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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 07: Westward Expansion – From Sea to Shining Sea 1780s-1850s SUGGESTED DURATION : 8 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the concept of Manifest Destiny and the westward expansion of the United States. This unit is primarily a study of migration. During the first half of the nineteenth century the United States expanded territorially with the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory, the annexation of Texas, and the addition of the Mexican Cession and Oregon Territory. The initial phase of westward expansion was characterized by migration of settlers west of the Appalachian mountains into the Ohio River valley and into territory northwest of the Ohio River. Following these migrations settlers traveled westward on trails crossing the Rocky Mountains, many drawn by the discovery of gold in California, and eventually settling in territory along the west coast. The settlement of the Great Plains began during the Civil War and continued until the beginning of the twentieth century. In this unit the focus in on the initial phases of migration. Westward expansion brought political, economic, and geographic changes as Americans acted on the concept of Manifest Destiny by seeking new opportunities in the newly acquired territories. A study of westward expansion is important for understanding the geographic scope of the United States and for understanding the idea of “rugged individualism” that permeates American culture.

Prior to this Unit

In fifth grade students were introduced to the concept of Manifest Destiny and learned about westward migration in the early nineteenth century, as well as studying about the war with Mexico following the annexation of Texas. In seventh grade, students again studied about the U.S.-Mexican War and the subsequent territorial acquisitions in the United States. In previous units in this course, students studied about the political developments that characterized the early republic and the early presidencies through the presidency of Jackson.

During this Unit

During this unit, the focus shifts to the geographic changes that were occurring during the first century of the early republic. Students learn about the concept of Manifest Destiny and the need for the Northwest Ordinance, how the lands west of the Mississippi were acquired by the United States, including the exploration of the Louisiana Purchase, and about how the United States-Mexican War continued the process of territorial expansion. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students examine the social and economic changes that were brought about by industrialization and the reforms that developed in response to those changes.


Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

As the idea of Manifest Destiny spread it became necessary for the United States to establish procedures for the admission of new states.

  • Why did the concept of Manifest Destiny develop in the United States?
  • What procedures were established by the Northwest Ordinance?
  • What effect did the Louisiana Purchase have on the territorial expansion of the United States?

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Settlers migrated west for a variety of reasons resulting in changing population patterns in the American West.

  • What role did Lewis and Clark play in the expansion of the United States?
  • What motivated many pioneers and some groups to migrate to the American West?
  • Which trails became popular routes for westward migrants?
  • What was characteristic of human interactions with the environment at this time?
  • How did westward expansion affect the American Indians in the West?
  • How did the United States use treaties with American Indian societies?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration
  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Throughout the nineteenth century the United States continued to acquire territory, including gaining land from Mexico following a war.

  • What caused the outbreak of the U.S-Mexican War?
  • What land did the United States gain in the peace settlement of the U.S.-Mexican war?
  • What territories were acquired that reflect the current organization of the United States?

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may not understand that westward expansion was a constantly occurring phenomenon starting from the earliest colonial settlements.
  • Students may not understand that the American West was already inhabited by hundreds of settled and nomadic American Indian societies with a combined population of hundreds of thousands.

Unit Vocabulary

manifest destiny – idea that the United States should expand to include the territory from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
pioneers – someone is first to settle a region or enter into an project

Related Vocabulary

  • migration
  •  statehood
  •  region
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • Westward Expansion – this era of American history was characterized by territorial expansion of the republic and perpetuation of the idea of Manifest Destiny; the Northwest Ordinance was instituted as a process for adding states to the union; the annexation of Texas led to a war with Mexico; victory in the war with Mexico resulted in the addition of more territory; most migration during this period was from the eastern United States to territory west of the Rocky Mountains, including a rush to California to find gold
New8.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and 1861-1865, Civil War.


Supporting Standard

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1803 – Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the territory controlled by the United States government
New8.6 The student understands westward expansion and its effects on the political, economic, and social development of the nation. The student is expected to:
New8.6A Explain how the Northwest Ordinance established principles and procedures for orderly expansion of the United States.
Readiness Standard

Explain

HOW THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE ESTABLISHED PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES FOR ORDERLY EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • The process for admitting new states into the United States was unclear in the 1780s.
  • The Northwest Ordinance (1787) created an orderly procedure for establishing territories and applying for statehood; needed to address competing claims to land west of the Appalachian Mountains
  • Territories were initially governed by appointed officials from Congress. Election of a self-governing representative body was allowed in the territory after achieving a population of 5.000. The territorial government could apply for statehood once the population achieved 60,000.
New8.6B Analyze the westward growth of the nation, including the Louisiana Purchase and Manifest Destiny.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

THE WESTWARD GROWTH OF THE NATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • First expansion beyond the thirteen colonies was into the Northwest Territory, which the United States had gained from the British in the treaty following the revolution. This area later became the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and included parts Minnesota.
  • Louisiana Purchase 1803 – Jefferson paid France $15 million for the purchase of the Louisiana territory, which significantly added to the territory controlled by the United States.
  • Following the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase the Unites States gained parts of North Dakota and Minnesota (Red River Valley) in 1818 and Florida in 1819
  • The concept of Manifest Destiny justified the expansionist policies for the U.S. government; these policies culminated in the acquisition of Texas 1845, the  Mexican Cession (New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, part of Wyoming, and California) in 1848 following a war with Mexico and the Oregon Territory in 1846 achieving the U.S. goal of having access to the Pacific Ocean
  • Gadsden Purchase of 1853 made with Mexico in order to provide the land necessary for a southern transcontinental railroad
  • Alaska Purchase (Seward’s Folly)- 1867
  • Homestead Act (May, 1862) – granted adult heads of families 160 acres of surveyed public land for a minimal filing fee. Claimants were required to “improve” the plot by building a dwelling and cultivating the land. After 5 years on the land, the original filer was entitled to the property, free and clear, except for a small registration fee. Most of the land went to speculators, cattlemen, miners, lumbermen, and railroads. Of some 500 million acres dispersed by the General Land Office between 1862 and 1904, only 80 million acres went to homesteaders. This served to settle the plains of the United States.
New8.6C Explain the causes and effects of the U.S.-Mexican War and their impact on the United States.
Readiness Standard

Explain

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE U.S.-MEXICAN WAR AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Causes

  • President Polk desired to expand the United States and annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845
  • Despite a promise from Santa Anna to support Texas’ independence, Mexico never recognized Texas’ independence and instead Texas was considered a Mexican state in rebellion by the Mexican government; continued efforts to gain recognition of Texas’ independence involved a disagreement about the southern boundary of Texas; once the United States  annexed Texas the Rio Grande River was established as the boundary, which Mexico disputed
  • In 1845 President Polk stationed troops commanded by Zachary Taylor at the Nueces River; early in 1846 when U.S. troops moved into the contested region between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande River Mexican troops responded by crossing the Rio Grande and engaging the U.S. troops; a declaration of war by the United States followed in May of 1846 
  • The United States claimed they were defending U.S. territory from Mexican aggression; Mexico claimed that U.S. aggression and the war was a pretext for taking Mexican territory

 Effects and Impact

  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ended the war, granting the United States the Mexican Cession for $15 million – includes territory found today in the modern states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and California
  • United States later paid Mexico $10 million for the Gadsden Purchase for a railway right-of-way through southern Arizona to avoid mountainous terrain (1854); last major territorial acquisition for the contiguous United States
  • United States territory extended from Atlantic to Pacific coasts
  • Brought to light the slavery issue once again when California requested admission as a state; the Compromise of 1850 addressed many issues by balancing the concerns of abolitionists and slave-holders; abolitionists gained California as a free state while southern slave-holders were pacified with passage of the Fugitive Slave Act; Texas established its borders in exchange for the U.S. government paying its debts to Mexico; territories in the Southwest were established without addressing their status as a free or slavery territories; slave trade was outlawed in the District of Columbia though slave holding was still permitted within the district
New8.10 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present. The student is expected to:
New8.10A Locate places and regions directly related to major eras and turning points in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.
Supporting Standard

Locate

PLACES AND REGIONS OF IMPORTANCE IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 17TH, 18TH, and 19TH CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

Westward Expansion

  • Louisiana Purchase, Florida, Texas, Oregon Territory, Mexican Cession, Gadsden Purchase, Nebraska Territory, Minnesota Territory, Utah Territory, New Mexico Territory, Kansas Territory
  • Oregon Trail- longest of the westward trails; from Independence, Missouri to Oregon Territory
  • Santa Fe Trail- from St. Louis to Santa Fe, New Mexico Territory
  • California Trail-from Ft. Hall, Oregon Territory to Sutter’s Ft., California
  • San Francisco, St. Louis, Fort Mandan, Sutter’s Mill
  • Regionally divided into North, South, and West (area west of the Mississippi River)
  • Division of slavery states and free states

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2013 STAAR assessed Seneca Falls, NY as a place of importance in the women’s rights movement.
The Spring 2016 STAAR assessed the state of Oklahoma as the destination for the American Indians forced to migrate on the Trail of Tears. The student was assessed on the physical shape of the state as an answer option.
The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed students’ knowledge of the location of Florida in relation to it having been acquired from Spain.

New8.10B Compare places and regions of the United States in terms of physical and human characteristics.
Readiness Standard

STAAR Note:

The 2013 and 2014 STAAR assessed the similar characteristic of Texas and California being former territories of Mexico

The 2016 STAAR assessed the similar characteristic of Florida and California as former Spanish colonies

New8.10C Analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors such as weather, landforms, waterways, transportation, and communication on major historical events in the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON MAJOR HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Effects of physical and human geographic factors on westward expansion

  • Physical geography affected the route taken by the Lewis and Clark expedition as they followed the path of the Missouri and Columbia rivers for most of the journey. Extreme weather conditions necessitated the expedition taking shelter for the winter.
  • Discovery of gold in California fueled a rush of settlers to the region.
  • Access to numerous waterways along with the building of canals helped connect farms in the interior of the United States to port cities along the coast greatly facilitating economic development across the country. Most notably the Erie Canal completed in 1825 extended from the Hudson River at Albany, N.Y. to Lake Erie at Buffalo, N.Y., in effect connecting the Atlantic Ocean port at New York City to the Great Lakes. The canal affected economic growth in New York as well as for the interior of the United States, with New York City becoming a vital commercial center and the country’s busiest port in the 1800’s.
  • The building of railroads and the extension of telegraph lines into the western United States facilitated settlement and economic development.
New8.11 The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the environment through the mid-19th century. The student is expected to:
New8.11A Analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCED POPULATION   DISTRIBUTION, SETTLEMENT PATTERNS, AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED   STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Westward Expansion

  • Gold in California – rush of settlers to California; pushed many American Indians off their lands; population of California quickly climbed to the amount required for statehood
  • California’s proximity to Pacific Ocean led to an increase of immigration from Asian nations.
  • Rocky Mountains’ location between eastern and western parts of the United States; resulted in need for Gadsden Purchase to put in railroad for train transport of goods from East to West and supporting settlement of the West
New8.11B Describe the positive and negative consequences of human modification of the physical environment of the United States.
Supporting Standard

Describe

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN MODIFICATION OF THE   PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Railroads – increased communication and trade   between East and West; disruption of natural habitats in the West;   contributed to air pollution in the West; necessitated the filling of   hollows, blasting tunnels through mountains, and building bridges across   rivers
  • Urbanization – created economic centers that   provided wealth to the nation and people; contributed to pollution,   overcrowding
  • Recovery of natural resources – clearing   timber; extraction of gold, silver and iron provided for the nation’s energy   needs as well as provided jobs; altered the physical landscape; pollution in   nearby rivers and streams
  • Agriculture and ranching – provided food and   jobs; altered the physical landscape; disrupted natural habitats; fenced off   open range; increased cotton cultivation resulted in widespread soil   exhaustion
  • Building of canals and roads – facilitated the   movement of goods and people; promoted settlement of the West; disturbed   natural landscapes and wildlife habitats, including the removal of bison on   the Great Plains
New8.12 The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.12A Identify economic differences among different regions of the United States.
Supporting Standard

Identify

ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Westward Expansion/Industrialization, Immigration, and Reform

  • North – manufacturing   and industry
  • South – agriculture   (supplied North with raw materials)
  • West – discovery of   significant deposits of silver and gold facilitates development of a mining   industry; ranching and farming
New8.23 The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to:
New8.23A Identify racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and explain their reasons for immigration.
Readiness Standard

Identify

RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND RELIGIOUS   GROUPS THAT SETTLED IN THE UNITED STATES

Explain

REASONS FOR IMMIGRATION

Including, but not limited to:

Westward Expansion/Immigration, Industrialization, and Reform

  • Chinese and European immigrants came to the United States due to a variety of push/pull factors.
  • Push factors included religious oppression, political upheaval, oppression and lack of economic opportunities.
  • Pull factors include religious and political freedom and economic opportunities.
  • Chinese immigrants found work building railroads and in the mining sector in California. Many Chinese immigrated to California following the Gold Rush. Famine in other countries-including the potato famine in Ireland encouraged Irish immigration in the East.
New8.23C Identify ways conflicts between people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups were addressed.
Supporting Standard

Identify

WAYS CONFLICTS BETWEEN PEOPLE FROM VARIOUS RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND   RELIGIOUS GROUPS WERE ADDRESSED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Treaties
    • The federal government attempted to reduce conflict along the frontier using a variety of treaties with American Indian tribes
  • Migration
    • Mormons – set up their independent community to avoid persecution
  • Legislation
    • After the U.S.-Mexican War, conflicts arose over land claims in California between former Mexican citizens and new settlers
  • Judicial decisions
    • Cherokee Nation used the federal courts to try to resolve issues with state laws
New8.23D Analyze the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to our national identity.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

CONTRIBUTIONS OF PEOPLE OF VARIOUS RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND RELIGIOUS   GROUPS TO OUR NATIONAL IDENTITY

Including, but not limited to:

  • The English colonists contributed ideas about political liberties and representative government.
  • Various Protestant religious groups, such as   the Puritans and Quakers promoted ideas of religious freedom.
  • Through waves of immigration new languages,   foods, customs, music, stories, traditions and place names have been incorporated   in the national identity of Americans. This includes contributions from enslaved   African Americans, European immigrants, Asian immigrants and immigrants from   Latin America.
  • American Indian traditions highlight the rich   culture that existed in the Americas prior to colonization.

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2014 STAAR assessed specific contributions of German Americans.
The Spring 2017 STAAR assessed how place names in the Southwestern United States reflected colonial Spanish heritage.

New8.23E Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.
Supporting Standard

Identify

POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN TO   AMERICAN SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Westward Expansion
    • Sacagawea from the Shoshone tribe acted as an interpreter and guide on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Having given birth just before joining the expedition, Sacagawea preformed her duties while caring for an infant child.
New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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