards. About 600 African Americans served as legislators on the local level.
  • The end of Reconstruction brought an end to the gains made by African Americans in the South in elections as efforts to limit the voting rights of African Americans were instituted.
  • Historic African American congressional representation reflected the success of these efforts.
    • 1869-1901 – 20 representatives and 2 senators served, all from the South (1 senator from Louisiana was denied his seat)
    • No African Americans served as a representative again until 1929, and none from the South until 1973
    • No African Americans served as a senator again until 1967 with a total of 10 having served to date
New8.9C Explain the economic, political, and social problems during Reconstruction and evaluate their impact on different groups.
Readiness Standard

Explain, Evaluate

ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS DURING RECONSTRUCTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • How to readmit the southern states back into the Union
    • Passage of the Reconstruction Act-divided the southern states into 5 military districts
    • The Reconstruction Act was supported by the Radical Republicans (northern congressmen), who were resented by many southerners
  • How to rebuild the southern economy
    • The southern agricultural economy was dependent on enslaved labor.  A system of sharecropping developed to replace enslaved labor.
    • In the sharecropping system plantation owners provided land to formerly enslaved people in exchange for a share of the crop
    • Formerly enslaved people also became tenant farmers, paying rent to plantation owners to be able to farm a plot of land
    • Many sharecroppers and tenant farmers went into debt in order to buy equipment and seed for farming. Unscrupulous landlords and merchants kept the tenant farmers in debt, by charging high interest rates and manipulating prices. Unpredictable harvests as well as laws that made it difficult or illegal for sharecroppers to sell crops further kept them in debt.
  • How to provide for the basic needs of formerly enslaved people
    • Freedmen’s Bureau was created – the bureau’s chief focus was to provide food, medical care, help with resettlement, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools
    • Over 1,000 schools were built and some services were provided, but most people were not given what was promised
  • How to extend citizenship to formerly enslaved people and those most affected the war
    • Fourteenth Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution granting citizenship to formerly enslaved people
    • Fifteenth Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution granting voting rights to formerly enslaved males
  • Impact of these problems on different groups
    • Southerners responded to the social and political changes brought about by the passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments by instituting new laws and organizing resistance to the changes, including the creation of Black Codes, Jim Crow laws, and the Ku Klux Klan
      • Black Codes – laws passed in the South during Reconstruction to limit the opportunities for African Americans
      • Jim Crow Laws – laws passed to bypass laws created by the Radical Republicans and any other federal law that southerners did not agree with concerning African Americans
      • Ku Klux Klan – secret society formed to undermine Republican rule and terrorize African Americans and their supporters, including white Republicans, carpetbaggers, teachers in African American schools, and others who assisted African Americans
  • Political and social divisions resulted
    • The impeachment of President Andrew Johnson in 1868 came about because he opposed the plans of Radical Republicans to reconstruct the South after the Civil War.
    • After Reconstruction ended, the Democratic Party controlled southern politics for over 100 years. In the 1960s, many southerners in the Democratic Party resisted efforts to desegregate public institutions. The passage of civil rights legislation by President Lyndon Johnson resulted in a shift in many southern states to Republican Party control and many southern Democrats changing party affiliation.
    • The clear division between northern and southern society extended into the next century
    • Scalawags – southerners who worked with the Republicans, seen as traitors by some southerners, gained political power
    • Carpetbaggers – northerners who went to the South and became involved in the new state politics; so named  because of the luggage they carried
New8.16 The student understands the purpose of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of amendments on American society. The student is expected to:
New8.16B Describe the impact of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments.
Readiness Standard

Describe

IMPACT OF THE 13th, 14th, AND 15th AMENDMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The 13th Amendment, one of three adopted during the era of Reconstruction, freed all enslaved people without compensation to slave holders. President Abraham Lincoln first proposed compensated emancipation as an amendment in December 1862. His Emancipation Proclamation declared enslaved people free in the Confederate states in rebellion, but did not extend to border-states. After Lincoln’s assassination, President Andrew Johnson declared his own plan for Reconstruction which included the need for Confederate states to approve the 13th Amendment. The amendment, adopted in 1865, eight months after the war ended, legally forbade slavery in the United States.
  • The 14th Amendment is one of three to the U.S. Constitution passed during the era of Reconstruction to protect the rights of citizens. In 1866, Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill which extended citizenship to African Americans. President Andrew Johnson opposed and vetoed the legislation but congress overruled his veto and then proposed the 14th Amendment. In 1866, ten of the eleven Confederate states refused to ratify, but the Military Reconstruction Act, passed by Congress on March 2, 1867, required all seceded states to ratify the amendment as a condition of their readmission into the union, and to extend the right to vote to the freedmen. In 1868, the required number of states ratified the 14th Amendment which declared that all persons born in the United States (except American  Indians) were citizens, that all citizens were entitled to equal rights regardless of their race, and their rights were protected by due process of the law. The 14th Amendment did not extend the right to vote to African-American men but it encouraged states to allow them to vote by limiting the Congressional representation of any state that did not extend the right. The amendment disappointed women’s rights advocates because it defined the right to vote as a male right.
  • The 15th Amendment, one of three amendments to the U.S. Constitution passed during the era of Reconstruction, granted African American men the right to vote. The amendment derived from a requirement in the Military Reconstruction Act, passed by Congress on March 2, 1867, that Confederate states, as a condition for readmission into the Union, extend the right to vote to former adult enslaved males. Congress eventually sought more stringent means to safeguard the vote for African American men by proposing a constitutional amendment in 1869. It was ratified in 1870. Women’s rights activists opposed the amendment because it continued to deny the vote based on gender. Fifty more years passed before the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote. In response to the extension of voting rights to African American males, many southern states instituted literacy tests and poll taxes in order to vote, along with grandfather clauses which exempted whites from literacy tests and poll taxes for voting.
New8.21 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.21C Summarize historical events in which compromise resulted in a resolution such as the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Supporting Standard

Summarize

HISTORICAL EVENTS IN WHICH COMPROMISE RESULTED IN A RESOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

Reconstruction

  • Compromise of 1877 – occurred after the Presidential Election of 1876 when Congress formed the Electoral Commission to resolve disputed Democratic Electoral votes from the South; it was an unwritten, informal compromise between the Republicans and Democrats in Congress; included measures to appease the south, including removal of all federal troops from the southern states, appointment of at least one southern Democrat to the Hayes Administration, construction of a second transcontinental railroad in the South, and legislation enacted to help industrialize the South
New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
Loading
Data is Loading...