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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 05: Early Republic – Addressing Challenges 1789-1828 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the years of the Early Republic and the impact made by the early presidents on the republic. This unit is primarily a study of federalism. The early leaders of the republic faced several challenges, including how to provide for the defense of the nation, how to stabilize the economy, and how to define the powers of the federal government. During the early years of the republic a series of Supreme Court cases served to delineate the powers of the federal government along with establishing the concept of judicial review. The War of 1812 solidified the American people, furthered economic development in the new nation, and highlighted the significance of foreign policy. The struggle to define federalism, brought to light early on in the republic, continues as a pattern throughout American history, and will be the focus of study in several units to follow this one, including the Age of Jackson, Sectionalism, and the Civil War. An examination of the challenges faced by the early leaders of the United States and the policies that developed to address these challenges is important for understanding the structure of the United States federal government and the development of political parties in the United States.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the Constitutional Convention and the provisions of the Constitution.

During this Unit

During this unit, students examine how leaders in the United States worked to establish a stable government and address economic needs in the new republic along with the resulting development of political parties. Additionally students learn about the causes and consequences of the War of 1812, and the development of foreign policy by presidents of the early republic. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students examine the political, economic, social and cultural changes that occurred during the presidency of Andrew Jackson.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Leaders of the early United States acted to stabilize the new country by establishing the structure of government authority while organizing and securing territorial expansion.

  • What actions were taken by the leaders of the early republic to establish a system of justice?
  • What actions were taken by the leaders of the early republic to provide for the common defense and maintain national security?
  • How did the addition of the Louisiana Purchase affect the early republic?
  • In what ways did the Supreme Court decisions of Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden impact federal authority?

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

While a free enterprise system characterized the new republic it was necessary for the government to establish economic policies.

  • Why did federal leaders take a role in regulating the economy and raising revenue?
  • What arguments were made for and against the use of protective tariffs and the establishment of a national bank?
  • How did issues about the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution lead to the creation of new political parties?

Economic Patterns

  • Economic Systems
  • Trade

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

In 1812 the leaders of the republic had to defend against a British invasion resulting in economic changes and the development of U.S. foreign policy.

  • What led to the outbreak of the War of 1812?
  • What major events are associated with the War of 1812?
  • How did the War of 1812 affect economic patterns in the United States?
  • How did U.S. foreign policy change from the presidency of Washington to the presidency of Monroe?

Historical Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation

Political Patterns

  • Nationalism
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Student may not understand the United States fought two wars with Great Britain in the nation’s founding.

Unit Vocabulary

republic – political system in which representatives are responsible for governing
impressment – forcing someone into service for an organization or government
political party – groups of people sharing a common political philosophy and support for candidates with that philosophy
foreign policy – government actions in relations to other countries
isolationism – policy of separating and not participation in international relationships
neutrality – remaining independent and not taking sides in an issue

Related Vocabulary

  • intervention
  • debt
  • domestic
  • embargo
  • alliance
  • sedition
  • doctrine
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • Early Republic – this era of American history was characterized by the presidencies of George Washington through James Monroe in which institutions of domestic policy and foreign policy for the United States were developed; the size of the republic was doubled with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803; political parties emerged during this period with the Democratic-Republicans and Federalists; American independence was solidified with the winning of the War of 1812 followed by a period of heightened American patriotism and unity known as the Era of Good Feelings
New8.5 The student understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the republic and the Age of Jackson. The student is expected to:
New8.5A Describe major domestic problems faced by the leaders of the new republic, including maintaining national security, creating a stable economic system, and setting up the court system.
Readiness Standard

Describe

MAJOR DOMESTIC PROBLEMS FACED BY THE LEADERS OF THE NEW REPUBLIC

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maintaining national security
    • Whiskey Rebellion – farmers in western Pennsylvania over the course of several years resisted efforts by the federal government to collect taxes on whiskey and the various grains used to make whiskey. The rebellion culminated in 1794 with an attack on a tax collector’s home. The rebels felt that the tax unfairly targeted indigent frontier farmers, who didn’t have the ability to pay a tax with currency. When efforts to negotiate with the rebels failed, Washington organized and led a militia force to put down the uprising. The rebels fled prior to arrival of militia forces.
    • XYZ Affair – the French were seizing American ships to prevent Americans from trading with the British. The British and French were at war. X, Y, and Z referred to the French agents that assured the American negotiators that they could meet with the French minister. The French agreed to stop if the Americans agreed to give France a loan of $10 million and a bribe to the minister of $250,000. U.S. officials refused and Congress canceled treaties with France, which resulted in a continuation of France seizing ships, and prompted Congress to set aside money to increase the U.S. military.
    • Following the revolutionary war the Continental Army and Continental Marines were disbanded after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
    • The Congress of the Confederation established the U.S. Army (1784). The threats to U.S. shipping by Barbary Coast pirates prompts Congress to create the U.S. Navy (1794) followed by the Marines (1798).
    • Alien & Sedition Acts – laws that targeted immigrants. Immigrants had to wait to become citizens and could be removed from the country or jailed if they were disloyal or if they said or wrote anything false or harmful about the government. Opponents of the law saw it as an overreach of the federal government and several of the acts were allowed to expire.
    • States’ rights – originates with opposition to the Alien & Sedition Acts, when Madison and Jefferson argued that the states have the right to interpret the Constitution and declare laws unconstitutional or nullify a federal law. Debates about issues related to states’ rights continued to plague the union, ultimately resulting in a civil war.
  • Creating a stable economic system
    • The United States and individual states had substantial debt from fighting the Revolutionary War. Hamilton proposed that the national government assume the revolutionary war debts of the state governments.
    • In order to foster trade relations with other nations a legitimate currency was needed. Hamilton’s solution to create a National Bank was eventually implemented.
  • Setting up the court system
    • Federal Judiciary Act 1789 – a law that designed the state and federal court system
    • Marbury v. Madison (1803)–set the precedent of judicial review and gave the Supreme Court the power to declare laws unconstitutional
New8.5B Summarize arguments regarding protective tariffs, taxation, and the banking system.
Supporting Standard

Summarize

ARGUMENTS REGARDING PROTECTIVE TARIFFS, TAXATION, AND THE BANKING SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Protective Tariffs – high tariffs, taxes on imports, protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition who sell their products at lower prices. High tariffs prevent consumers from purchasing the foreign products at lower prices. High tariffs on foreign goods on common purchases were favored by North because their economy was based on manufacturing. Tariffs caused economic hardships in the South because of the amount of goods that the South purchased from Europe. During the Andrew Jackson administration, a tariff debate continued to develop. Congress endorsed high tariffs on any goods manufactured in Europe. Many Americans welcomed these protective tariffs, especially Americans living in the Northeastern states where industry thrived. Southerners were in disagreement with the protective tariffs because Americans would now have to pay higher prices for goods manufactured in the U.S.
  • Low tariffs – allows for greater volume of trade between countries, but often at the expense of the domestic traders. The consumers are happy to have access to many goods at low prices.
  • Taxation – high taxes take money away from the consumer, so the government can provide services and infrastructure that benefit the economy and the citizens. Low taxes leave more money for the consumer to spend and stimulate economic growth; effected southern economy more than north. Most taxation was based on tariffs. Andrew Jackson opposed a strong central government and opposed unreasonable taxation exercised by the federal government. Jackson believed that taxation could quickly lead to an abuse of power and control over the American people.
  • Banking System – as industries began to start and expand the need for capital (in the form of loans) increased, the banking industry became very important to the growth of the economy. Banks were also important to the farmer, who often borrowed money from banks, using their future crop as collateral. James Madison and Thomas Jefferson supported a strict interpretation of the Constitution. They believed that the power of the government should be clearly stated in the Constitution. A national bank was not in the Constitution. Alexander Hamilton supported a loose interpretation of the Constitution. He believed having a bank was “necessary and proper” (elastic clause). Based on this view, when the Constitution grants a power to Congress, it also grants Congress the “necessary and proper” means to carry out that power.
  • The Bank of the United States was extremely powerful and it controlled the nation’s money supply. Jackson viewed this bank as a bank made up of elitists run by private wealthy bankers. When Jackson was given the option to sign a renewed charter bank bill, he decided to veto it instead
New8.5C Explain the origin and development of American political parties.
Readiness Standard

Explain

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • The first two political parties, Federalists and Democratic-Republicans, emerged around opposing views on economic development and issues concerning the extent of federal power. This First Party System spanned from 1792 through 1824.
    • Federalists were generally in favor of a strong central government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution; favored the creation of a national bank; promoted manufacturing; argued in favor of a loose interpretation of the Constitution; led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams; were supported by northern merchants and manufacturers
    • Democratic-Republicans generally favored limiting the extent of the power of the federal government and supported strict interpretation of the Constitution; promoted agriculture; did not want a national bank; found support among farmers and workers; led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison
  • The Second Party System emerged in 1828 when the Democratic-Republican Party split to become the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. The split in the party comes about when Jackson lost the 1824 election. Supporters of Jackson splinter off to become the Democratic Party. Supporters of Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams formed the base of the Whig Party.
New8.5D Explain the causes, important events, and effects of the War of 1812.
Supporting Standard

Explain

CAUSES, IMPORTANT EVENTS, AND EFFECTS OF THE WAR OF 1812

Including, but not limited to:

  • Significance – this war between America and Britain established the United States as a country with an identity when the new country defended its first "invasion," proving it was a powerful force. No territory was gained or lost and there was no clear winner.

Causes/Issues

  • British impressment of U.S. sailors
  • Shipping interference
  • British supported American Indian resistance against Americans in the Northwest Territory
  • War Hawks – persuaded Congress to support a declaration of war against Britain

Events

  • Attack on Washington, D.C. – in 1814, the British occupied DC and set fire to many public buildings. Dolley Madison saved the Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington from the White House.
  • Fort McHenry – Francis Scott Key wrote the poem “Defence of Fort McHenry," from which the “Star Spangled Banner” was written, after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British Royal Navy ships during the Battle of Fort McHenry.
  • Battle of New Orleans – Treaty of Ghent was “in process” when the battle began. General Andrew Jackson defeated the British, who were intent on seizing New Orleans and the land America had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase. The victory made Jackson a national hero.
  • Treaty of Ghent – peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 and restored relations between the U.S. and Britain to pre-war status.

Effects

  • The United States gained a measure of international respect for managing to withstand the British attack.
  • Improved the professionalism of the U.S. Army
  • The manufacturing capabilities of the United States expanded.  The British blockade of the American coast created a shortage of cotton cloth (previously American cotton was shipped to Britain where it was turned into cloth, then sent back to America) in the United States, leading to the creation of a cotton-manufacturing industry. Numerous manufacturing establishments were founded (particularly in the northern region) that left the United States industrially independent of Europe.

 

 

New8.5E Identify the foreign policies of presidents Washington through Monroe and explain the impact of Washington's Farewell Address and the Monroe Doctrine.
Readiness Standard

Identify

FOREIGN POLICIES OF PRESIDENTS WASHINGTON THROUGH MONROE

Including, but not limited to:

  • The foreign policy challenge for the newly established United States republic was to maintain commercial ties with Europe in an effort to support trade and at the same time avoid becoming involved in European conflicts, especially those between Britain and France, essentially to remain neutral.
  • Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton, urged supporting stronger international trade, which necessitated the need for a navy. This group generally supported stronger ties with Britain.
  • Jeffersonians, led by Thomas Jefferson, favored expansion across the American continent and generally supported ties with France. 
  • George Washington declared American neutrality in the face of conflicts between France, Great Britain, and Spain.
    • As the French Revolution progressed, France declared war on Great Britain. Americans were divided about which side to support in the war. Washington felt that any involvement with either side was problematic for the United States. Efforts by France to entangle the United States particularly upset Washington, who responded by issuing the 1793 Proclamation of Neutrality. The proclamation intended to keep the United States from being allied with either France or Great Britain.
    • Jay’s Treaty (1794) was negotiated with Great Britain. Unresolved issues from the Revolutionary War and the impressment of American sailors brought Great Britain and the United States close to war. Washington sided with the pro-British politicians and instructed Chief Justice John Jay to negotiate with the British government. The treaty stabilized relations and guaranteed trade between the United States and Great Britain.
    • Pinckney’s Treaty (1795) negotiated with Spain resolved territorial disputes and allow free navigation of the Mississippi River and duty-free transport through the port of New Orleans.
    • Washington’s Farewell Address (September 17, 1796) warned against “entangling alliances” and exhorted Americans to put aside their passionate likes and dislikes of foreign nations.
  • John Adams sought to avoid war with France amidst deteriorating relations between the United States and France.
    • XYZ Affair – a diplomatic incident in which anonymous French agents (referred to as W, X, Y, and Z) and American diplomats dispatched by Adams brought France and the United States to the brink of war. The incident fueled anti-French sentiment in the United States, much to the delight of British leaders, who prepared to assist the Americans should war break out. Napoleon came to power in France and turned his attention to regaining Louisiana from Spain, shifting French and U.S. negotiations to restore peace with the Convention of 1800.
  • Thomas Jefferson tried to avoid foreign involvement, yet diplomacy with France during his administration resulted in the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase.
    • Mounting conflict over naval piracy by the Barbary States resulted in a war, in which U.S. Marine Corps defeated forces in Tripoli in the first of the Barbary Wars (1801).
    • Embargo Act (1807) – prohibited Americans from trading with foreign nations. The act was intended to prevent U.S. entrance into the Napoleonic War by keeping the ships in American harbors. The embargo hurt the U.S. economy and highlighted the deteriorating relationship between the United States and Great Britain. The embargo was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act, which allowed trade with other nations, except Britain and France. This was virtually an unenforceable embargo. 
  • James Madison served as president during the War of 1812. Worked to resolve conflicts between Great Britain and the United States in an effort to preserve American neutrality and national honor.
    • Non-Intercourse Act ended in 1810 provided that France and Britain would end their blockades against neutral trade. The British continued to board American ships, many times impressing American sailors into the Royal Navy. In response to the impressment, which Madison viewed as a violation of national sovereignty, Madison asked for a declaration of war in June of 1812.
    • Treaty of Ghent ended the war and restored the political boundaries of North America, established a commission to settle further territorial disputes, and created peace with American Indian nations on the frontier. The negotiated peace illustrated that the war was not only about neutral trading on the seas, but also about territorial control of North America.
    • After the War of 1812 ended, Madison requested a declaration of war on Algiers, where issues with Barbary pirates lingered. The expanded U.S. Navy defeated Algerian warships. Knowing that Great Britain would not aid them, Algerian leaders quickly negotiated for peace. Having defeated the strongest of the Barbary States, Tunis and Tripoli also negotiated treaties with the United States ending the capture of U.S. ships in the Mediterranean.
  • James Monroe oversaw the separation of American and European spheres of influence with his declaration “The American continents … are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”
    • Rush-Bagot Pact (1817) – the United States and Britain agreed to remove military fleets from the Great Lakes.
    • Convention of 1818 – set the boundary between the United States and British North America (later Canada) at the forty-ninth parallel. Both agreements signaled improved relations between Great Britain and the United States. 
    • Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 – Florida ceded by Spain to the United States along with claims to the Pacific Northwest. In exchange the United States paid for damages caused by a rebellion of American citizens living in Florida and agreed to recognize Spanish control of Texas.
    • Monroe Doctrine (1823) - Monroe declared that the American continents were forever free and independent from European powers and that European powers should no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the nations of the Western Hemisphere. The declaration was most specifically meant to protect the newly independent Latin American states and any potential territorial gains of the United States. The doctrine was supported by Americans desiring to increase U.S. influence and trading throughout Latin America.

Explain

IMPACT OF WASHINTON’S FARWELL ADDRESS AND THE MONROE DOCTRINE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Impact of Washington’s Farewell Address
    • Urged nation to be neutral and steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world
    • Recognized the dangers of political parties and warned that attacks by political parties could weaken the nation
    • His advice contributed to many future U.S. foreign policy decisions
  • Impact of the Monroe Doctrine
    • The United States saw itself as a world power and a protector of Latin America, especially by the beginning of the 20th century
    • Policy provided justification for U.S. involvement in Latin American international affairs
New8.13 The student understands how various economic forces resulted in the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The student is expected to:
New8.13A Analyze the economic effects of the War of 1812.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE WAR OF 1812

Including, but not limited to:

  • As a result of the interruption of trade brought   about by a British blockade during the War of 1812, Americans had to rely on   U.S. manufactured goods in place of those they had previously imported; U.S.   manufacturing expanded, including the birth of the cotton-production industry   with the opening of Lowell Mills in Massachusetts
  • Improvements were made to transportation   routes including the building of roads and canals providing for increased   movement of goods and people; Erie Canal was completed in 1825
  • Tariffs were placed on imported goods, which helped to promote U.S. manufacturing
New8.18 The student understands the impact of landmark Supreme Court cases. The student is expected to:
New8.18A Identify the origin of judicial review.
Supporting Standard

Identify, Analyze

ORIGIN OF JUDICIAL REVIEW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Judicial review originated   from the ruling on Marbury v. Madison, (1803). Supreme Court Chief   Justice John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court’s duty is to interpret   the law according to the U.S. Constitution. If the Supreme Court decides a   law violates the U.S. Constitution, it cannot go into effect or if it is   already in effect, it is no longer legal. Allows the Supreme Court to   determine the constitutionality of laws made by Congress and provides a check   on the power of the legislative branch.
New8.18B Summarize the issues, decisions, and significance of landmark Supreme Court cases, including Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden.
Supporting Standard

Summarize

ISSUES, DECISIONS, AND SIGNIFICANCE OF LANDMARK SUPREME COURT CASES

Including, but not limited to:

Case

Issue

Decision

Significance

Marbury v. Madison

Jefferson ordered Madison not to deliver Adams’ last-minute   judicial appointments

Law that allowed Marbury to sue Madison for delivery of his   appointment was unconstitutional

Establishes judicial review-the power of the federal court to   determine the constitutionality of a law

McCulloch v. Maryland

 

Maryland   wanted to tax its branch of the national bank

States   cannot claim to have power over the federal government

Federal   government is upheld as the supreme law of the land

Gibbons v. Ogden

 

Steamship   operators fought over shipping rights on Hudson River in both New York and   New Jersey

Only the   federal government has power to regulate interstate commerce

Federal   government’s power reinforced

New8.20 The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:
New8.20A Evaluate the contributions of the Founding Fathers as models of civic virtue.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS AS MODELS OF CIVIC VIRTUE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Founding Fathers applies to those individuals who played a major role in declaring independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution.
  • Civic virtue relates to service to the community and essentially requires that citizens put the public or common good above their private interests; many also refer to an attentiveness and concern for public affairs
  • Many of the Founding Fathers sacrificed their business interests and livelihoods to participate in the independence movement as demonstrated by the last line of the Declaration of Independence “we   mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor”; some such as George Washington sacrificed a very comfortable lifestyle in order to serve the nation as a commander of the army and as the first President while many others lost property and family members in the course of the war for independence
New8.21 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.21A Identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical issues.
Supporting Standard

Identify

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND INTEREST GROUPS   ON IMPORTANT HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

Early Republic

  • Democratic-Republicans
    • Limited national government
    • Strict construction of the Constitution
    • Opposed National Bank and tariffs
    • Agricultural economy
  • Federalists
    • Strong national government
    • Loose construction of the Constitution
    • Favored National Bank and tariffs
    • Manufacturing and shipping-based economy
New8.22 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.22A

Analyze the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of the United States such as George Washington, John Marshall, and Abraham Lincoln.


Supporting Standard

Analyze

THE LEADERSHIP QUALITIES OF ELECTED AND APPOINTED LEADERS OF THE   UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Leadership qualities
    • Honesty
    • Courage
    • Inspirational
    • Thoughtful
  • George Washington
    • Led the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War; influenced others to work towards common goal and consistently sacrificed for the country; came out of retirement to lead the Constitutional Convention; served as the first President of the United States for two terms; shaped the role the President; established the idea of a term limit on the presidency
  • John Marshall
    • Appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Adams, preferred the court arrive at decisions by consensus and issue a single opinion; his leadership helped to bring the Supreme Court to a prominent position; set precedent of judicial review in the landmark Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison, establishing the Supreme Court’s authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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