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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 06: Age of Jackson – Democracy Expands 1820s-1830s SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to the Age of Jackson. This unit is primarily a study of populism. The presidency of Andrew Jackson highlighted the division in American society between a wealthy class and a working class as well as between rural and urban. Jackson was the first president elected from what was considered a western state in the early nineteenth century. At this time Americans were migrating west of the Appalachian mountains and with that came rising tensions between settlers and the indigenous populations living in the area. Jackson’s presidency was also punctuated by struggles between the executive and legislative branch as well as between the executive and judicial branch, as Jackson exerted his authority. A study of Jackson’s presidency is important for understanding the growth of populism in the United States and understanding the power of the presidency in American government.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the development of the early republic and the presidencies of Washington through John Quincy Adams.

During this Unit

During this unit students study about the impact of expanded suffrage and the election of Andrew Jackson. Additionally students study Jackson’s presidency by specifically examining his policies in regards to American Indian groups, the National Bank, and the Nullification Crisis.  It is important for students to understand that the Nullification Crisis is a prelude to the debate over states’ rights that contributes to the outbreak of the Civil War. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students examine the processes that facilitated the westward expansion of the United States.


Humans strive for power.

  • How do people seek to gain and maintain power?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The election of Andrew Jackson led to an expansion of democracy.

  • What groups of people formed the base of support for Andrew Jackson’s election?
  • What policies were changed to expand suffrage to more Americans?
  • What was significant about the creation of the “spoils system”?

Civic Engagement

  • Democratic Principles

Historical Processes

  • Power
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Pressure from American settlers led to the removal and resettlement of the Cherokee Indians.

  • Why did many Americans want access to Indian lands?
  • What steps were taken by Andrew Jackson to resettle the American Indian tribes east of the Mississippi?
  • How did Cherokee leaders respond to passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830?

Cultural Patterns

  • Prejudice and Discrimination

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration

Historical Processes

  • Power
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

President Andrew Jackson used the power of the presidency to dissolve the National Bank and to respond to the Nullification Crisis.

  • What issues led President Jackson to not renew the charter of the National Bank?
  • What issue led to the Nullification Crisis and how was the crisis resolved?

Civic Engagement

  • Laws, Rules, Political Processes

Historical Processes

  • Power
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may have misconceptions about the division of power betweent the federal government and the states.

Unit Vocabulary

nullification – the idea that states can refuse to follow federal laws
spoils system – the practice of public officials given jobs or favors to supporters
suffrage – the right to vote
states’ rights – powers given to the states as interpreted in the U.S. Constitution, generally seen as a check to federal powers

Related Vocabulary

  • resettlement
  • tariff
  •  policy
  •  common man
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • Age of Jackson – this era of American history was characterized by the expansion male suffrage and the political power of the common man exemplified by the presidency of Andrew Jackson; during this period President Jackson instituted policies to move American Indians, vetoed a rechartering of the National Bank and addressed the Nullification Crisis by defining the nature of federalism in the republic
New8.5 The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to:
New8.5B Summarize arguments regarding protective tariffs, taxation, and the banking system.
Supporting Standard

Summarize

ARGUMENTS REGARDING PROTECTIVE TARIFFS, TAXATION, AND THE BANKING SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Protective Tariffs – high tariffs, taxes on imports, protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition who sell their products at lower prices. High tariffs prevent consumers from purchasing the foreign products at lower prices. High tariffs on foreign goods on common purchases were favored by North because their economy was based on manufacturing. Tariffs caused economic hardships in the South because of the amount of goods that the South purchased from Europe. During the Andrew Jackson administration, a tariff debate continued to develop. Congress endorsed high tariffs on any goods manufactured in Europe. Many Americans welcomed these protective tariffs, especially Americans living in the Northeastern states where industry thrived. Southerners were in disagreement with the protective tariffs because Americans would now have to pay higher prices for goods manufactured in the U.S.
  • Low tariffs – allows for greater volume of trade between countries, but often at the expense of the domestic traders. The consumers are happy to have access to many goods at low prices.
  • Taxation – high taxes take money away from the consumer, so the government can provide services and infrastructure that benefit the economy and the citizens. Low taxes leave more money for the consumer to spend and stimulate economic growth; effected southern economy more than north. Most taxation was based on tariffs. Andrew Jackson opposed a strong central government and opposed unreasonable taxation exercised by the federal government. Jackson believed that taxation could quickly lead to an abuse of power and control over the American people.
  • Banking System – as industries began to start and expand the need for capital (in the form of loans) increased, the banking industry became very important to the growth of the economy. Banks were also important to the farmer, who often borrowed money from banks, using their future crop as collateral. James Madison and Thomas Jefferson supported a strict interpretation of the Constitution. They believed that the power of the government should be clearly stated in the Constitution. A national bank was not in the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton supported a loose interpretation of the Constitution. He believed having a bank was “necessary and proper” (elastic clause). Based on this view, when the Constitution grants a power to Congress, it also grants Congress the “necessary and proper” means to carry out that power.
  • The Bank of the United States was extremely powerful and it controlled the nation’s money supply. Jackson viewed this bank as a bank made up of elitists run by private wealthy bankers. When Jackson was given the option to sign a renewed charter bank bill, he decided to veto it instead
New8.5C Explain the origin and development of American political parties.
Readiness Standard

Explain

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • The first two political parties, Federalists and Democratic-Republicans, emerged around opposing views on economic development and issues concerning the extent of federal power. This First Party System spanned from 1792 through 1824.
    • Federalists were generally in favor of a strong central government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution; favored the creation of a national bank; promoted manufacturing; argued in favor of a loose interpretation of the Constitution; led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams; were supported by northern merchants and manufacturers
    • Democratic-Republicans generally favored limiting the extent of the power of the federal government and supported strict interpretation of the Constitution; promoted agriculture; did not want a national bank; found support among farmers and workers; led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
  • The Second Party System emerged in 1828 when the Democratic-Republican Party split to become the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. The split in the party comes about when Jackson lost the 1824 election. Supporters of Jackson splinter off to become the Democratic Party. Supporters of Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams formed the base of the Whig Party.
New8.5F Explain the impact of the election of Andrew Jackson, including expanded suffrage.
Supporting Standard

Explain

IMPACT OF THE ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Andrew Jackson's election (1828) signaled a shift of political power to the common man as the base of his support was from laborers, farmers and average Americans; Jackson’s campaign argued that the country had been corrupted by the privileged; Jackson was the first president elected who lived in a western state, Tennessee; pronounced himself as the champion of the common man; pursued a policy to eliminate the National Bank which he felt favored the interests of the wealthy and to address issues related to the states and American Indians tribes
  • Following Jackson’s election many states eliminated property ownership for voting, ended voting by voice in favor of printed, secret ballots, and introduced direct methods of selecting presidential electors, governors, state judges, and county officials thereby expanding suffrage which resulted in an increase in voter participation
  • The political movement that was ushered in with Jackson’s election is sometimes referred to as “Jacksonian Democracy”; evidenced in  the many changes to voting practices
  • Jackson is also credited with the creation of a “spoils system” where loyal supporters were given government posts; Jackson’s believed that elites ran the government; the “spoils system” resulted in many government officials being replaced by political supporters, many of whom were perceived to be unqualified
New8.5G Analyze the reasons for the removal and resettlement of Cherokee Indians during the Jacksonian era, including the Indian Removal Act, Worcester v. Georgia, and the Trail of Tears.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

REASONS FOR THE REMOVAL AND RESETTLEMENT OF CHEROKEE INDIANS DURING THE JACKSONIAN ERA

Including, but not limited to:

Context

  • Early in the 19th century, while the rapidly-growing United States expanded into the lower South, white settlers faced what they considered an obstacle. This area was home to several American Indian nations. These Indian nations, in the view of the settlers and many other white Americans, were standing in the way of progress. Eager for land to raise cotton, the settlers pressured the federal government to remove the American Indians to new territory west of the Mississippi River.

Policies

  • American Indian tribes could occupy U.S. lands, but they could not hold title to that land based on a Supreme Court ruling in 1823.
  • Indian Removal Act – gave the president power to negotiate removal treaties with American Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi River. Under these treaties, the American Indian tribes were to give up their lands east of the Mississippi River in exchange for lands to the west. Those wishing to remain in the east would become citizens of their home state. This act affected not only the southeastern nations of American Indian tribes, but many others further north.
  • Worcester v. Georgia
    • The Cherokee used legal means in their attempt to safeguard their rights. They sought protection from land-hungry white settlers. The Cherokee adopted a written constitution declaring themselves to be a sovereign nation. They based this on United States’ policy, where in former treaties, Indian nations had been declared sovereign so they would be legally capable of ceding their lands. The state of Georgia, however, did not recognize their sovereign status, but saw them as tenants living on state land. The Cherokee took their case to the Supreme Court in June of 1830. In this instance the court heard the case but declined to make a ruling.  
    • The Cherokee went to the Supreme Court again in 1831. This time they based their appeal on an 1830 Georgia law which prohibited whites from living on Indian Territory after March 31, 1831, without a license from the state. The state legislature had written this law to justify removing white missionaries who were helping the Indians resist removal. The court this time decided in favor of the Cherokee. It stated that the Cherokee had the right to self-government, and declared Georgia's extension of state law over them to be unconstitutional. The state of Georgia refused to abide by the Court decision, however, and President Jackson refused to enforce the law.
  • Trail of Tears – in 1836, the Cherokee were given two years to migrate voluntarily, at the end of which time they would be forcibly removed. By 1838 only 2,000 had migrated; 16,000 remained on their land. The U.S. government sent in 7,000 troops, who forced the Cherokees into stockades at bayonet point. They were not allowed time to gather their belongings, and as they left, whites looted their homes. Then began the march known as the Trail of Tears, in which 4,000 Cherokee people died of cold, hunger, and disease on their way to the western lands.
New8.17 The student understands the dynamic nature of the powers of the national government and state governments in a federal system. The student is expected to:
New8.17B

Explain constitutional issues arising over the issue of states' rights, including the Nullification Crisis and the Civil War.


Readiness Standard

Explain

CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES ARISING OVER THE ISSUE OF STATES' RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Nullification Crisis (1832) – in 1828 Congress passed the highest tariff ever, which was supported by northern manufacturers and opposed by those in southern states because of the additional expense placed on goods southerners purchased.  Southerners labeled it the “Tariff of Abominations.” Opposition to the tariff was led by John C. Calhoun who argued that states had the right to cancel a federal law it claimed was unconstitutional. This argument became known as nullification. In 1830 Daniel Webster, a senator from Massachusetts, addressed the idea of nullification with a speech on the Senate floor arguing that if states could nullify federal laws the preservation of the union was in jeopardy. In 1832 debate over the tariff reignited when Jackson signed a revision to the tariff that lowered the rate. The lowered tariff was not low enough for South Carolina, now represented by Senator John C. Calhoun. He declared the federal tariff null and void within its borders with the passage of the Nullification Act by the South Carolina legislature. Delegates to a special convention urged the South Carolina state legislature to take military action and to secede from the union if the federal government demanded the customs duties. President Jackson responded by asking Congress to authorize the use of federal troops to intervene in nullification. To prevent a civil war, Henry Clay proposed the Compromise Tariff of 1833. The compromise tariff was supported by President Jackson, and without support from other states, Calhoun also agreed to the compromise tariff. The Nullification Act was repealed but the concept of states’ nullification of a law continued to be problematic.
  • Most issues involving states’ rights are related to conflicting interpretations of the Tenth Amendment, which vests the states with rights not specified to the national government.
New8.18 The student understands the impact of landmark Supreme Court cases. The student is expected to:
New8.18B Summarize the issues, decisions, and significance of landmark Supreme Court cases, including Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden.
Supporting Standard

Summarize

ISSUES, DECISIONS, AND SIGNIFICANCE OF LANDMARK SUPREME COURT CASES

Including, but not limited to:

Case

Issue

Decision

Significance

Marbury v. Madison

Jefferson ordered Madison not to deliver Adams’ last-minute   judicial appointments

Law that allowed Marbury to sue Madison for delivery of his   appointment was unconstitutional

Establishes judicial review-the power of the federal court to   determine the constitutionality of a law

McCulloch v. Maryland

 

Maryland   wanted to tax its branch of the national bank

States   cannot claim to have power over the federal government

Federal   government is upheld as the supreme law of the land

Gibbons v. Ogden

 

Steamship   operators fought over shipping rights on Hudson River in both New York and   New Jersey

Only the   federal government has power to regulate interstate commerce

Federal   government’s power reinforced

New8.21 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.21A Identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical issues.
Supporting Standard

Identify

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND INTEREST GROUPS   ON IMPORTANT HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

Age of Jackson

  • Democratic-Republicans split into the Democratic Party and the Whig Party. Democrats were supporters of Jackson while Whigs were opponents of Jackson.
  • Democratic Party
    • Supported a strong executive
    • Tended to support smaller/ decentralized government
    • Supported Jackson’s efforts to close the National Bank
    • Opposed tariffs
  • Whig Party
    • Argued for strong legislative power and feared Jackson would use his power to become a king
    • Supported a strong central bank
    • Favored spending on public projects that supported building of infrastructure- roads, canals, etc.
New8.23 The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to:
New8.23C Identify ways conflicts between people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups were addressed.
Supporting Standard

Identify

WAYS CONFLICTS BETWEEN PEOPLE FROM VARIOUS RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND   RELIGIOUS GROUPS WERE ADDRESSED

Including, but not limited to:

  • Treaties
    • The federal government attempted to reduce conflict along the frontier using a variety of treaties with American Indian tribes
  • Migration
    • Mormons – set up their independent community to avoid persecution
  • Legislation
    • After the U.S.-Mexican War, conflicts arose over land claims in California between former Mexican citizens and new settlers
  • Judicial decisions
    • Cherokee Nation used the federal courts to try to resolve issues with state laws
New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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