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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 08: Industrialization and Reform – Innovation Brings Change 1800s-1850s SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the development of the economies in the North and the South, innovations in technology and the application of the American free enterprise economic system. This unit is primarily a study in industrialization and reform. A wave of industrialization in the early nineteenth century brought economic and social changes to the United States. Most prominent was urbanization, which, when coupled with immigration, brought to light many social issues. A study of industrialization and reform is important for understanding the U.S. economy, the sectional differences in the United States, and for understanding the American ideal of progress.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the geographic changes taking place with westward expansion.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study the economic and social changes that came about with increasing industrialization in the northern United States as well as the resulting changes in the southern United States after the invention of new farming machinery. Additionally, students examine how the Second Great Awakening ushered in a new era of reform movements that emerged to address the injustices in society during the nineteenth century, including the development of reform movements related to public education, temperance, prison conditions, care of the disabled, abolition, and the expansion of women’s rights. Students also learn about the developments in art, music and literature that exemplified American culture in the mid-nineteenth century. Students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about the growing sectional tensions prior to the outbreak of the Civil War.


Adopting new ideas and innovations has unintended consequences.

  • Do new ideas and innovations improve the lives of people?

People act for change when they can no longer tolerate the conditions in which they live.

  • How do people act effectively to address intolerable conditions in society?

Culture serves to unify people.

  • What commonalities binds people together as a group?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

New innovations resulted in expansion of free enterprise and the creation of the factory system in the northern United States.

  • What new inventions promoted the growth of the factory system?
  • What was characteristic of free enterprise in the United States in the early nineteenth century?
  • How did the building of factories, railroads and telegraph lines change the way goods were marketed?

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Mechanization
  • Transportation
  • Communication

Economic Patterns

  • Economic Systems
  • Trade
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Industrialization and immigration fueled urbanization creating many new social issues.

  • How did new innovations in transportation and communication contribute to urbanization?
  • What were the positive and negative consequences of urbanization?
  • What was the relationship between urbanization and immigration in the early nineteenth century?
  • Why did many Irish immigrants come the United States in the mid-1800s and what was their urban experience like?
  • How were Americans' daily lives changed by industrialization?

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution

Cultural Patterns

  • Demographics
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Technological innovations and increasing industrialization led to a rapid expansion of slavery and the plantation system across the southern United States.

  • How did new technologies transform farming in the southern United States?
  • How did industrialization in the northern United States influence the practice of slavery and the plantation system across the southern United States?
  • How did new innovations in transportation lead to the spread of the plantation system?

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Mechanization

Cultural Patterns

  • Prejudice/Discrimination
  • Demographics
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

A Second Great Awakening led to the creation of several reform movements advocating for social changes.

  • Why and how did the abolitionist movement develop?
  • What impact did the reform movements have on bringing about social change?
  • Who were the prominent leaders of the reform movements?

Cultural Patterns

  • Community

Historical Processes

  • Empathy/Identity
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

During the early nineteenth century a national spirit of American culture came to be reflected in art and literature.

  • Who were some of the prominent authors and artists in early nineteenth century America?
  • In what ways did the art and literature produced in early nineteenth century America reflect a unique American culture?

Cultural Patterns

  • Artistic Expressions
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  •  None identified

Unit Vocabulary

free enterprise – economic system in which consumers and producers are free to make economic decisions and choices
innovation – creating new ideas, products or methods
industrialization – the process of economic development based on factory production
urbanization – the process of migration to large, densely populated areas, generally cities
abolition – legally ending of the practice of enslaving people
mechanization – using machines in the production process
civil disobedience – refusing to obey laws believed to be unjust

Related Vocabulary

  • suffrage
  • immigration
  • transportation
  • communication
  • interchangable parts
  • canals
  • transcontinental
  • investor
  • plantation
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • Industrialization, Immigration, and Reform – this era of American history was characterized by industrial growth, the establishment of economies based on factory systems mainly in the northeastern United States, and increased immigration; increasing urbanization that resulted from industrialization and immigration brought to light many social problems; the Second Great Awakening religious revival motivated involvement in many reform efforts, including the abolitionist movement, women’s suffrage movement, temperance movement, and movements to reform education, prisons, and care of the disabled and mentally ill
New8.10 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present. The student is expected to:
New8.10A Locate places and regions directly related to major eras and turning points in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
Supporting Standard

STAAR Note:

The Spring 2013 STAAR assessed Seneca Falls, NY as a place of importance in the women’s rights movement.

New8.10C Analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors such as weather, landforms, waterways, transportation, and communication on major historical events in the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON MAJOR HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Access to numerous waterways along with the building of canals helped connect farms in the interior of the United States to port cities along the coast greatly facilitating economic development across the country. Most notably the Erie Canal completed in 1825 extended from the Hudson River at Albany, N.Y. to Lake Erie at Buffalo, N.Y., in effect connecting the Atlantic Ocean port at New York City to the Great Lakes. The canal affected economic growth in New York as well as for the interior of the United States, with New York City becoming a vital commercial center and the country’s busiest port in the 1800’s.
  • The building of railroads and the extension of telegraph lines into the western United States facilitated settlement and economic development.
New8.11 The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the environment through the mid-19th century. The student is expected to:
New8.11A Analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCED POPULATION   DISTRIBUTION, SETTLEMENT PATTERNS, AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED   STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Industrialization, Immigration, and Reform

  • The need to have factories near transportation hubs, such as canals or railroads, resulted in cities growing in proximity (e.g., New York City and Chicago).
  • The need for cheap labor resulted in jobs and caused many immigrants to migrate into cities.
New8.11B Describe the positive and negative consequences of human modification of the physical environment of the United States.
Supporting Standard

Describe

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN MODIFICATION OF THE   PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Railroads – increased communication and trade   between East and West; disruption of natural habitats in the West;   contributed to air pollution in the West; necessitated the filling of   hollows, blasting tunnels through mountains, and building bridges across   rivers
  • Urbanization – created economic centers that   provided wealth to the nation and people; contributed to pollution,   overcrowding
  • Recovery of natural resources – clearing   timber; extraction of gold, silver and iron provided for the nation’s energy   needs as well as provided jobs; altered the physical landscape; pollution in   nearby rivers and streams
  • Agriculture and ranching – provided food and   jobs; altered the physical landscape; disrupted natural habitats; fenced off   open range; increased cotton cultivation resulted in widespread soil   exhaustion
  • Building of canals and roads – facilitated the   movement of goods and people; promoted settlement of the West; disturbed   natural landscapes and wildlife habitats, including the removal of bison on   the Great Plains
New8.12 The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.12B

Explain reasons for the development of the plantation system, the transatlantic slave trade, and the spread of slavery.


Readiness Standard

Explain

REASONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLANTATION SYSTEM, THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE, AND THE SPREAD OF SLAVERY

Including, but not limited to:

Industrialization, Immigration, and Reform

  • The invention of the cotton gin made the cotton-cleaning process more efficient and quicker, thus the need arose for a larger work force resulting in a drastic rise in the number of enslaved people in the South; southern plantations became major producers of cotton that was shipped to northern textile mills.
  • The extension of settlement into the western territories coupled with the profitability of plantation systems resulted in efforts to expand slavery into newer regions of the United States.
New8.12C Analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the United States at selected times.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Industrialization, Immigration, and Reform / Sectionalism

  • North – industrialization resulted in available jobs in cities, which attracted immigrants and resulted in urbanization of the region
  • South – longer growing seasons, fertile soil, and mild climate conditions facilitated the agriculture economic development of the region that was characterized by large plantations; labor on plantations was provided by enslaved people, as plantation production increase so too did the demand for enslaved labor; industrial development was very limited in the region
  • West and Midwest – the region was characterized by abundant natural resources, wide open tracts of land, and fertile soil on the Great Plains; in dry arid areas ranches were established, in areas with fertile soil farming resulted, and in many mountainous areas mining developed to extract precious metals
New8.13 The student understands how various economic forces resulted in the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The student is expected to:
New8.13B Identify the economic factors that brought about rapid industrialization and urbanization.
Readiness Standard

Identify

ECONOMIC FACTORS THAT BROUGHT ABOUT RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Factors which brought about rapid industrialization
    • Plentiful natural resources
    • Improved transportation
    • Growing population, especially from immigration
    • New inventions
    • Investment capital
  • Factors which brought about urbanization
    • Migration of workers to manufacturing centers
    • Immigration
    • Economic opportunities in cities
New8.14 The student understands the origins and development of the free enterprise system in the United States. The student is expected to:
New8.14A Explain why a free enterprise system of economics developed in the new nation, including minimal government regulation, taxation, and property rights.
Supporting Standard

Explain

FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM OF ECONOMICS DEVELOPED IN THE NEW NATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • British colonists were familiar with a free economic system. Despite its mercantilist policies, Great Britain was characterized by a free economy prior to industrialization. 
  • Colonists had access to property and natural resources in America allowing for private enterprise.
  • Colonists associated land with wealth and valued private land ownership; ensure protections in the U.S. Constitution.
  • Private ownership of the means of production continued as early industrialization emerged in the United States.
  • Early U.S. government involvement in economic development centered on supporting private industry with the imposition of tariffs on imported goods, small-scale building of infrastructure, such as roads, and the establishment of a common currency.
  • The rise of the factory system coincided with the creation of a banking system, which facilitate private investment in the economy.
New8.14B Describe the characteristics and the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system through 1877.
Supporting Standard

Describe

CHARACTERISTICS AND THE BENEFITS OF THE U.S. FREE ENTERPRISE   SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

Characteristics and benefits of U.S. Free Enterprise System

  • Private property - constitutional protections allow for private property ownership
  • Entrepreneurship – freedom to invest, innovate, create wealth, and start businesses
  • Competition – allows for specialization, variety in consumer goods and services
  • Consumer choice – provides consumers with voice in the market
  • Profit motive – provides incentive for entrepreneurship and investment
  • Laissez-faire – ensures that the individual has freedom to operate in the market with few constraints
New8.20 The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:
New8.20B

Analyze reasons for and the impact of selected examples of civil disobedience in U.S. history such as the Boston Tea Party and Henry David Thoreau's refusal to pay a tax.


Supporting Standard

Analyze

REASONS FOR AND THE IMPACT OF SELECTED EXAMPLES OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE IN U.S. HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Henry David Thoreau’s refusal to pay tax – he did not pay taxes because he did not want to support a government that allowed slavery and fought a war with Mexico (individual conscience/transcendentalism). He wrote the essay “Civil Disobedience.” He did not want people to break the law indiscriminately, but he urged people to challenge laws they considered unjust by refusing to obey them. Leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr. followed Thoreau’s philosophy.
New8.22 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.22B

Describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Frederick Douglass, John Paul Jones, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.


Supporting Standard

Describe

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND MILITARY LEADERS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frederick Douglass – leading African American abolitionist; accomplished orator and writer
  • Susan B. Anthony – key spokesperson for the 19th-century women’s suffrage movement
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton – leader of the 19th-century women’s suffrage movement; called for the first convention of women’s movement in Seneca Falls; wrote the Declaration of Sentiments which was approved at the Seneca Falls Convention
New8.23 The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to:
New8.23B Explain how urbanization contributed to conflicts resulting from differences in religion, social class, and political beliefs.
Supporting Standard

Explain

HOW URBANIZATION CONTRIBUTED TO CONFLICTS RESULTING FROM   DIFFERENCES IN RELIGION, SOCIAL CLASS, AND POLITICAL BELIEFS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Arriving immigrants, especially to urban centers of the Northeast, often engaged in similar cultural patterns as their home country resulting in an urban setting characterized by cultural enclaves and practices.
  • Competition for limited resources, city services, and jobs in urban areas heightened differences amongst culture groups and sometimes resulted in conflict such as the New York race riots of 1863, anti-immigration sentiment, anti-Catholic sentiment, and nativist policies such as the Know-Nothing Party.

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2014 STAAR assessed student knowledge about New York City riots of 1863 as a response to economic uncertainty following the Emancipation Proclamation and the passage of the Conscription Act of 1863.

New8.23E Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.
Supporting Standard

Identify

POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN TO AMERICAN SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

Industrialization, Immigration, and Reform

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton was active in the abolitionist, temperance, and women’s rights movement. Along with Susan B. Anthony she founded the National Women’s Suffrage Association and was its president for 20 years. She,(along with Lucretia Mott) was instrumental in convening the Seneca Falls Convention in July 1848. Authored the Declaration of Sentiments and Grievances, traveled the country lecturing and giving speeches, particularly calling for women to have the right to vote. Stanton was a wife, mother of seven children, and a practicing lawyer.
  • Susan B. Anthony originally began her social activism in the temperance movement. After meeting Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the focus of her work became women’s suffrage. Anthony, a Quaker, had at one time been a teacher. She was instrumental in publishing the newspaper The Revolution which argued for the abolition of slavery, the right to vote for women, the right for women to own property, and equal pay for equal work. Anthony was also active in the women’s labor organization movement, fighting for worker’s rights and shorter work days.
  • Lucretia Mott was a noted abolitionist, religious reformer and leader in the women’s rights movement. Her work was rooted in the abolitionist movement. After joining Elizabeth Cady Stanton at the Seneca Falls Convention, the focus of her work centered on women’s rights. She published her views in Discourse on Women. Mott had been a Quaker minister and later formed the Free Religious Association in Boston in 1867.She is also credited as being the founder of Swarthmore College. Mott was a wife and mother of six children.
  • Seneca Falls Convention, July 1848- This first convening of women in the United States is considered to be the beginning of the women’s suffrage movement in the United States. The event was held in Stanton’s hometown of Seneca Fall, NY and was organized by Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and several other women. The first day of the event was open to women only. The second day to men. The Declaration of Sentiments (modeled after the Declaration of Independence) was read and adopted at the convention. Following the convention, annual meetings were held to continue the work of advocating for women’s rights.
  • Sojourner Truth escaped from her northern slaveholder and became a prominent abolitionist and leader in the women’s rights movement. One of Truth’s first successes was using the courts to secure the release and return of her young son, who had been sold illegally.  Truth worked alongside a number of prominent abolitionists and it was William Lloyd Garrison who published her memoirs. She advocated for equal rights for both men and women. During the American Civil War she recruited African-Americans to be soldiers and after the war continued to fight for equality, including attempting to desegregate streetcars in Washington D.C.
  • Harriet Tubman who was born into slavery became the most famous “conductor” on the Underground Railroad. Tubman escaped from a Maryland plantation in 1849 and dedicated a decade of her life to helping enslaved people in the South to navigate the Underground Railroad to freedom in northern states and Canada. She is credited with helping hundreds of enslaved people to find freedom generally during the 1850s. Tubman became a leader in the abolitionist movement and served as a spy for the federal troops in South Carolina during the Civil War.  Tubman’s achievements and life will be commemorated with her portrait appearing on the face of the U.S. twenty-dollar bill to be revealed in 2020.
  • Dorothea Dix became a reformer concentrating her advocacy on behalf of those suffering from mental illness along with those who had been incarcerated. Dix spent time documenting conditions she observed in public and private institutions in Massachusetts. She presented this information to the Massachusetts legislature which resulted in reforms there, along with reforms in other states and Europe. The reforming efforts of Dix resulted in the redesign of many hospitals. Dix was also noted for her service during the Civil War supervising the vast nursing staff of the Union Army hospitals.
New8.24 The student understands the major reform movements of the 19th century. The student is expected to:
New8.24A Describe and evaluate the historical development of the abolitionist movement.
Readiness Standard

Describe, Evaluate

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1700s-1804 – Religious leaders, especially Quaker leaders, used sermons to change public opinion about slavery. By 1804 all states north of Pennsylvania had outlawed the practice of enslaving people.
  • 1807 – Congress banned the importation of African people for slavery into the United States.
  • 1817-American Colonization Society was created to address the needs of formerly-enslaved people from the North. President Monroe in 1822 helped to establish Liberia as an independent African nation for those formerly-enslaved African Americans to migrate to. The idea was not popular and very few left America.
  • 1820-1840 – Abolitionists grew in number. Anti-slavery newspapers such as the Freedom’s Journal were published. Prominent among abolitionists was William Lloyd Garrison who published The Liberator newspaper. Garrison also organized the New England Anti-Slavery Society (1831-1835).
  • 1840-1850 – Abolitionist leaders like the Grimke sisters, Frederick Douglass, and Sojourner Truth began to speak out across the nation. Douglass began publishing the anti-slavery newspaper The North Star. The Underground Railroad began to make an impact helping those escaping slavery from the South to find passage to safe locations in the North. The most notable “conductor” on the railroad was Harriet Tubman, who had escaped slavery and went on to help hundreds of others to escape. Douglass
  • 1850- Many northerners who considered the Fugitive Slave Law unfair began to support the abolitionist movement.
  • 1853- Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin was published.  While fictional, the novel depicts the harsh realities of slavery and served to increase public support for the abolitionist cause.
New8.24B Evaluate the impact of reform movements, including educational reform, temperance, the women's rights movement, prison reform, the labor reform movement, and care of the disabled.
Readiness Standard

Evaluate

IMPACT OF REFORM MOVEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Educational reform – opening of public schools primarily in the North, as well as private grade schools and colleges by churches and other groups
  • Temperance – organized societies largely made up of women activists, such as the American Temperance Society, Daughters of Temperance, and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union worked to get legislation passed to ban the consumption of alcohol. Some states passed laws that made it illegal to sell alcohol.
  • Women's rights – well-organized groups that fought for better working conditions for women
  • Prison reform – pushed for separate jails for women, men, and children; called for the mission of prisons to be about rehabilitation
  • Labor reform movement – the earliest organization of labor reform was centered on reducing the work day to 10 hours; in 1847 New Hampshire became the first state to enact a 10-hour work day;  later the movement work to support wage increases; unionization of workers was de facto illegal until the Commonwealth v Hunt decision in 1842; efforts to unionize were realized in the late 1800s with the creation of several national labor unions
  • Care of the disabled – efforts by activists, such as Dorothea Dix, resulted in the opening of the first mental asylums in the United States in the early 1800s; Thomas H. Gallaudet established the first permanent school for deaf persons in 1817; Louis Braille invented a raised-point alphabet taught to students for the first time in 1860 at the St. Louis School for the Blind.
New8.25 The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life. The student is expected to:
New8.25B

Describe religious influences on social movements, including the impact of the first and second Great Awakenings.


Supporting Standard

Describe

RELIGIOUS MOTIVATION FOR IMMIGRATION AND INFLUENCE ON SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The Second Great Awakening involved the renewal of religious faith in the 1790s and 1800s.  Revivalist preachers traveled around the frontier and eastern cities hosting revival meetings addressing many who were not a part of organized religious groups. The movement emphasized the individual’s ability to achieve salvation and the need to improve society.  The movement motivated many to become involved in reform efforts, such as abolition, reforming prisons, and prohibiting alcohol use.
New8.26 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
New8.26A Identify examples of American art, music, and literature that reflect society in different eras such as the Hudson River School artists, the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," and transcendental literature.
Supporting Standard

Identify

EXAMPLES OF AMERICAN ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE THAT REFLECT SOCIETY IN DIFFERENT ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Hudson River School artists – a group of New York based landscape painters influenced by the work of Thomas Cole; the movement had its roots in Romanticism, which combined with nationalistic sentiments about the majesty of the American landscape; noted Hudson River School artists include Frederick Edwin Church, Asher B. Durand, and Albert Bierstadt including his work River Landscape, Valley of the Yosemite
  • “Battle Hymn of the Republic” – written at the beginning of the Civil War, used music from the abolitionist song “John Brown’s Body”; became a popular Civil War song of the Union Army and later a well-loved patriotic anthem
  • Transcendentalism – an American literary, political, and philosophical movement in the early 19th century which was influenced by the Romanticism movement; examples of transcendental literature includes the works of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau as the author of Walden or Life in the Woods; they were critics of their contemporary society for its unthinking conformity and urged each individual to find their independent relation to the universe, particularly utilizing solitude in nature
  • Other examples
    • Engravings of the Boston Massacre
    • American Progress by John Gast
    • Dixie lyrics by Daniel Decateur Emmett
    • The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain
    • Poetry by Walt Whitman
    • Paintings of John James Audubon
New8.26B Analyze the relationship between the arts and continuity and change in the American way of life.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FINE ARTS AND CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN THE   AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Throughout early American history the arts have illustrated a national spirit and pride, evidenced by the portraits of the early presidents, the writings of Hawthorne, Irving, Cooper, Melville and Poe. Additionally paintings of the Hudson River School movement by artists such as Bierstadt and later art by Whistler, Homer, Tanner, Eakins, Remington, Russell, Catlin, and the literary works of Walt Whitman, Mark Twain, and Emily Dickinson all exemplify the continuity of   American culture, yet also reflect the changing way of life in America.
  • Many early American fine arts reflect the relationship between Americans and nature, as well as reflecting the changes taking place in the United States as the nation expanded westward. This is most  evident in the landscape paintings produced in the mid-1800s.
  • Art in America also   demonstrates the development of a pluralistic and industrialized society, evidenced especially by musical styles influenced by both Europeans and Africans

STAAR Note:
The 2013 STAAR assessed similar themes among art during the 1800s
The 2015 STAAR assessed the relationship among the fine arts, changing attitudes brought about by the end of the Civil War, and westward expansion

New8.27 The student understands the impact of science and technology on the economic development of the United States. The student is expected to:
New8.27A Explain the effects of technological and scientific innovations such as the steamboat, the cotton gin, the telegraph, and interchangeable parts.
Readiness Standard

Explain

EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC INNOVATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Steamboat – increased factory production and   led to the growth of cities like New Orleans and St. Louis because it could move goods and people faster up and down rivers
  • Cotton gin – invented by Eli Whitney made the cotton-cleaning process more efficient. It enabled cotton farmers to move farther west to grow cotton, drove American Indian tribes off their land, and increased the demand for enslaved labor.
  • Interchangeable parts – parts for devices were made to be nearly identical so that they could fit into any device of the same type; this allows easy assembly of new devices and efficient   repair of existing devices; for example before the 18th century, firearms were made by gunsmiths and each gun was unique’  if a single component needed a replacement,   the entire weapon had to be sent back to the gunsmith for custom repairs; interchangeable   parts drastically increased productivity and efficiency of production and   repair
  • Mechanical reaper – invented by Cyrus McCormick increased farm productivity

STAAR Note:
The 2013 STAAR assesses the impact of the Bessemer steel process on westward expansion; railroads to carry people westward

New8.27B Analyze how technological innovations changed the way goods were manufactured and distributed, nationally and internationally.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

HOW TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS CHANGED THE WAY GOODS WERE   MANUFACTURED AND DISTRIBUTED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Ways goods were manufactured
    • Introduction of interchangeable parts resulted in mass production which allowed manufacturers to produce standardized products faster and in larger numbers
  • Ways goods were distributed
    • Steamboats – prior to the invention of the steamboat, river travel depended on river currents, wind and manpower; the  use of steam-powered boats increased efficiency of travel and the transport of goods; lower costs for goods resulted, cost of travel decreased, and tourism developed
    • Canals – man-made waterways used for travel and/or shipping. The Erie Canal opened in 1825 contributing to the economic growth of the United States. The Canal lowered the cost of shipping goods which in turn facilitated a great westward migration of American settlers west of the Appalachians into the Ohio River Valley. Furthermore cities in New York along the canal route grew in size and number with New York emerging as a commercial center in the United States
    • Railroads – the invention of the steam engine led to modern railroads and trains; railroad construction boomed in the mid-19th century; by the 1890s, the United States was becoming an urban nation, and railroads supplied cities and towns with food, fuel, building materials, and access to new markets; the Transcontinental Railroad completed in 1869 created a nation-wide transportation network that united the Nation; railroads allowed for the transportation of larger quantities of goods over longer distances.
New8.27C Analyze how technological innovations brought about economic growth such as the development of the factory system and the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

HOW TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS BROUGHT ABOUT ECONOMIC GROWTH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Factory system – allowed for cheaper and faster production of products; factories employed workers who were paid low wages; migration of workers to cities for factory employment contributed to urbanization; development of factory system contributed to industrialization as production levels increased.
  • Transcontinental Railroad – passage of the Pacific Railway Act (1862) authorized the creation of a railroad to connect the eastern coast with the western coast; completion of the railroad allowed for faster, safer travel westward; building the railroad offered economic opportunities to many immigrants especially Chinese and Irish workers; the railroad facilitate settlement of the West as towns grew in proximity to the railroad
New8.28 The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on daily life in the United States. The student is expected to:
New8.28A Compare the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations that have influenced daily life in different periods in U.S. history.
Supporting Standard

Compare

EFFECTS OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS   THAT HAVE INFLUENCED DAILY LIFE IN DIFFERENT PERIODS IN U.S. HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mechanization of agriculture such as the   reaper, combine harvesters and cotton gin greatly expanded productivity and   the demand for enslaved labor.
  • Use of steam engines, interchangeable parts, and power looms resulted in an increased production of consumer goods.
  • Improved transportation and new factories increased demand for unskilled labor which encouraged the migration of women and children to urban areas.
  • Railroads facilitated westward migration.
  • Telegraph communication invented and patented by Samuel Morse transmitted electric signals over wires from one location to another resulted in faster communication capabilities, particularly after 1860 during settlement of the West
New8.28B Identify examples of how industrialization changed life in the United States.
Supporting Standard

Identify

EXAMPLES OF HOW INDUSTRIALIZATION CHANGED LIFE IN THE UNITED   STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cities grew and were more densely populated, with that came constant threat of fires, and spread of diseases
  • New forms of entertainment developed in cities, such as museums, and visiting circuses
  • Women and children who had previously been working long hours on farms, moved to cities for factory jobs working long hours
  • Agriculture became more mechanized as factories produced machinery for the farm industry
  • Production of products shifted from being made in homes - “domestic system” to production in factories- “factory system”

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2017 STAAR assessed the connection between industrialization and increasing sectionalism.

New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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