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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 10: Civil War – The Endangered Union 1860-1865 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the causes of the Civil War, major battles of the Civil War, and the leadership of both the Union and Confederate presidents. This unit is primarily a study in conflict. Rising sectional tensions had divided American society for decades. As immigration numbers increased in the North so too did the number of representatives for the North in the legislature. As more free states were added to the union, the balance of power shifted in the Senate also. These changes signified to Southerners that the region was losing political power. An increasingly demanding abolitionist movement and the election of an anti-slavery president fueled fears amongst southern leaders that slavery would be abolished. This fear was acted upon when delegates of a secession conference in South Carolina voted to dissolve their contract with the United States. With the instigation of leaders from South Carolina, six other southern states joined in leaving the union. When confederate soldiers in South Carolina demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter, which was located in the Charleston harbor, cannons fired and the American Civil War commenced. The war highlighted the economic differences between the North and the South as well as bringing to the forefront the issue of slavery. A study of the Civil War is important for understanding the debates about the nature of a federalist system and an understanding of race relations in the United States.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the causes and consequences of the Civil War in Grade 5. In the prior unit of study, students learned about the tensions that divided the United States prior to the Civil War and the compromises created to address those divisions.

During this Unit

During this unit students examine the election of 1860 and secession of the southern states; the military and political events of the Civil War, including the Emancipation Proclamation; and the leadership of Lincoln with an analysis of the Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students examine the reconstruction of the union following the Civil War.


Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The election of 1860 further divided the United States and led to the start of the Civil War.

  • How did the election of Abraham Lincoln further divide the United States?
  • What event marked the beginning of the American Civil War?
  • What reasoning did Jefferson Davis use to justify secession of the southern states?
  • How did Lincoln's ideas in his first inaugural address compare to those of Jefferson Davis?

Civic Engagement

  • Laws, Rules, Political Processes

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Prominent leaders on both sides of the Civil War made military and political decisions that affected the outcome of the war.

  • Who were the military and political leaders of the Union and the Confederacy and what role did they have in fighting the Civil War?
  • What military decisions/battles affected the fighting of the Civil War?
  • How did signing the Emancipation Proclamation affect the course of the Civil War?
  • What was significant about General Lee’s surrender?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Abraham Lincoln’s dedication to preservation of the union was evident in the Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address.

  • What changes did Lincoln argue for to preserve the union?
  • How did Lincoln’s assassination affect the people of the United States?

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

secession – the withdrawal of a state from a union
confederacy – an alliance formed for a common purpose

Related Vocabulary

  •  states' rights
  • sectionalism
  • cede
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • Civil War – this era was characterized by the secession of southern states from the United States, war between the Union and the Confederate States, and the presidency of Abraham Lincoln; the issue of slavery in the Unites States had been averted from the founding of the United States, had fueled sectional tensions for decades, and was finally addressed with the fighting of the American Civil War; enslaved persons were given freedom with the passage of the Emancipation Proclamation; after four years of bloodshed the war ended with the surrender of Confederate forces at Appomattox Court House
New8.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and 1861-1865, Civil War.


Supporting Standard

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1861-1865 – Civil War, significant because it resulted in huge loss of lives, settled the slavery issue in the United States, and preserved the union
New8.8 The student understands individuals, issues, and events of the Civil War. The student is expected to:
New8.8A Explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Civil War, including Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Abraham Lincoln, and heroes such as congressional Medal of Honor recipients William Carney and Philip Bazaar.
Supporting Standard

Explain

ROLES PLAYED BY SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS DURING THE CIVIL WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • Jefferson Davis – President of the Confederate States of America
  • Ulysses S. Grant – was appointed general-in-chief of the Union Army during the Civil War. He created an overall plan concentrated on Sherman’s march through Georgia and his own assault on the Confederate army in Virginia. Grant accepted Lee’s surrender in 1865, ending the war.
  • Robert E. Lee – when the South seceded, Lincoln offered Lee the command of Union forces but Lee refused, resigned from the U.S. Army, and returned to Virginia to serve with the Confederate forces. In 1862 Lee was appointed to command the Army of Northern Virginia. His battle tactics continue to be studied, has been criticized for having a narrow strategy centered on his native Virginia. He surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in 1865.
  • Abraham Lincoln – President of the United States
  • William Carney– Congressional Medal of Honor recipient, served with the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (Union) during the Civil War, he was the first African American soldier to receive the award (Reason for citation:  When the 54th’s sergeant was shot down, this soldier grasped the flag, led the way to the parapet, and planted the colors thereon. When the troops fell back he brought off the flag, under a fierce fire in which he was twice severely wounded)
  • Philip Bazaar – born in Chile, South America, was a Navy seaman in the Union Navy,  won the Medal of Honor for his distinguished service in the Civil War (Reason for citation – On board the U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba during the assault on Fort Fisher on 15 January 1865. As one of a boat crew detailed to one of the generals on shore, Bazaar bravely entered the fort in the assault and accompanied his party in carrying dispatches at the height of the battle. He was 1 of 6 men who entered the fort in the assault from the fleet.)
New8.8B Explain the central role of the expansion of slavery in causing sectionalism, disagreement over states' rights, and the Civil War.
Readiness Standard

Explain

CENTRAL ROLE OF THE EXPANSION OF SLAVERY IN CAUSING SECITONALISM, DISAGREEMENT OVER STATES’ RIGHTS, AND THE CIVIL WAR

Including, but not limited to:

Causes

  • Slavery – slavery in the United States first began in Virginia during the Colonial era. Throughout the first half of the 19th century, southern politicians sought to defend slavery by retaining control of the federal government. The issue of slavery continued to plague the Union as more territory was added, resulting in a division between free states and slavery states.  Efforts to resolve the conflict over the expansion of slavery into newly organized territories were addressed in the Missouri Compromise in 1820, the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. It was the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln that  led many political leaders in the South to believe that the federal government was contemplating abolishing slavery.
  • Sectionalism – prior to the Civil War the United States was divided by the sectional differences between the North, South, and the West. The most pronounced difference was over the issue of enslaving people with the South stanchly defending the need for slave labor for its agrarian based economy to function.
  • States’ rights - the political position advocating strict interpretation of the Constitution with regard to the limitation of federal powers and the extension of the autonomy of the individual state to the greatest possible degree. Southern political leaders argued that slavery was a states' rights issue in an effort to protect their common interests.  Southerners claimed that the federal government was prohibited by the 10th Amendment from impinging upon the right of slaveholders to carry their "property" into a new territory or to interfere with slavery in states where it already existed.
  • Civil War – resulted when the Southern states in an effort to protect their interests, most notably the institution of slavery, seceded from the Union.
New8.8C Explain significant events of the Civil War, including the firing on Fort Sumter; the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg; the Emancipation Proclamation; Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House; and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
Readiness Standard

Explain

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • Firing on Fort Sumter – Fort Sumter, a federal fort in Charleston Harbor, was fired upon by Confederate forces to begin the Civil War (April, 1861).
  • Battle of Antietam –first battle of the Civil War to take place on northern soil (in Sharpsburg, Maryland, September,1862); bloodiest one-day battle in American history (23,000 casualties); Union victory when Lee withdrew to Virginia; built Union confidence and led President Abraham Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation (announced September, 1862; signed January, 1863)
  • Battle of Gettysburg – turning point of the Civil War; Lee’s invasion of northern territory was repelled; South was no longer capable of an offensive into Union territory (July, 1863)
  • Siege of Vicksburg – the North captured this stronghold to gain control of the Mississippi River and divided the southern states. (May-July, 1863)
  • The Emancipation Proclamation – changed the nature of the war from that of preserving the Union to freeing enslaved people. Encouraged freed enslaved people to join U.S. armed services. Discouraged British and French involvement in the war. The proclamation freed only the enslaved people in the rebelling territories. (announced September,1862; signed January, 1863)
  • Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House – brings the Civil War to a close as Lee surrendered the Confederate forces of Virginia to Grant. (April, 1865). Priority now became bringing the Confederate states back into the Union.
  • Assassination of Lincoln – Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, a southern sympathizer (April, 1865); Radical Republicans without Lincoln’s opposition were able to control Congress and thereby the terms of Reconstruction
New8.8D Analyze Abraham Lincoln's ideas about liberty, equality, union, and government as contained in his first and second inaugural addresses and the Gettysburg Address and contrast them with the ideas contained in Jefferson Davis's inaugural address.
Supporting Standard

Analyze, Contrast

ABRAHAM LINCOLN'S IDEAS ABOUT LIBERTY, EQUALITY, UNION, AND   GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lincoln’s first inaugural address
    • Equality – promised he had no intent to abolish slavery
    • The Union – argued for the preservation of the Union
    • The Government – stated it was against the law to secede from the Union
  • Lincoln’s second inaugural address
    • Equality – stated that slavery perpetuated the war and denounced slavery
    • The Union – fought for restoration of peace and the Union
    • The Government – Lincoln stated that there were people trying to destroy the government, with or without war
  • Gettysburg Address
    • Equality – all enslaved people in the Confederate states would be free
    • The Union – stated that the country was worth fighting for
    • The Government – “The government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall be preserved.”
  • Jefferson Davis’s inaugural address
    • Jefferson Davis became the President of the Confederate States of America in February, 1861. His inaugural address states that the secession of the southern states was similar to the colonists’ revolution against the British; justifies the South’s “need” to secede, and discussed a tentative plan for the seceding states’ future. He claimed that secession was “a necessity, not a choice, we have resorted to the remedy of separation, and henceforth our energies must be directed to the conduct of our own affairs, and the perpetuity of the Confederacy which we have formed.”
    • Liberty – contrasting Lincoln’s discussion of liberty for individual people, Davis explains liberty and equality through the lens of freedom from the North’s oppression of the South.
      • “…They (the Confederate States) formed a new alliance, but within each State its government has remained; so that the rights of person and property have not been disturbed.”
      • “Through many years of controversy with our late associates of the Northern States, we have vainly endeavored to secure tranquility and obtain respect for the rights to which we were entitled.”
      • “It is joyous in the midst of perilous times to look around upon a people united in heart, where one purpose of high resolve animates and actuates the whole; where the sacrifices to be made are not weighed in the balance against honor and right and liberty and equality.”
    • The Union – Davis explains that breaking from the Union was “a necessity, not a choice” and that “…a reunion with the States from which we have separated is neither practicable nor desirable.”
    • The Government – the Confederacy had a goal of establishing a government system similar to the United States’ Constitution.
      • “American idea that governments rest on the consent of the governed, and that it is the right of the people to alter or abolish them at will whenever they become destructive of the ends for which they were established.”
      • “As a consequence of our new condition and relations, and with a vicar to meet anticipated wants, it will be necessary to provide for the speedy and efficient organization of branches of the Executive department having special charge of foreign intercourse, finance, military affairs, and the postal service.
New8.10 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present. The student is expected to:
New8.10A Locate places and regions directly related to major eras and turning points in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
Supporting Standard

Locate

PLACES AND REGIONS OF IMPORTANCE IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 17TH, 18TH, and 19TH CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

Civil War

  • Ft. Sumter- site where Civil War begins
  • Civil War battle sites; Antietam, Gettysburg, Bull Run, Vicksburg
  • Appomattox Courthouse as the location for Lee’s surrendered to General Grant

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2013 STAAR assessed Seneca Falls, NY as a place of importance in the women’s rights movement.
The Spring 2016 STAAR assessed the state of Oklahoma as the destination for the American Indians forced to migrate on the Trail of Tears. The student was assessed on the physical shape of the state as an answer option.
The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed students’ knowledge of the location of Florida in relation to it having been acquired from Spain.

New8.10C Analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors such as weather, landforms, waterways, transportation, and communication on major historical events in the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON MAJOR HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Effects of physical and human geographic factors on the Civil War

  • Geography affected the fighting of the Civil War. The North had access to a more extensive network of railroads to move supplies and men as opposed to the South. The South had better ports than the North, which resulted in a northern blockade of the southern ports. The Mississippi River was of strategic importance in the war resulting in many battles across the South for control. Union control of the Mississippi River divided the Confederacy in two, cutting off supply routes to the South.  Knowledge of the terrain gave southern soldiers an advantage.
New8.12 The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.12C Analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the United States at selected times.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Civil War

  • The dependency on exportation of cash crops, which characterized the southern economy, facilitated the success of the northern blockade. The blockade limited southern states’ ability to export cash crops reducing the ability to raise revenue.
New8.17 The student understands the dynamic nature of the powers of the national government and state governments in a federal system. The student is expected to:
New8.17B

Explain constitutional issues arising over the issue of states' rights, including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War.


Readiness Standard

Explain

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES ARISING OVER THE ISSUE OF STATES' RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Issue of secession – southern states believed they had the right to secede from the Union. After several southern states declared their secession from the Union the Civil War ensued; the victory of the Union in the Civil War and the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment confirmed the authority of federal law over state laws and state constitutions.
  • Most issues involving states’ rights are related to conflicting interpretations of the Tenth Amendment, which vests the states with rights not specified to the national government.
New8.21 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.21A Identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical issues.
Supporting Standard

Identify

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND INTEREST GROUPS   ON IMPORTANT HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

Sectionalism/Civil War

    • Northern Whigs joined with anti-slavery Democrats forming the Republican Party – emerged as an anti-slavery party
    • Southern Democrats – supported the practice of slavery and states’ rights; some supported secession
New8.22 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.22A

Analyze the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of the United States such as George Washington, John Marshall, and Abraham Lincoln.


Supporting Standard

Analyze

THE LEADERSHIP QUALITIES OF ELECTED AND APPOINTED LEADERS OF THE   UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Leadership qualities
    • Honesty
    • Courage
    • Inspirational
    • Thoughtful
  • Abraham Lincoln
    • Led the United States as President during the American Civil War and his leadership helped to preserve the Union and eventually bring an end to the practice of slavery after his assassination in 1865
New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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