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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 03: American Independence – Restlessness to Rebellion 1763-1783 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address events and individuals associated with the movement for American independence from colonial Britain. This unit is primarily a study in rising tension. Following years of salutary neglect of its colonies in North America, the British government instituted a series of polices that for some time fueled tensions between the colonists and leaders in Britain. Ultimately leaders in the colonies came together to fight for independence and with that form a new government that united the colonies. An examination of the causes and consequences of the American Revolution provides students with an understanding of the importance of liberty and freedom to Americans.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the colonization of America including the economic, religious, and geographic patterns in the colonies, as well as the development of self-governance in the colonies.

During this Unit

During this unit, students analyze how British policies contributed to the cause for American independence, the issuing of the Declaration of Independence, and the contributions made by significant individuals during the revolutionary era, including the creation of the Articles of Confederation. Students should evaluate the varying points of view the colonists held in regards to declaring independence as well as analyzing the Declaration of Independence and studying the course of the revolutionary war. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study how the U.S. Constitution was created along with examining the key principles of the U.S. Constitution.


People act for change when they can no longer tolerate the conditions in which they live.

  • How do people act effectively to address intolerable conditions in society?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Tension and conflict between the American colonists and the British government escalated each time the British introduced new policies.

  • Why did the British begin to intervene in the economic affairs of the colonies following the French and Indian War?
  • How did the economic policies of the British government cause tensions to rise in the American colonies?
  • How did many in the colonies respond to the British policies?
  • How was the growing tensions in the colonies reflected in art?

Political Patterns

  • Colonization

Economic Patterns

  • Resources
  • Trade
  • Competition
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Despite differing opinions, the American colonists chose to declare independence resulting in a war for independence.

  • What was significant about the colonists issuing a document declaring independence?
  • What grievances did the colonists include in the Declaration of Independence?
  • What significant battles were fought by the Patriots to gain independence?
  • How did the war for independence eventually end?

Political Patterns

  • Independence Movements
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Many men and women contributed to the efforts to gain independence for the American colonies.

  • What contributions to American independence were made by military leaders and statesmen?
  • In what ways did women contribute to the American independence movement?
  • Why were the Articles of Confederation created?
  • What was characteristic about the type of government established by the Articles of Confederation?
  • How did artists during this time period contribute to the emergence of a distinctly American culture?

Civic Engagement

  • Civic Virtue
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing
performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • None identified

Unit Vocabulary

boycott – refusal to buy something as a form of protest
taxation – process of collecting money from citizens in order to fund government expenses
political revolution – changing from one governmental structure to another 
Patriots – American colonists who supported independence from Great Britain
Loyalists – American colonists who did not support independence from Great Britain
civil disobedience – refusal to obey laws as a form of protest
grievance – a complaint

Related Vocabulary

  • independence
  • unalienable rights
  • liberty
  • mercantilism
  • Parliament
  • quartering
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • American Independence – this era of American history was characterized by rising tensions between colonial leaders and the British government, ultimately culminating in a war for American independence; policies enacted by the British Parliament fueled contempt in the colonies, including the Proclamation of 1763, Sugar Act, Townshend Act, and Intolerable Acts; colonial resistance was exemplified by the Boston Tea Party and coalesced around the idea of no taxation without representation; colonial leaders organized the First Continental Congress in 1774 to petition the British king and organize a boycott; a Second Continental Congress met in 1776 and issued a Declaration of Independence in 1776 based on the proposition of unalienable rights; the first constitution for the United States known as the Articles of Confederation was written; war between the British military and colonial supporters of independence started with the Battle of Lexington and Concord and ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1783
New8.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and 1861-1865, Civil War.


Supporting Standard

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1776 – adoption of the Declaration of Independence, significant because it explained why the colonists wanted independence from Great Britain and it demonstrated John Locke’s idea of a “social contract”
New8.4 The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary and Constitutional eras. The student is expected to:
New8.4A Analyze causes of the American Revolution, including the Proclamation of 1763, the Intolerable Acts, the Stamp Act, mercantilism, lack of representation in Parliament, and British economic policies following the French and Indian War.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES OF AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Proclamation of 1763 – British Parliament law;   colonists were forbidden to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, Great Britain   wanted a buffer zone between the colonists and American Indian tribes to reduce   the threat of violence, but the colonists wanted to settle the fertile Ohio   River Valley
  •   Intolerable Acts – passed in 1774, also known   as the Coercive Acts; British reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closed the   port of Boston until the tea was paid for, restructured Massachusetts   government, troops quartered in Boston and British officials accused of   crimes sent to Great Britain or Canada for trial; colonists reacted by   boycotting British goods; First Continental Congress convenes in September,   1774
  • Stamp Act – passed in 1765; required that all   legal and commercial documents, such as diplomas, contracts, wills,   newspapers, and playing cards, have an official stamp showing that a tax had   been paid; British imposed the tax to generate revenue to help cover the cost   of the French and Indian War; colonists reacted with rioting and boycotts of   British goods;  the Stamp Act Congress met   in October 1765, making it the first united action in the colonies
  • Mercantilism – system by which a nation   increases its wealth and power by obtaining gold and silver from its colonies.   It includes a favorable balance of trade. The colonies become a source of raw   materials for the mother country. The colonies also are expected to be the   purchasers of manufactured goods from the mother country. Mercantilism   includes the theory that a colony exists for the economic benefit of the   mother country. This policy angered colonists who wanted to purchase goods   from cheaper sources and to sell to a wider market.
  • Lack of representation in Parliament – since   the formation of the colonies, the colonists had set up their own legislative   assemblies; colonists were dissatisfied about Britain’s insistence on the supremacy   of Parliament, most significantly taxation; the debate turned into one   regarding representation, the colonists did not have direct representation in   Britain’s law-making body; Britain argued that the colonies had “virtual   representation”
  • British economic policies following the French and Indian War – to raise money to help pay off the debt incurred from the French and Indian War, the British imposed taxes (Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, Tea Act) on the colonist causing many to resent British rule and claim that taxation was imposed without representation in Parliament
New8.4B Explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution, including Abigail Adams, John Adams, Wentworth Cheswell, Samuel Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, James Armistead, Benjamin Franklin, Crispus Attucks, King George III, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette, Thomas Paine, and George Washington.
Supporting Standard

Explain

ROLES PLAYED BY SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS DURING THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Abigail Adams – wife of John Adams, served as his confidant and support while he served in the Continental Congress. When John and others were considering a declaration of independence, Abigail reminded him to take care of the women, who would not hold themselves bound by laws in which they had no voice (“Remember the ladies”).
  • John Adams – lawyer and politician; defended British soldiers after the Boston Massacre; a member of the Continental Congress (representing Massachusetts); strong supporter of independence
  • Wentworth Cheswell – African American Patriot; like Paul Revere he made an all-night ride back from Boston to warn his community of the impending British invasion; served in the army and fought at the Battle of Saratoga
  • Samuel Adams – played a role in many of the events which contributed to the Revolution including organized opposition to the Stamp Act, protests waged by the Sons of Liberty, and the Boston Massacre
  • Mercy Otis Warren – wife of a Massachusetts Patriot; anonymously wrote several propaganda pieces supporting the Patriot cause; wrote the first history of the American Revolutionary War based on notes she had taken
  • James Armistead – enslaved African American in Virginia; Marquis de Lafayette recruited him as a spy for the Continental Army. Posing as a double agent, forager and servant at British headquarters, he moved freely between the lines with vital information on British troop movements for Lafayette; contributed to the American victory at Yorktown
  • Benjamin Franklin – a member of the committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence, but spent most of the period of the American Revolution in France. He represented the colonies as the American envoy starting in 1776 and remained until 1785. He negotiated the alliance with France and then the Treaty of Paris which ended the war
  • Crispus Attucks – an African American man; became the first casualty of the American Revolution when he was shot and killed in what became known as the Boston Massacre
  • King George III – feared that the loss of one group of colonies would lead to the loss of others and the eventual decline of the empire. To prevent this, the Crown maintained an aggressive policy against colonial resistance. George III struggled to enforce royal authority throughout his reign.
  • Patrick Henry – a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses; spoke against the Stamp Act; famous quote “Give me liberty or give me death;” during the Revolution he served in the Continental Army
  • Thomas Jefferson – early and effective leader in the American Revolution. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia and in 1776 he was a member of the committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence; chief writer of Declaration of Independence, which was approved by the delegates.
  • The Marquis de Lafayette – a French aristocrat who played a leading role in two revolutions in France and in the American Revolution. He respected the concepts of liberty and freedom and constitutional government. Between 1776 and 1779 he fought in the American Revolution, commanding forces as a major-general in the colonial army; important because France joined the Colonists against the British.
  • Thomas Paine – propagandist and journalist; wrote pamphlet “Common Sense” persuading Americans to join the Patriot cause
  • George Washington – a resident of Virginia, he was a surveyor, a planter, a soldier in the French and Indian War, a delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, and the chairman of the  Constitutional Convention in 1787
New8.4C Explain the issues surrounding important events of the American Revolution, including declaring independence; fighting the battles of Lexington and Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown; enduring the winter at Valley Forge; and signing the Treaty of Paris of 1783.
Readiness Standard

Explain

ISSUES SURROUNDING IMPORTANT EVENTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Declaring independence – reaction to King George III’s refusal to acknowledge the colonial requests/demands, “dissolve the political bands” with Britain, provided philosophy for the establishment of the new nation (“all men are created equal and endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and pursuit of happiness”), and listed grievances against the King of England
  • Battles of Lexington and Concord – 1st battles of the war; “The shot heard ‘round the world”, involved the engagement of British soldiers with colonial “minutemen”
  • Battle of Saratoga – turning point of the war with victory for the Patriots, helped to convince France to ally with the American forces against Great Britain
  • Battle of Yorktown – British forces surrendered after the capture of two British generals including Lord Cornwallis along with many Loyalists soldiers and sailors
  • Enduring the winter at Valley Forge – after suffering several defeats, Washington took his army to Valley Forge for the winter of 1777. There the men were trained and became more of a professional army rather than militias. The winter was harsh and men suffered from starvation and frostbite.
  • Signing the Treaty of Paris 1783 – independence recognized, boundaries extended to Canada to the north, the Mississippi River to the west, and Florida to the south
New8.15 The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents. The student is expected to:
New8.15C

Identify colonial grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and explain how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights.


Readiness Standard

Identify

COLONIAL GRIEVANCES LISTED IN THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Explain

HOW THOSE GRIEVANCES WERE ADDRESSED IN THE U.S. CONSTITUTION AND   THE BILL OF RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

Grievances in Declaration of Independence

  • Taxation without representation
    •   “For Imposing Taxes on us without our   Consent.”
  • King has absolute power
    •   “He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most   wholesome and necessary for the public good.”
  • Colonists not allowed to speak out against the King
    •   “We have Petitioned for Redress in the most   humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated   injury.”
  • Quartering Act forced colonists to house troops
    •   “For Quartering large bodies of armed troops   among us:”
  • Allowed   homes to be searched without warrants
  • No trial by jury of peers
    •   “For depriving us in many cases, of the   benefits of Trial by Jury:”  
  • Suspending legislative bodies
    • “He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasion on the rights of the people.”
    • “For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.”
New8.19 The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is expected to:
New8.19A Define and give examples of unalienable rights.
Readiness Standard

Define

UNALIENABLE RIGHTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Unalienable rights – fundamental rights or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally, possessed at birth, instead of being granted by the government
  • Examples include:
    • Rights listed in John Locke’s (1690) writings – no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, and possessions
    • Rights listed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights (May, 1776)  – enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety
    • Rights listed in the Declaration of Independence (July, 1776) – life, liberty, pursuit of happiness
    • Rights listed in the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)
New8.20 The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to:
New8.20A Evaluate the contributions of the Founding Fathers as models of civic virtue.
Supporting Standard

Evaluate

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE FOUNDING FATHERS AS MODELS OF CIVIC VIRTUE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Founding Fathers applies to those individuals who played a major role in declaring independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution.
  • Civic virtue relates to service to the community and essentially requires that citizens put the public or common good above their private interests; many also refer to an attentiveness and concern for public affairs
  • Many of the Founding Fathers sacrificed their business interests and livelihoods to participate in the independence movement as demonstrated by the last line of the Declaration of Independence “we   mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor”; some such as George Washington sacrificed a very comfortable lifestyle in order to serve the nation as a commander of the army and as the first President while many others lost property and family members in the course of the war for independence

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2017 STAAR assessed student knowledge about John Hancock signing the Declaration of Independence as a model of civic virtue.

New8.20B

Analyze reasons for and the impact of selected examples of civil disobedience in U.S. history such as the Boston Tea Party and Henry David Thoreau's refusal to pay a tax.


Supporting Standard

Analyze

REASONS FOR AND THE IMPACT OF SELECTED EXAMPLES OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE IN U.S. HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Civil disobedience – the process of defying codes of conduct within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or nation when the civil laws are considered unjust. Examples of civil disobedience include nonviolent actions such as boycotts, protests and refusal to pay taxes.
  • Boston Tea Party (1773) – protest led by the Sons of Liberty in which they dumped British tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act passed by Parliament; the Boston Tea Party was a reaction to taxation without representation; Parliament responded by passing the Intolerable Acts and closing the port of Boston.
New8.21 The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.21A Identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical issues.
Supporting Standard

Identify

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND INTEREST GROUPS ON IMPORTANT HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Including, but not limited to:

American Independence

  • Loyalists – these were colonists who remained loyal to the British monarchy and disagreed with the Declaration of Independence
  • Patriots – the colonists who favored separating from Britain and becoming their own independent nation
  • Neutrals – the colonists who remained neutral, who chose not to take sides
New8.22 The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to:
New8.22B

Describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Frederick Douglass, John Paul Jones, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.


Supporting Standard

Describe

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND MILITARY LEADERS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • John Paul Jones – considered the father of the U.S. Navy; gained international recognition as a commander in the Continental Navy during the American Revolution; urged early leaders of the United States to maintain a strong navy as the Continental Navy was disbanded
New8.23 The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to:
New8.23E Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.
Supporting Standard

Identify

POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN TO   AMERICAN SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • American Independence
    • Abigail Adams led ladies groups in supporting men who were away conducting American diplomacy. She supported the family individually while John Adams was away. She urged Adams to remember women when writing the Constitution and framing the new government. She specifically argued for education for women.
    • Esther De Berdt Reed was responsible for organizing a fundraising effort for the Revolutionary Army that netted more than $300,000 dollars. Reed used the money to buy linen, and proceeded along with her group to sew over 2,200 shirts for the soldiers. Reed also published “The Sentiments of An American Women” calling for women to support the revolution.
    • Some women, such as Deborah Sampson, fought alongside men in the Revolutionary army. Disguised as a man, Sampson fought for eighteen months during the war. Molly Ludwig contributed to the war by bringing provisions to soldiers on the field as well as taking over a cannon during the Battle of Monmouth after her husband fell. Her acts earned her, and other women who similarly helped, the nickname “Molly Pitcher”. Women were also known to spy for the patriots, passing on information they learned about from British soldiers. Martha Washington and other officers’ wives, such as Catharine Littlefield Greene spent time in military camps ministering to the soldiers, by sewing, cooking, and nursing the wounded.
    • Writer Mercy Otis Warren was one of the several women who used her poetry and satire skills to advocate for independence.
New8.26 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
New8.26A Identify examples of American art, music, and literature that reflect society in different eras such as the Hudson River School artists, the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," and transcendental literature.
Supporting Standard

Identify

EXAMPLES OF AMERICAN ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE THAT REFLECT SOCIETY IN DIFFERENT ERAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Other examples
    • Engravings of the Boston Massacre
New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
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ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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