Hello, Guest!

Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 09: Sectionalism – Growing Division 1820s-1850s SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations related to the sectional tensions that divided the United States prior to the Civil War. This unit is primarily a study of tension and compromise. Physical geographic differences as well as social, and economic differences distinguished regions within the United States from the formation of the colonies. Throughout the early years of the republic those differences became more pronounced. The early compromise to allow slavery in the newly formed United States served to bring the union together, yet only prolonged the debate over slavery. As new territory was added to the union, the debate became more contentious. During the nineteenth century three prominent politicians, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, and Henry Clay worked to skillfully compromise in an effort to appease an increasingly divided American society. Yet, as long persons could be legally enslaved in the United States compromise only served to delay ultimately dealing with the issue.  A study of sectionalism is important for students to understand the regional differences that continue to exist in the United States. 

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit students learned about how increasing industrialization led to urbanization and the development of reform movements advocating for social change.

During this Unit

During this unit, students reexamine the regional differences between the North, South and West, learn about how the admission of more states brought the issue of slavery to the forefront, and analyze how increasing tensions over the issue of slavery and its relationship to states’ rights divided the American union. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about the events of the American Civil War.


Change creates anxiety for those who want to preserve the status quo.

  • How do people react to changes that are perceived to threaten their current way of life?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

By the mid nineteenth century the North, South and West of the United States had unique geographic, social and economic characteristics.

  • How did physical geography impact the regional economic differences in the United States?
  • What was socially characteristic of regional differences regarding enslaved and free blacks in the United States?
  • Why were there regional differences in regards to tariff policies?
  • Why did slavery expand more in the South than in the North?

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders

Economic Patterns

  • Resources

Cultural Patterns

  • Prejudice/Discrimination
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

As more states wanted to join the union the issue of slavery required political leaders to compromise.

  • Why did slavery become a critical issue when territories wanted admission to the United States union?
  • What compromises were created to address the issue of admitting states that allowed the practice of slavery to join the union?
  • How successful were legislative compromises at relieving regional tensions?

Cultural Patterns

  • Prejudice/Discrimination

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Despite a judicial ruling on the slavery issue, tensions continued to grow in the United States.

  • How did the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision affect regional tensions?
  • How did regional differences lead to the creations of new political parties?

Civic Engagement

  • Laws, Rules, Political Processes
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

sectionalism – concern for regional needs and interests
compromise – an agreement in which both sides give up some demands

Related Vocabulary

  • states' rights
  • nullifiation
  • protective tariffs
  • region
  • federalism
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sectionalism – this era of American history was characterized by increasing economic and political differences between the North, South, and West regions of the United States; the Wilmot Proviso, proposed that slavery be banned in territory acquired from the war with Mexico highlighting the sectional differences related to the expansion of slavery; as newer states petitioned for admission into the union, those opposed to the expansion of slavery conflicted with those who supported slavery resulting in a series of compromises including the Compromise of 1820, Compromise of 1850 and the Missouri Compromise; passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act served to undo the Compromise of 1820 and fueled sectional tensions ultimately resulting in war
New8.7 The student understands how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and the Civil War. The student is expected to:
New8.7A Analyze the impact of tariff policies on sections of the United States before the Civil War.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF TARIFF POLICIES ON SECTIONS OF THE UNITED STATES BEFORE THE CIVIL WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • North – high tariffs help the industrial North by making prices more competitive against cheap imports; had most of the nation’s manufacturing. Northerners liked tariffs because it influenced Americans to buy more American-made products by increasing the cost of European imported manufactured goods.
  • South – the South, which had little industry and imported most non-agricultural goods, saw the high tariff as a burden imposed by the more industrialized and populated north. Sold most of their cotton to foreign buyers on credit. Southerners opposed tariffs because the South's main trade partners were European nations. High tariffs on raw materials forced the South to sell their materials for low prices, while tariffs on manufactured goods caused them to pay a higher price for the products purchased from European trade partners.
  • West – the West backed government spending on internal improvements such as new roads and canals, which were financed by tariffs.
New8.7B Compare the effects of political, economic, and social factors on slaves and free blacks.
Supporting Standard

Compare

EFFECTS OF POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FACTORS ON SLAVES AND FREE BLACKS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Enslaved people
    • Political – no political voice; no rights; Three-fifths Compromise enacted to include enslaved persons as part of the census for representation
    • Economic – enslaved persons were considered property; enslaved families were fractured as slaveholders ignored norms to keep children with their mothers and fathers; enslaved persons lived with constant threat of sale
    • Social – viewed as outside the American identity; enslaved persons created loose communities within the plantation system developing an underground culture; some actively participated in religious functions with some practicing African religions including Islam and some adopting Christianity; some participated in active resistance by slowing their work pace, disabling machinery, destroying crops, running away;  punishment of enslaved persons included whippings, torture, mutilation, imprisonment, and being sold away from the plantation; enslaved persons could not testify in court against a white person, make contracts, leave the plantation without permission, strike a white person (even in self-defense), buy and sell goods, own firearms, gather without a white person present, possess any anti-slavery literature, or visit the homes of white people or free black people; enslaved persons were forbidden to learn to read and write
  • Free African American people
    • Generally conditions for free African American people differed in the North from the South
    • Political – no political voice; discriminatory laws still applied to free African American people
    • Economic – some worked as low-wage earners; some owned land, homes, businesses and paid taxed; a very limited amount of free African American people held enslaved people and a few owned plantations that used enslaved people as labor
    • Social – free African American people founded churches; some such as Richard Allen, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, David Walker, and Prince Hall wrote and spoke publically to agitate for an end to slavery; some served as “conductors” on the Underground Railroad, while others harbored escaped enslaved persons; many in the North enlisted as soldiers and fought in the American Revolution and the War of 1812
New8.7C Analyze the impact of slavery on different sections of the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF SLAVERY ON DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

 Sectionalism

  • Impact of slavery in the North
    • By 1804 slavery had been outlawed by all states north of the Ohio River
    • Abolitionist societies and newspapers developed to advocate outlawing slavery
    • Fugitive Slave Law (1850) galvanized the abolitionist movement, which viewed the law as a violation of the rights of white northerners who resented being compelled to take part in organized activities to pursue fugitive slaves; the law made the slavery issue more personal as individuals had to make a choice to follow the law or help fugitive slaves; the law also inspired many free African Americans and escaped slaves to flee to Canada
    • The Underground Railroad developed to assist escaped enslaved people into the North and Canada where slavery was outlawed
    • Some northerners were ambivalent to the plight of enslaved/free African Americans
    • Textile mills in the North profited from the production of cheap cotton in the South, indirectly benefiting economically from slavery
  • Impact of slavery in the South
    • Enslaved people were viewed as property and labor supply
    • Officials in states that supported slavery argued that it should be considered a state’s right issue
    • Fugitive Slave Law (1850) allowed southern slaveholders, with federal government assistance, in capturing enslaved people who had escaped to the North; shifted the responsibility for managing fugitive slaves from state oversight to federal control and thereby federalized the slavery issue
    • Aided in expansion of the plantation system in the Lower South (Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, Louisiana, and portions of Texas)
  • Impact of slavery in the West
    • Fighting broke out in Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
    • The admission of western territories as states was used to maintain a balance in the Senate of representation between free states and slavery states
New8.7D Identify the provisions and compare the effects of congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War, including the role of John Quincy Adams.
Supporting Standard

Identify

PROVISIONS AND COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF CONGRESSIONAL CONFLICTS AND COMPROMISES PRIOR TO THE CIVIL WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • By 1818 there were 11 free states and 11 slave states in the union, which created a balance between the North and South in the Senate. As more states petitioned to join the union the sectional differences about slavery and tariffs resulted in conflicts, compromises, and debate about states’ rights. 
  • Missouri Compromise (1820) – when Missouri wanted to join the Union, northerners worried that as a slave state the balance in the Senate would be disrupted. Senator from Kentucky and spokesman for the West, Henry Clay known as “The Great Compromiser” proposed the Missouri Compromise which allowed for Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state maintaining the balance of power in the Senate. The compromise also provided that slavery was permitted in territory south of the southern border of Missouri, thereby resolving the issue of slavery in the Louisiana Purchase.
  • Debate about the expansion of slavery into the Mexican Cession reached its height when California asked to join the union as a free state, which would upset the balance between free and slave states. Leadership in the ensuing conflict turned to Henry Clay, who urged compromise or the nation could fall apart. Spokesman for the South and Senator from South Carolina, John C. Calhoun responded to Clay with unwavering support for slavery and arguing for allowing the practice to expand to the western territories. He also argued for a fugitive slave law to require that escaped enslaved people be returned to their slaveholders. Furthermore, Calhoun as a strong supporter of states’ rights threatened that southern states would secede from the union if these demands were not met. Upset by the potential damage to the union, Daniel Webster joined the debate, pleading for unity and compromise. In 1850, as debate continued, Calhoun died and Clay was too sick to continue his work. Stephen Douglas, Senator from Illinois, proceeded to craft Clay’s proposal into what became the Compromise of 1850.
  • Senator from Massachusetts, Daniel Webster as spokesman for the North during his time in office argued for the American System, a plan to support economic development in all regions of the United States. He argued that high tariffs would produce revenue to be spent buying farm products from the West and South and to be used to build roads, bridges, and canals to help the South and West. Congress never used the money for these improvements so southerners did not support the American System  
  • Compromise of 1850 –California enter the Union as a free state; the remainder of the Mexican Cession was divided into New Mexico and Utah territories, voters in the territories would decide if slavery would be allowed; the slavery trade in Washington, D.C. was banned, yet those holding enslaved people were allowed to keep them; the Fugitive Slave Law passed which required the return of escaped enslaved people to their slaveholders and penalized those who helped fugitives escape
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) – Senator Stephen Douglas proposed a bill to set up a government in Nebraska Territory. Knowing that southern legislators would not support the creation of a free state he proposed that the territory be divided into Kansas and Nebraska and that the territories be allowed to decide if they would be free or slave states by popular sovereignty as had been done in New Mexico and Utah territories. The proposal upset the North where they felt that the Missouri Compromise had already banned slavery in the region. Southerners supported the act, as they were confident that Kansas would become a slave state. When the act passed, northerners responded in anger and protested against the Fugitive Slave Law. Northerners and Southerners streamed into Kansas wanting to control the territory. Two governments emerged and violence erupted. Violence spread to the Senate floor also, when Congressman Preston Brooks beat Senator Charles Sumner, an abolitionist, until he was unconscious.
  • John Quincy Adams – son of President John Adams served as Secretary of State for President Monroe and as president from 1825-1829. In 1824 when no presidential candidate received a majority of electoral votes, the selection of president was made in the House of Representatives. With the support of Henry Clay, Adams became president and appointed Clay as Secretary of State. After serving as president, in 1830 Adams was elected to serve in the House of Representatives from Massachusetts. In 1836 southern Congressmen passed a “gag rule”, which automatically tabled any petitions against slavery. For eight years Adams fought against the rule, eventually getting it repealed. Adams collapsed from a stroke in 1848 on the floor of the House and died two days later.
New8.10 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present. The student is expected to:
New8.10A

Locate places and regions directly related to major eras and turning points in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.


Supporting Standard

Locate

PLACES AND REGIONS OF IMPORTANCE IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 17TH, 18TH, and 19TH CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

Sectionalism

  • Regionally divided into North, South, and West

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2013 STAAR assessed Seneca Falls, NY as a place of importance in the women’s rights movement.
The Spring 2016 STAAR assessed the state of Oklahoma as the destination for the American Indians forced to migrate on the Trail of Tears. The student was assessed on the physical shape of the state as an answer option.
The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed students’ knowledge of the location of Florida in relation to it having been acquired from Spain.

New8.10B Compare places and regions of the United States in terms of physical and human characteristics.
Readiness Standard

Compare

PLACES AND REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES IN TERMS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN CHARACTERISTICS

Including, but not limited to:

Sectionalism

  • By the mid-1800s industrialization and urbanization characterized the North; factories, railroads were common human geographic features
  • By the mid-1800s the South was characterized by the plantation economy that primarily produced cotton; lacked railroads, factories and schools
  • By the mid-1800s the West had opened to settlement with the construction of roads, and canals; economy was characterized by agricultural production and mining

STAAR Note:
The 2013 and 2014 STAAR assessed the similar characteristic of Texas and California being former territories of Mexico
The 2015 STAAR assessed the similar founding of Boston and New Orleans as port cities 
The 2016 STAAR assessed the similar characteristic of Florida and California as former Spanish colonies
The 2017 STAAR assessed how the difference between industrial development in the North versus the South influenced settlement patterns

New8.11 The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the environment through the mid-19th century. The student is expected to:
New8.11A Analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCED POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, SETTLEMENT PATTERNS, AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED   STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Sectionalism

  • South – good soil, small population; few cities; and economic activities focused on agricultural
  • North – good port areas, a variety of resources, large population, many cities, and a variety of economic actives
New8.12 The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.12A Identify economic differences among different regions of the United States.
Supporting Standard

Identify

ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Sectionalism  

  • North – manufacturing and   industry
  • South – agriculture
  • West – focused on mining, ranching, agriculture
New8.12C Analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the United States at selected times.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG DIFFERENT   REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Industrialization, Immigration, and Reform / Sectionalism

  • North – industrialization resulted in available jobs in cities, which attracted immigrants and resulted in urbanization of the region
  • South – longer growing seasons, fertile soil, and mild climate conditions facilitated the agriculture economic development of the region that was characterized by large plantations; labor on plantations was provided by enslaved people, as plantation production increase so too did the demand for enslaved labor; industrial development was very limited in the region
  • West and Midwest – the region was characterized by abundant natural resources, wide open tracts of land, and fertile soil on the Great Plains; in dry arid areas ranches were established, in areas with fertile soil farming resulted, and in many mountainous areas mining developed to extract precious metals
New8.18 The student understands the impact of landmark Supreme Court cases. The student is expected to:
New8.18C Evaluate the impact of landmark Supreme Court decision Dred Scott v. Sandford on life in the United States.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

IMPACT OF SUPREME COURT DECISION DRED SCOTT V. SANDFORD

Including, but not limited to:

  • Dred Scott v. Sandford, (1857) – denied citizenship of enslaved people; enslaved people were considered property; made the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional because it limited areas allowed for slavery. The South favored the decision, but the North did not, causing further tension between the regions.
New8.21 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.21A Identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical issues.
Supporting Standard

Identify

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND INTEREST GROUPS ON IMPORTANT HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

Sectionalism/Civil War

  • Northern Whigs joined with anti-slavery Democrats forming the Republican Party – emerged as an anti-slavery party
  • Southern Democrats – supported the practice of slavery and states’ rights; some supported secession
New8.21C Summarize historical events in which compromise resulted in a resolution such as the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Supporting Standard

Summarize

HISTORICAL EVENTS IN WHICH COMPROMISE RESULTED IN A RESOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sectionalism
    • Missouri Compromise (1820) – Missouri entered the Union as a slavery state and Maine entered as a free state. This Compromise also stated that north of the 36○30’ line, all states that entered the Union would be free states.
    • Compromise of 1850 – California admitted as a free state; slavery trade abolished in Washington, D.C.; stronger slavery laws would be passed to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves
    • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) – Senator Stephen Douglas proposed a bill to set up a government in Nebraska Territory. Knowing that southern legislators would not support the creation of a free state he proposed that the territory be divided into Kansas and Nebraska and that the territories be allowed to decide if they would be free or slave states by popular sovereignty as had been done in New Mexico and Utah territories. The proposal upset the North where they felt that the Missouri Compromise had already banned slavery in the region. Southerners supported the act, as they were confident that Kansas would become a slave state. When the act passed, northerners responded in anger and protested against the Fugitive Slave Law. Northerners and Southerners streamed into Kansas wanting to control the territory. Two governments emerged and violence erupted. Violence spread to the Senate floor also, when Congressman Preston Brooks beat Senator Charles Sumner, an abolitionist, until he was unconscious.
New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
Loading
Data is Loading...