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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 04: Writing the Constitution – Creating a More Perfect Union 1783-1791 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the creation and the adoption of the United States Constitution. This unit is primarily a study of ideas and compromise. The most revolutionary change to happen following the American war for independence was the creation of a government for the former British colonies, now the United States. In 1787, delegates meet to revise the Articles of Confederation but decided to write an entirely new constitution. The most primary obstacle to creating the new constitution was addressing the issue of slavery, which is evident in the three-fifths compromise and the fugitive slave clause.  After debate and compromise the delegates produced a constitution like none other in history, establishing a government that reflected the ideals of the Enlightenment. Yet, the issue of slavery was left for a future generation to address. An examination of the differences that arose between Federalists and Anti-federalists during the Constitutional Convention is important for understanding the debate about the limits of governmental power which characterizes American society to this day. Additionally it is important for students to study the U.S. Constitution and its founding principles in order to understand how the government’s powers are limited, how the rights of the people are protected in the United States.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students have studied about characteristics of good citizenship in Grades 1- 3. In Grade 4 students learned about participation in the democratic process and in Grade 5 students studied about participation in democracy and the rights guaranteed in the Constitution. In Grades 6 and 7 students learned about the rights, responsibilities and duties of citizens. In the previous unit, students learned about the signing of the Declaration of Independence and the events of the revolutionary era. Students have also studied about the impact of other historical documents on the development of representative government including the Mayflower Compact and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.. Students were also introduced to the seven principles of constitutional democracy in seventh grade.

During this Unit

During this unit students examine why the Articles of Confederation was replaced with a new constitution, the debate that emerged between Federalists and Anti-federalists, the principles of limited government that are exemplified in the U.S. Constitution, and the rights that are protected by the U.S. Constitution.  Students also examine examples of how the U.S. Constitution addressed colonial grievances. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit, students study about the early development of the United States as an independent republic.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led the Constitutional Framers to write a new U.S. Constitution based on a series of compromises.

  • Why did the Constitutional Framers come to believe it was necessary to create a new constitution?
  • What issues of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 were resolved by compromises?
  • What compromises were eventually reached at the convention?

Political Patterns

  • Ideologies
  • Governmental Systems

Historical Processes

  • Ideas/Innovations
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Debate over ratification of the U.S. Constitution arose between Federalists and Anti-federalists.

  • What arguments divided the Federalists and Anti-federalists?
  • Who were the prominent Federalists and Anti-federalists?
  • Do opposing political parties serve as a “check” on government power?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The U.S. Constitution limits government power.

  • In what ways does the U.S. Constitution reflect principles of constitutional democracy including limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights?
  • How were the grievances of the American colonists addressed in the U.S. Constitution?

Civic Engagement

  • Laws, Rules, Political Processes
  • Democratic Principles

Historical Processes

  • Ideas/Innovations
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The U.S. Constitution protects the rights of Americans.

  • What are unalienable rights?
  • What rights are specifically protected in the Bill of Rights?
  • Why has the U.S. Constitution been amended?
  • What responsibilities are expected of American citizens?
  • Why is it important for Americans to understand their rights and responsibilities?

Civic Engagement

  • Rights/ Responsibilities

Historical Processes

  • Ideas/Innovations
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing
performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Students may not understand that the Bill of Rights was added after the Constitution was ratified.

Unit Vocabulary

confederation – an alliance of states created for a common purpose
compromise – an agreement between opposing parties
constitution – document outlining the fundamental principles and structures of a government
ratification – approval of a document or policy
amendment – an addition to a document
natural rights - basic rights people are born with, also called unalienable rights
sovereignty – independent power
federalism – political system in which power is shared between a national centralized government and a collection of smaller state governments

Related Vocabulary

  • compromise
  • grievance
  • limited government
  • bicameral
  • republicanism
  • popular sovereignty
  • individual rights
  • checks and balances
  • separation of powers
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • Writing the Constitution – the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation along with incidents such as Shays’ Rebellion highlighted the need for writing a new constitution; at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787 delegates from the states met to write a new constitution where division between Anti‑Federalist vs. Federalist characterized the process; the delegates agreed to the Great Compromise and Three-Fifths Compromise and to the addition of a Bill of Rights in their efforts to complete a constitution and have it ratified by the states
New8.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and 1861-1865, Civil War.


Supporting Standard

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1787 – writing of the U.S. Constitution (1788 – Ratification of Constitution)-significant because it established the United States of America as a constitutional democratic-republic; the U.S. Constitution continues to be an adaptable document to this day
New8.4 The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary and Constitutional eras. The student is expected to:
New8.4D Analyze the issues of the Constitutional Convention of 1787, including the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

ISSUES OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION OF 1787

Including, but not limited to:

  • Strengthening the Federal Governmen
    • Articles of Confederation had not worked
    • Created an executive, legislative, and judicial branches
  • Representation
    • Virginia Plan – large population state plan that proposed representation based on population size
    • New Jersey Plan – small population state plan that proposed equal representation among all states
    • Great Compromise – Constitution resulted in a bicameral legislature with the House of Representatives based on population and the Senate maintaining equal representation from all states, took from the two previous plans
    • Three-Fifths Compromise - three-fifths of the enslaved population would be counted towards representation in the House of Representatives; southerners supported the compromise as a way to gain political power  in the House of Representatives yet enslaved people were not considered citizens of the United States; also served to increase the number of electors for southern states in the Electoral College
  • Slavery
    • Three-Fifths Compromise – three-fifths of the enslaved people population would be counted for setting direct taxes on the states
    • Representatives at the Constitutional Convention agreed not to limit the slavery trade for at least the next twenty years. The bargain was made in order to unify the states around a new federal organization, as the southern states refused to participate in the union if the slavery trade was ended.
    • Southern states delegates wanted other states to return escaped slaves. The Northwest Ordinance had set a precedent for this. The delegates agreed to a similar clause by including what became known as the Fugitive Slave Clause in Article IV of the Constitution. The delegates from New England states agreed to this in exchange for concession on shipping and trade.
New8.15 The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents. The student is expected to:
New8.15A Identify the influence of ideas from historic documents, including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, and the Federalist Papers, on the U.S. system of government.
Readiness Standard

Identify

INFLUENCE OF IDEAS FROM HISTORIC DOCUMENTS  ON THE U.S. SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Magna Carta (1215) – limited the power of the King resulting in the idea of constitutional limits to the power of the central government, including due process, jury trials, prohibitions on cruel punishment, and rule of law
  • English Bill of Rights – listed individual rights and became a model for the Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution
  • Mayflower Compact – written by the Pilgrims in 1620, an agreement that established the idea of self-government and majority rule
  • Federalist Papers – supported ratification of the U.S. Constitution with a focus on the need for a strong central government with restricted powers. The Constitution sets up a strong central government with separated powers and a system of checks and balances.
New8.15B Summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Supporting Standard

Summarize

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • The Article of Confederation written at the Second Continental Congress in 1776 served as the first constitution between the thirteen original states; created a confederation with the states retaining sovereignty; established a new government for the independent colonies, with one branch – a Congress made up representatives from each of the former colonies; addressed issues of financing for a war, and negotiating treaties; the writers intent was to create a decentralized government and avoid creating a powerful executive that may abuse power; ratified in 1781
  • Strengths of Articles of Confederation
    • States had equal representation in Congress
    • Congress had power to make war and peace, sign treaties, raise an army and navy, coin money, and set up a postal system
  • Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation
    • No provisions for the collection of national revenue, especially when states failed to contribute
    • No federal court system, so the Confederation had no process for settling disputes between states
    • Lack of strong federal government threatened the viability of a confederation   
    • No power to regulate commerce which meant that quarrels about taxes on goods that crossed state borders were unresolved
    • No federal leader or executive with the power to respond to national crises or national emergencies, such as Shays’ rebellion
    • A very small national force was created, resulting in a patchwork of state militias and navies
    • States were not prevented from issuing their own currency, resulting in a lack of uniformity and useless currency in some cases
    • Congressional decisions were difficult to make because they required approval of at least nine states, with each state only having one vote
New8.15C Identify colonial grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and explain how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
Readiness Standard

Identify

COLONIAL GRIEVANCES LISTED IN THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Explain

HOW THOSE GRIEVANCES WERE ADDRESSED IN THE U.S. CONSTITUTION AND   THE BILL OF RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

Grievances in Declaration of Independence

  • Taxation without representation
    •   “For Imposing Taxes on us without our   Consent.”
  • King has absolute power
    •   “He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most   wholesome and necessary for the public good.”
  • Colonists not allowed to speak out against the King
    •   “We have Petitioned for Redress in the most   humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated   injury.”
  • Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops
    •   “For Quartering large bodies of armed troops   among us:”
  • Allowed   homes to be searched without warrants
  • No trial by jury of peers
    •   “For depriving us in many cases, of the   benefits of Trial by Jury:”  
  • Suspending legislative bodies
    • “He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasion on the rights of the people.”
    • “For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.”
 Addressed Grievances in the U.S. Constitution
  • Taxation without representation
    •   Addressed in the Constitution by all states   having representation in Congress, which sets taxes
  • King has absolute power
    • Addressed in the Constitution by Congress having the power to override Presidential veto
  • Colonists not allowed to speak out against the King
    •   Addressed in the Constitution with the 1st   Amendment – Freedom of speech
  • Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops
    •   Addressed in the Constitution with the 3rd   Amendment – No quartering of troops
  • Allowed   homes to be searched without warrants
    •   Addressed in the Constitution with the 4th Amendment   – No unwarranted search and seizure
  • No trial by jury of peers
    • Addressed in the Constitution  with the 6th amendment—Speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury and the 7th Amendment – Right of trial by jury in civil cases
  • Suspending legislative bodies
    • Addressed in the Constitution with the creation of a legislative branch in Article 1
New8.15D Analyze how the U.S. Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

U.S. CONSTITUTION REFLECTS THE PRINCIPLES OF LIMITED GOVERNMENT, REPUBLICANISM, CHECKS AND BALANCES, FEDERALISM, SEPARATION OF POWERS, POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY, AND INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Limited government – refers to the idea that the power of the government is restricted by law. The rule of law requires that public officials must obey laws in order to ensure that authority figures do not benefit from, or take advantage of, their positions of power. This is illustrated throughout the U.S. Constitution, notably in Articles I, II, and III which outline the powers and duties of each of the branches of government. Principles of limited government are exemplified in the Bill Rights where restrictions are placed on the government’s ability to search and seize property, as well as prohibiting excessive bail and cruel punishments.
  • Republicanism – refers to the idea that elected representatives serve with the consent of the people. This principle is reflected in the U.S. Constitution where electoral processes are detailed, such as in Article II, along with the descriptions of the composition of representative legislative bodies, such as in Article I.
  • Checks and balances – refers to the system created to ensure that no one branch of the government has too much power. Examples that are found in the U.S. Constitution include the president can veto legislation passed by Congress, but Congress can override the veto; the Senate confirms major appointments made by the President; the courts may declare acts passed by Congress as unconstitutional
  • Federalism – refers to the distribution of power between a federal government and the states within a union. In the Constitution, certain powers are delegated to only states, others only to the federal government, and others are shared powers. Best reflected by the Tenth Amendment.
  • Separation of powers – refers to the idea that separate branches of government are vested with specific powers and as such no one branch of government should become too powerful. The branches include the legislative branch, known as Congress, and made up of a House of Representatives and a Senate, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. The powers of the legislative branch are outlined in Article I of the U.S. Constitution. The President leads the executive branch, whose powers are outlined in Article II of the U.S. Constitution. The judicial branch consists of all courts of the United States, including the U.S. Supreme Court, which interpret and apply the laws. Its powers are outlined in Article III of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Popular sovereignty – the concept that political power rests with the consent of the people. This is best reflected in the Preamble of the Constitution in the line “We the People…”, in Article I which establishes a representative legislative body chosen in direct election by the people, and in Article VII which details the process for ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Individual rights – this refers to the idea that government is instituted to protect the rights of people and that government cannot violate those rights. This is best illustrated with examples in the Bill of Rights, notably the Ninth Amendment, as well as the Fourteenth Amendment which guarantees due process for the protection of rights.
New8.16 The student understands the purpose of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of amendments on American society. The student is expected to:
New8.16A Summarize the purposes for amending the U.S. Constitution.
Readiness Standard

Summarize

PURPOSES FOR AMENDING THE U.S. CONSTITUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • The U.S. Constitution is   considered a “living” document and as such can be amended. The Constitution   has historically been amended to 1) extend and protect rights, 2) clarify   procedures, 3) grant additional powers to the government, and 4) limit powers   of the government.  The Thirteenth,   Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments are examples of the extension and protection   of rights. The Eleventh Amendment and the Twelve Amendment are examples of   how procedures can be clarified. The Sixteenth Amendment is an example of an   amendment which grants additional powers to the government. The Twenty-second   and Twenty-fourth Amendments are examples of limiting the powers of the   government.
New8.17 The student understands the dynamic nature of the powers of the national government and state governments in a federal system. The student is expected to:
New8.17A Analyze the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, including those of Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry, James Madison, and George Mason.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

ARGUMENTS OF THE FEDERALISTS AND ANTI-FEDERALISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Anti-Federalists – argued that a strong central government would threaten states’ rights; believed that the Revolution was fought to overcome abuses by a strong central government; contended that the Constitution should protect individual rights
    • Patrick Henry – influential leader noted for his speech “Give me Liberty or Give me Death” stirring the Patriot cause; opposed the idea of a strong national government and refused to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
    • George Mason – leader of the Anti-Federalists who believed that in order to prevent potential abuse, governmental power needed to be restricted and individual rights protected; served as a delegate from Virginia at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
  • Federalists – argued for a stronger national government after experiencing the inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation; contended that a strong federal system would ensure the preservation of a union of the states
    • Alexander Hamilton – served as a delegate from New York at the Constitutional Convention; author of many of the Federalist Papers; argued in Federalist No. 84 that a Bill of Rights was not necessary; believed that loose interpretation of the Constitution permitted the formation of the National Bank of the United States in an effort to stabilize the economy
    • James Madison – known as the “Father of the Constitution”; helped to write the Federalist Papers with John Jay and Alexander Hamilton; authored the first ten amendments, known as the Bill of Rights as a compromise with the Anti-Federalists
New8.19 The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is expected to:
New8.19A Define and give examples of unalienable rights.
Readiness Standard

Define

UNALIENABLE RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Unalienable rights – fundamental rights or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally, possessed at birth, instead of being granted by the government
  • Examples include:
    • Rights listed in John Locke’s (1690) writings – no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, and possessions
    • Rights listed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights (May, 1776)  – enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety
    • Rights listed in the Declaration of Independence (July, 1776) – life, liberty, pursuit of happiness
    • Rights listed in the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)
New8.19B Summarize rights guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
Readiness Standard

Summarize

RIGHTS GUARANTEED IN THE BILL OF RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1stAmendment – freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition
  • 2ndAmendment – bear arms
  • 3rd Amendment – no quartering troops during times of peace
  • 4th Amendment – protection from unreasonable searches and seizures
  • 5th Amendment – right to due process, not to be tried for the same crime twice (double jeopardy), and not to testify against yourself
  • 6th Amendment – right to speedy public trial, right to a trial by jury, right to an attorney
  • 7th Amendment – right to trial by jury in civil trials
  • 8th Amendment – right not to have excessive bail and/or cruel and unusual punishment
  • 9th Amendment – rights of the people
  • 10th Amendment – rights to the states
New8.19C Identify examples of responsible citizenship, including obeying rules and laws, staying informed on public issues, voting, and serving on juries.
Supporting Standard

Identify

EXAMPLES OF RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP

Including, but not limited to:

  • Obeying rules and laws, voting, and serving on juries
New8.20 The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:
New8.20A Evaluate the contributions of the Founding Fathers as models of civic virtue.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS AS MODELS OF CIVIC VIRTUE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Founding Fathers applies to those individuals who played a major role in declaring independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution.
  • Civic virtue relates to service to the community and essentially requires that citizens put the public or common good above their private interests; many also refer to an attentiveness and concern for public affairs
  • Many of the Founding Fathers sacrificed their business interests and livelihoods to participate in the independence movement as demonstrated by the last line of the Declaration of Independence “we   mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor”; some such as George Washington sacrificed a very comfortable lifestyle in order to serve the nation as a commander of the army and as the first President while many others lost property and family members in the course of the war for independence
New8.21 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.21B Describe the importance of free speech and press in a constitutional republic.
Supporting Standard

Describe

THE IMPORTANCE OF FREE SPEECH AND PRESS IN A CONSTITUTIONAL REPUBLIC

Including, but not limited to:

  • Freedom of speech and press allow for the protection of individual rights. Freedom to express information, ideas, and opinions that are free of government restrictions based on content.
New8.25 The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life. The student is expected to:
New8.25C Analyze the impact of the First Amendment guarantees of religious freedom on the American way of life.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF THE FIRST AMENDMENT GUARANTEES OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ON   THE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Americans have the right to worship however they choose.
  • Religious freedom allows for the peacefully worship of a variety of religious groups within a community as well as for individuals to not participate in religious activities.
  • Federal and state governments are prohibited from making laws which interfere with religious beliefs, establish a state church, or favor any particular religious institution or discriminate based on religion.
  • Sets up for official separation of church and state.
New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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