Hello, Guest!

Instructional Focus Document
Grade 8 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 02: Colonial America – Life in a New Land 1587-1763 SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the reasons for exploration and colonization of North America, the establishment of the thirteen British colonies, and the geography of the colonies. This unit is primarily a study of regional patterns. The growth of nation-states in Europe coupled with advances in technology ushered in an era of European exploration in the sixteenth century. The initial voyages to the Americans were initially economic ventures, yet some groups migrated to the Americans in search of religious freedom. The social, economic, religious, and political patterns that emerged in colonial America reflected the physical geography of the region as well as the ideas and traditions colonists brought to the Americas. A study of colonial America is important for comprehending regional differences in the United States as well as understanding the heritage of British political ideas in the United States.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students have learned about the thirteen colonies in Grade 5 and about the concepts of exploration and colonization in Texas history.

During this Unit

During this unit students examine the causes for European exploration and colonization, including the establishment of British colonies in the Americas, how the physical geography of America affected colonial development, about the religious and social patterns of the colonies, and the establishment of representative governments in the colonies. Students will also evaluate the impact of the Mayflower Compact, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the Virginia House of Burgesses on the growth of representative government. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. The social studies skills TEKS 8.29A; C; D; E; F; and G included in this unit support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about the events related to American independence from British rule.


Humans have a complex relationship with the environment.

  • What is characteristic of the interactions between humans and the environment?

Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Europeans began exploring and colonizing in North America for a variety of reasons.

  • What motivated many Europeans to migrate to North America?
  • What was significant about the establishment of Jamestown in 1607 and Plymouth in 1620?

Political Patterns

  • Colonization

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Exploration
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Physical geography in the American colonies affected settlement and economic patterns in the region.

  • What was characteristic of the physical geography of New England, the Middle Colonies and the Southern Colonies and how did that affect economic activities in each region?
  • What was characteristic of population patterns in the American colonies?
  • What was characteristic of the human-environmental interactions in the American colonies?

 

Spatial Patterns

  • Place
  • Region/Borders
  • Population Distribution
  • Human-Environment Interaction
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The American colonies developed distinct religious and social patterns.

  • How were the daily lives of colonists different depending on where they lived?
  • What contributions were made by women to the development of the American colonies?
  • What was characteristic of religious patterns in the American colonies?
  • Why was slavery characteristic of social patterns in the American colonies?

Cultural Patterns

  • Community
  • Customs/Traditions
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Leaders who had been influenced by Enlightenment ideas established representative governments in the American colonies.

  • What impact did the ideas of the Enlightenment philosophers have on leaders in the American colonies?
  • What significant steps were taken in the American colonies to establish representative government?
  • Why was representative government an important ideal for the American colonists?

 

Political Patterns

  • Government Systems

Civic Engagement

  • Civic Institutions

 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing
performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students often believe that there were no enslaved people in the northern colonies.
  • Students often believe that all African Americans were enslaved.
  • Some students may think all colonists migrated for religious freedom.
  • Some students may think all colonists were British citizens.

Unit Vocabulary

exploration – traveling to new territories for the purpose of discovery
colonization – state sponsored settlement of people to new territories
mercantilism – economic policy where colonies serve as a source of raw materialsto increase the wealth and maintain a favorable balance of trade for the “mother” country
representative government – political system where policies are created by representatives selected by the people
charter – a contract given to someone to establish a colony
plantations – large agricultural enterprise where crops are grown for sale
region– a geographic area that share similar characteristics

Related Vocabulary:

  • harbors
  • cash crops
  • parliament
  • social contract
  • agrarian
  • subsistence farming
  • primary source
  • secondary source
  • migration
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

Show this message:

Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Creator if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
New8.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.1A

Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, creation and ratification of the Constitution, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects.


Readiness Standard

Identify

MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Describe

CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877

Including, but not limited to:

  • Colonial America – this era of American history was characterized by the establishment of thirteen British colonies along the eastern seaboard of North America; the British government instituted an economic policy of mercantilism in the colonies; representative governments developed in the colonies; many who migrated to the colonies came seeking religious freedom and the tradition of religious freedom was instituted in varying degrees within the colonies; religious changes during the period were exemplified in the First Great Awakening, a Protestant revival that challenged established traditional Protestant practices.
New8.1B

Explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and 1861-1865, Civil War.


Supporting Standard

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF DATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1607 – founding of Jamestown, first permanent English settlement in North America, significant because it became a profitable venture producing tobacco and using enslaved Africans; from Jamestown colonial settlement spread to later include Williamsburg.
  • 1620 – arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of Mayflower Compact, significant because this represented the establishment of self-government in the colonies.
New8.2 The student understands the causes of exploration and colonization eras. The student is expected to:
New8.2A Identify reasons for English, Spanish, and French exploration and colonization of North America.
Readiness Standard

Identify

REASONS FOR ENGLISH, SPANISH, AND FRENCH EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Reasons for exploration
    • God, Gold, Glory exemplifies many Europeans’ motivations to explore in order to spread Christianity, to find wealth, and gain personal prestige for themselves and their nation. Initially many nations sponsored exploration to find faster routes to the Asian markets of the Indian Ocean. National pride and a competition to build empires between the rising nations-states of Europe fueled exploration and colonization.
  • Reasons for colonization
    • Nations choose to colonize territory mostly for economic opportunity. Mercantilism encouraged European nations to use colonies as a source of raw materials and markets.
    • Individuals and groups such as the Puritans became colonists in order to escape religious persecution as well as find political freedom and economic opportunities that promised social mobility such as was the case for French fur trappers and indentured workers. Spanish religious leaders utilized colonization as an opportunity to build missions.
New8.2B Compare political, economic, religious, and social reasons for the establishment of the 13 English colonies.
Supporting Standard

Compare

POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL REASONS FOR ESTABLISHING 13 ENGLISH COLONIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Political reasons for English colonies
    • Competition among European nations encouraged colonization in North America; both Delaware and New Jersey were contested between the Dutch and Swedish colonists; New York which was initially administered by the Dutch West India Company was later political administered by the English
    • Charters were granted to companies to establish colonies, such as the Virginia Company which established Jamestown
    • Monarchs in Europe had money to fund colonial endeavors
  • Economic reasons for English colonies
    • Increase trade and markets for English exports (mercantilism)
    • Source of raw materials
    • Availability of land attracted colonists
    • Belief that gold and silver was abundant in the Americas
    • Many colonies were established for economic; Virginia, including Jamestown was established by the London Company to find gold; New York was founded by the Dutch to facilitate the fur trade; New Hampshire was established as a farming colony; New Jersey and the Carolinas were created for farming and trade purposes; Georgia was established as a home for the poor coming from England, as well as serving as a buffer between the English colonies and Spanish Florida
  • Religious reasons for English colonies
    • Many groups came seeking religious freedom
    • Plymouth was founded by religious separatists, known as the Pilgrims
    • Plymouth was established by the Pilgrims, a separatist group of Anglicans, seeking to escape religious persecution in England; ten years later Massachusetts Bay was founded by Puritans also escaping religious persecution in England; Royal charter issued in 1691 incorporated the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay together and extended the territory to create the Province of Massachusetts Bay; Connecticut was established by Thomas Hooker after political and religious disagreement with the Puritan leadership of the Massachusetts Bay Colony; Rhode Island founded by Roger Williams dedicated to the principles of religious tolerance and separation of church and state ; Pennsylvania was founded by Quakers; Maryland founded by Lord Baltimore as a refuge for Catholics
  • Social reasons for English colonies
    • Opportunity for adventure and personal prestige
    • Owning land allowed for social mobility
    • Georgia was established as a safe place for debtors
New8.3 The student understands the foundations of representative government in the United States. The student is expected to:
New8.3A Explain the reasons for the growth of representative government and institutions during the colonial period.
Readiness Standard

Explain

REASONS FOR GROWTH OF REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT AND INSTITUTIONS DURING COLONIAL PERIOD

Including, but not limited to:

  • The distance from England created a need for colonists to make their own laws in an effort to keep peace and order.
  • Colonists were accustomed to English traditions, including the rights of Englishmen and representative government. Colonists acted to recreate these institutions in the colonies, such as creating the Mayflower Compact, Virginia House of Burgesses and town halls.
  • Most colonies were self-governing, electing members of their community to a general assembly, which made laws. For example, after the founding of Jamestown by the Virginia Company, a General Assembly was created in 1618 allowing for self-government in the colony. The General Assembly consisted of the governor, the Council of State or Governor’s Council, and the House of Burgesses.  Burgesses were chosen by eligible voters in the colony, making the Virginia House of Burgesses the first elected legislative body in the English colonies.
  • Colonists had been allowed to rule themselves with little interference from the king for many years; this is sometimes referred to as “salutary neglect” – a neglect that benefited English rule.

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2016 STAAR assessed the significance of the Virginia House of Burgesses to be a model for the creation of other representative legislative bodies in the English colonies.

New8.3B Analyze the importance of the Mayflower Compact, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the Virginia House of Burgesses to the growth of representative government.
Supporting Standard

Analyze

IMPORTANCE OF DOCUMENTS AND COLONIAL LEGISLATIVE BODIES TO THE GROWTH OF REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mayflower Compact – an agreement that established the idea of self-government and majority rule. Signed by most of the men on the Mayflower, this compact was an agreement to form a political body and give it the power to enact laws for the good of the colony. It provided a model for later development of representative government. A social contract where all agreed to abide by these rules.
  • The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – first written constitution in the colonies. This document stated that people had the right to elect governors, judges, and a legislature, establishing the idea of self-government in the colonies.
  • The Virginia House of Burgesses – first representative assembly in the American colonies. Representatives immediately began to enact laws and to safeguard individual rights. Setting precedent in the colonies for individual rights protected by law.
  • Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke believed that governments entered into a “social contract” with the citizens. The documents created by colonial leaders reflect this idea.
New8.3C Describe how religion and virtue contributed to the growth of representative government in the American colonies.
Supporting Standard

Describe

HOW RELIGION AND VIRTUE CONTRIBUTED TO THE GROWTH OF REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Religious freedom was a cause for the establishment of the American colonies.
  • Religious groups (Pilgrims, Puritans, Quakers, etc.) created communities that were self-governed.
  • Penn Colony (Pennsylvania) was an experiment in the possibility of equality and citizens involved in the government.
  • Disagreements between colonial religious leaders led to the formation of various colonies. Some colonial leaders argued for the extension of voting rights beyond church members, while others wanted strict standards and laws based on the Old Testament.
New8.7 The student understands how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and the Civil War. The student is expected to:
New8.7C Analyze the impact of slavery on different sections of the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

IMPACT OF SLAVERY ON DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Colonial America

  • The use of enslaved labor facilitated the development of the plantation system and an agrarian southern economy.
New8.10 The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present. The student is expected to:
New8.10A

Locate places and regions directly related to major eras and turning points in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.


Supporting Standard

Locate

PLACES AND REGIONS OF IMPORTANCE IN THE UNITED STATES DURING THE 17TH, 18TH, and 19TH CENTURIES

Including, but not limited to:

Colonial America

  • Early settlements (Jamestown, Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts Bay- earliest English settlements in the colonies )
  • Thirteen colonies ( New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, New York,  Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia)
  • New England, Middle Colonies, and Southern Colonies regions
  • Cities – New York, Philadelphia, and Boston

STAAR Note:
The Spring 2013 STAAR assessed Seneca Falls, NY as a place of importance in the women’s rights movement.
The Spring 2016 STAAR assessed the state of Oklahoma as the destination for the American Indians forced to migrate on the Trail of Tears. The student was assessed on the physical shape of the state as an answer option.
The Spring 2018 STAAR assessed students’ knowledge of the location of Florida in relation to it having been acquired from Spain.

New8.10B Compare places and regions of the United States in terms of physical and human characteristics.
Readiness Standard

Compare

PLACES AND REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES IN TERMS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN CHARACTERISTICS

Including, but not limited to:

Exploration and Colonization

  • New England region
    • Physical Characteristics – Atlantic Ocean, subsistence farming, poor soil, cold climate, forest. Boston and Portland have natural harbors
    • Human Characteristics – logging, fishing, shipbuilding industries; town meetings, representative government, small coastal towns, predominately Puritan; major city Boston
  • Middle region
    • Physical Characteristics – Rich soil; broad, deep rivers; more natural ports; river valleys, mild winters, raw materials, Atlantic Ocean, New York City has a natural harbor
    • Human Characteristics – large farms, logging, fishing, shipbuilding industries; religiously more diverse (Quakers, Catholics) and more tolerant; small coastal towns; major cities of New York and Philadelphia
  • Southern region
    • Physical Characteristics – Appalachian Mountains, navigable rivers, richer soil, warm climate, raw materials, Norfolk, Baltimore, and Charleston have natural harbors
    • Human Characteristics – plantations, large population of enslaved people, small coastal towns, religious diversity (Church of England, Catholic), more distinct class differences; major cities of Baltimore, Charleston, Savannah

STAAR Note:
The 2013 and 2014 STAAR assessed the similar characteristic of Texas and California being former territories of Mexico
The 2015 STAAR assessed the similar founding of Boston and New Orleans as port cities 
The 2016 STAAR assessed the similar characteristic of Florida and California as former Spanish colonies
The 2017 STAAR assessed how the difference between industrial development in the North versus the South influenced settlement patterns

New8.10C Analyze the effects of physical and human geographic factors such as weather, landforms, waterways, transportation, and communication on major historical events in the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON MAJOR HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Effects of physical and human geographic factors in colonial America

  • Physical geography greatly affected the economic development of regions in the colonies. The rocky soil, short growing seasons, and cooler temperatures of New England encouraged the development of small farms and the growth of fishing and shipping industries. The South, with a longer growing season and a warmer climate, developed larger farms or plantations that grew cash crops such as indigo, rice, and tobacco. The use of slave labor also supported the growth of plantations in this region. The Mid-Atlantic colonies were home to fertile soil and became a source of food crops.
New8.11 The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the environment through the mid-19th century. The student is expected to:
New8.11A Analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT INFLUENCED POPULATION   DISTRIBUTION, SETTLEMENT PATTERNS, AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE UNITED   STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Colonial America

  • New England and the Middle Colonies’ access to waterways, such as ports and rivers, resulted in the growth of cities. The population of the region was distributed into cities as well as small farms. Dense forests, natural harbors and swift flowing rivers in the New England colonies facilitated the growth of shipbuilding, fishing, fur trapping, and lumber mills as industries in the region.
  • Southern Colonies had an abundant amount of fertile soil that resulted in an agricultural economy, a plantation system, and a wide distribution of the population across the region.
  • Settlement was limited to east of the Appalachian Mountains by the British Proclamation of 1763.
New8.12 The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity through 1877. The student is expected to:
New8.12A Identify economic differences among different regions of the United States.
Supporting Standard

Identify

ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Colonial America

  • New England – shipbuilding and manufacturing region
  • Middle Colonies – agriculture and cattle-producing
  • Southern Colonies – agricultural; cash crops: rice, indigo, tobacco
New8.12B Explain reasons for the development of the plantation system, the transatlantic slave trade, and the spread of slavery.
Readiness Standard

Explain

REASONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLANTATION SYSTEM, THE   TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE, AND THE SPREAD OF SLAVERY

Including, but not limited to:

Colonial America

  • Plantation system
    • Large amount of land available in the southern colonies; rich soil; almost year-round growing season; ideal for plantation crops (tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton)- with enough labor these could be grown as cash crops
  • Transatlantic Slavery Trade
    • Started in the British West Indies or West Africa with enslaved people being transported to provide a labor for the sugar plantations; as the plantation system expanded in the American South the transatlantic slavery trade expanded to meet the demand for enslaved people to labor in American colonies that produced significant cash crops
    • Triangular trade developed between the colonies, England, West Africa, and West Indies as enslaved people were exchanged in the colonies for goods, including the cash crops that enslaved people worked to cultivate.
  • Spread of slavery
    • Initially demands for cheap labor to work the land in the colonies was met by the use of indentured servants.
    • By 1600 the expansion in tobacco production in colonial America resulted in an increased demand for indentured servants along with an increased cost for those contracts. This resulted in the practice of using indentured servants being replaced with using enslaved laborers. Freed indentured servants would take land and enslaved labor could be renewed by passing laws making the children of enslaved laborers also enslaved. 
    • Demand for cash crops such as rice, indigo, tobacco, cotton led slaveholders to demand more enslaved people resulting in an increase in the slave trade.
New8.12C Analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the United States at selected times.
Readiness Standard

Analyze

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES AMONG DIFFERENT   REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

Colonial America

  • New England – with natural harbors, river access and available forests shipbuilding, fishing, and lumber milling industries developed; many living in the region were subsistence farmers, as the rocky soil and long winters made it difficult to have large production agriculture.
  • Middle Colonies – with good ports, fertile soil, access to natural resources and shorter winters the region became home to many farms and ports used for trade; availability of fertile land made the region attractive to immigrant populations
  • Southern Colonies – experiences the mildest winter and warm/hot summers along with fertile soil promoted the development of plantation systems where labor was provided by enslaved people
New8.15 The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents. The student is expected to:
New8.15E Explain the role of significant individuals such as Thomas Hooker, Charles de Montesquieu, and John Locke in the development of self-government in colonial America.
Supporting Standard

Explain

ROLE OF SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUALS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-GOVERNMENT IN COLONIAL AMERICA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thomas Hooker – reverend and leader of a group of Boston Puritans that migrated to Hartford, Connecticut; gave a sermon in 1638 that influenced the writing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (the first written constitution in America and included individual rights); believed in democratic ideas such as elections conducted by the people, people have the power to limit the power of the government, the government operates with the consent of the governed
  • Charles de Montesquieu – expanded on Locke’s beliefs, added the judiciary to Locke’s executive and legislature; wrote of the separation of powers; believed that in a republic, education is an absolute necessity
  • John Locke – European Enlightenment philosopher; believed that personal liberty could coexist with political order; consent is the basis for government and fixes its limits; government is a social contract with limited powers and has obligations to its creators; government can be modified by its creators at any time (heavily influenced Thomas Jefferson and the writing of the Declaration of Independence); discussed legislative and executive branches of a government; wrote about unalienable rights which included life, liberty and protection of property
New8.23 The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to:
New8.23A Identify racial, ethnic, and religious groups that settled in the United States and explain their reasons for immigration.
Readiness Standard

Identify

RACIAL, ETHNIC, AND RELIGIOUS   GROUPS THAT SETTLED IN THE UNITED STATES

Explain

REASONS FOR IMMIGRATION

Including, but not limited to:

Colonial America

  • Dutch (New York) – economic reasons
  • Swedes (Delaware) – economic reasons
  • English – religious and political freedom
  • Religious groups – immigrated to flee religious persecution
    • Separatists/Pilgrims (Massachusetts)
    • Puritans (Massachusetts)
    • Quakers (Pennsylvania)
    • Catholics (Maryland)
New8.23E Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.
Supporting Standard

Identify

POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN TO   AMERICAN SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Colonial America
    • Pocahontas is credited with helping John Smith and the European settlers in Virginia, yet accounts of her contacts with the settlers at Jamestown vary.
    • Anne Hutchinson led Bible studies which brought into question Puritan theology and divided the community in Boston. She was brought to trial, convicted, and banished from the colony.  She and her supporters resettled in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, and she later moved to New York City.
    • Eliza Lucas Pinckney is credited with developing indigo as a cash crop first on her family’s plantation in South Carolina and then throughout the South.
    • Many colonial women worked with husbands to run businesses and farms.  Primary education provided in homes was the responsibility of women.
New8.25 The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life. The student is expected to:
New8.25A Trace the development of religious freedom in the United States.
Supporting Standard

Trace

DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGIOUS FREEDOM IN THE UNITED STATES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Plymouth Colony (1620-1691) – allowed self-governing churches with each congregation independent and electing its own pastor and officers
  • 17th century Massachusetts Bay Colony – originally founded by John Winthrop to escape religious persecution in England. Churches were fairly democratic in that they elected ministers and other officials, but close ties between Puritan churches and the state government led to Puritan leader Roger Williams being banished.
  • Rhode Island – Roger Williams left Massachusetts to found Rhode Island in 1636 on the premise that there would be no state church
  • Pennsylvania (1681-1776) – William Penn’s Frame of Government of Pennsylvania established a colonial government that provided political freedom and guaranteed religious freedom to all settlers in Pennsylvania
  • Maryland – founded as a safe haven for persecuted Catholics from England. Protestants soon outnumbered Catholics leading to the passage of the 1649 Maryland Toleration Act which allowed freedom of worship for all Trinitarian Christians.
  • Virginia – 1786 The Virginia Act for Establishing Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson made Virginia the first to separate church and state and guaranteed the right to practice religion free from government intrusion; the statute influenced the writers of the Bill of Rights, notably the protection of freedom of religion  and the prohibition of the establishment of an official religion in the First Amendment
New8.25B

Describe religious influences on social movements, including the impact of the first and second Great Awakenings.


Supporting Standard

Describe

RELIGIOUS MOTIVATION FOR IMMIGRATION AND INFLUENCE ON SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s was characterized by a revivalist movement where preachers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield addressed large crowds of people. These preachers spoke to groups who were already religious arguing that people could gain salvation by repenting and could study the Bible for themselves. The movement emphasized the equality of believers and advocated for religious freedom and toleration.  The movement impacted religious practices in many denominations with participants becoming more emotionally involved in religion as opposed to following ritualized services, resulting in the splitting of many congregations.
New8.29 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New8.29A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States.
Process Standard

Differentiate, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Media and news services
  • Biographies
  • Interviews
  • Artifacts
STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.
New8.29B Analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.
Process Standard

Analyze

INFORMATION BY USING A VARIETY OF SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New8.29C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.
Process Standard

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  •   Outlines
  •   Reports
  •   Databases
  •   Visuals
  •   Graphs
  •   Charts
  •   Timelines
  •   Maps

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29D Identify bias and points of view created by the historical context surrounding an event.
Process Standard

Identify

BIAS AND POINTS OF VIEW FROM THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT SURROUNDING AN EVENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historical context refers to how the time period in which the individual lived influences his/her perspective or attitudes.
New8.29E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event.
Process Standard

Support

POINT OF VIEW ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.29F Evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.

Evaluate

THE VALIDITY OF A SOURCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
New8.29G Create a visual representation of historical information such as thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of the United States.

Create

VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF HISTORICAL INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thematic maps
  • Graphs
  • Charts
New8.29H Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns shown on maps, graphs, and charts.
Process Standard

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

STAAR Note.
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New8.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.
Process Standard

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY

STAAR Note:
These skills will be incorporated into STAAR test questions from reporting categories 1-4 and will be identified along with content standards.

New8.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
New8.30C Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Create

PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
  • Document based essays
TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Readiness as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Supporting as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) are labeled Process standards as identified by TEA of the assessed curriculum.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
New8.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New8.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
Loading
Data is Loading...