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Instructional Focus Document
Grade 6 Social Studies
TITLE : Unit 10: Adapting Down Under: Pacific Realm SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

In this unit, students study about the cultural region of the Pacific Realm, including Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania. The physical geography of the region is characterized by islands and a unique flora and fauna. Cultural patterns in this region have been affected by the physical geography, the indigenous peoples of the region, and migration to the region. Societies in this region are noted for their adaptations to the environment. An examination of Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania is important for understanding the significance of indigenous cultures and migration, along with understanding how the physical environment impacts culture.

Prior to this Unit

In the previous unit students learned about the traditional and modernizing influences on cultural patterns in East and Southeast Asia.

During this Unit

In this unit students study about how physical geography has influenced settlement patterns in the region, how the relationship between indigenous populations and a history of migration has shaped cultural patterns in the region, and how adaptations to the physical geography impacts economic development in the region. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the historical inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

This unit completes the Contemporary World Cultures Course.


Humans have a complex relationship with the environment.

  • What is characteristic of the interactions between humans and the environment?

Interactions among humans lead to change.

  • How does the world change as people become more connected?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Australia and Oceania are characterized by a variety of islands where the physical geography impacts settlement patterns.

  • What is characteristic of the physical geography of Australia and Oceania?
  • What is characteristic of settlement patterns in Australia and Oceania?
  • How has geography impacted cultural patterns in this region?

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution
  • Human-Environment Interaction
  • Physical Geographic Processes/Landforms
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Cultural patterns in Australia and New Zealand reflect a history of migration along with the influence of indigenous populations.

  • What cultural practices in Australia and New Zealand reflect the contributions from indigenous populations?
  • What cultural practices in Australia and New Zealand reflect a history of colonization?
  • How is the influence of indigenous populations reflected in art?

Cultural Patterns

  • Ethnicity

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration

Political Patterns

  • Colonization
  • Imperialism
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

People living in Australia and Oceania have adapted to the environment and use the environment for economic development.

  • Why have people living in Australia and Oceania needed to modify the environment?
  • What is characteristic of the ways people make a living in Australia and Oceania?
  • How does physical geography impact the economic development of Australia and Oceania?

Spatial Patterns

  • Human-Environment Interaction

Economic Patterns

  • Resources
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments.  Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool. 

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • A tropical island is not a unique island type, but refers to any island that is located within the tropic zone. Papua New Guinea, Nauru, Tonga, and Polynesia are all “tropical islands”
  • Similarly, a desert island is not a unique island type – it refers to any island that has no people. (In this case, “desert” refers not to climate of the island, but rather that it is deserted.)
  • Many do not have a grasp of the proper use of the term Aboriginal, which is an adjective. To refer to Aboriginal(s) or Aborigine(s) is incorrect usage and has negative connotations in parts of Australia. Proper use includes “Aboriginal people.”
  • Aboriginal people in Australia have a variety of terms of reference for their identities derived from languages and names used by Aboriginal people. 

Unit Vocabulary

  • adaptation – process of adjusting to the surrounding conditions
  • modification – process of changing the environment
  • continental island – island formed by tectonic plate movement that causes the rising and folding of the ocean floor
  • continental shelf – a portion of a continent that is submerged under the ocean and gradually slopes away from the continent
  • barrier islands – islands formed by sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelf
  • atoll – a circular shaped island that has formed from a coral reef
  • ozone – gaseous layer around the Earth’s atmosphere that blocks harmful rays from the sun
  • outback – arid inland areas of the Australian continent
  • aboriginal – an adjective that describes anyone from an indigenous group anywhere in the world

Related Vocabulary

  •  reef
  •  indigenous
  •  Ring of Fire
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New6.1 The student understands that historical events influence contemporary events. The student is expected to:
New6.1A Trace characteristics of various contemporary societies in regions that resulted from historical events or factors such as colonization, immigration, and trade.

Trace

CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIETIES THAT RESULTED FROM HISTORICAL EVENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Pacific Realm – Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania (Pacific Islands)
    • Political systems tend to be limited, especially Australia and New Zealand; result of European colonization influence
    • Market economies primarily based on agricultural output and service industries such as tourism; legacy of traditional economic practices
    • Struggles with divisions between indigenous populations and colonial descendants; result of colonization
    • Diversity of cultural groups, including indigenous groups, Asian groups and European groups; history of migration to the region
New6.3 The student understands the factors that influence the locations and characteristics of locations of various contemporary societies on maps and/or globes. The student is expected to:
New6.3A Identify and explain the geographic factors responsible for patterns of population in places and regions.

Identify, Explain

GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR PATTERNS OF POPULATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Access to and availability of water – populations tend to cluster near bodies of water for sustaining agriculture as well as for use as transportation corridors
  • Availability of arable land – necessary to support agriculture and thereby populations
  • Availability of natural resources – need to sustain economic development for populations
  • Economic opportunities – populations concentrate in regions with access to jobs; populations migrate to regions with access to jobs
  • Favorable climate conditions – populations tend to concentrate in warmer climate regions
  • Common culture – population patterns reveal that ethnic groups tend to cluster together       
  • Physical geography – population patterns are affected by the location of landforms that facilitate settlement, such as plains and natural harbors and those which are barriers to settlement, such as mountains and forests
New6.3B Explain ways in which human migration influences the character of places and regions.

Explain

HUMAN MIGRATION INFLUENCES THE CHARATER OF PLACES AND REGIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Character of a place refers to the political, economic, social and cultural characteristics that distinguish a particular place.
  • Migration generally results in a modification of cultures and the cultural landscape along with possible cultural tensions.
  • Pacific Realm- Australia and Oceania
    • Earliest migration to the region was from Southeast Asia and other Pacific Islands. These migrants became the first indigenous groups in the region.
    • English migration to the area brought the English language, Christianity, and ideas about democratic governments.
New6.3C Identify and locate major physical and human geographic features such as landforms, water bodies, and urban centers of various places and regions.

Identify, Locate

PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF VARIOUS PLACES AND REGIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Pacific Realm
    • Landforms – Ayers Rock; Great Victoria Desert; Great Dividing Range; Great Barrier Reef; South Pacific archipelagos such as the islands of Fiji, Mariana, Solomon, New Hebrides, New Zealand
    • Water bodies – Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Tasman Sea, Coral Sea, Darling River
    • Urban centers – Auckland, Brisbane, Sydney, Perth, Saipan
New6.3D Identify the location of major world countries for each of the world regions.

Identify

LOCATION OF MAJOR WORLD COUNTRIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Pacific Realm
    • Australia. Indonesia, New Zealand, Vanuatu
New6.5 The student understands the impact of interactions between people and the physical environment on the development and conditions of places and regions. The student is expected to:
New6.5A Describe ways people have been impacted by physical processes such as earthquakes and climate.

Describe

WAYS PEOPLE HAVE BEEN IMPACTED BY PHYSICAL PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Impact of earthquakes
    • Earthquakes cause significant damage to property and loss of lives as well as produce tsunamis, immense ocean waves which also cause severe damage and loss of lives.
    • When earthquakes happen in nations that lack financial resources, people can be displaced from their homes for years and economic activities are disrupted.
  • Impact of climate
    • Climate is a pattern of the combination of precipitation and temperature over time. This combination produces distinct climate regions. There are five major categories of climate; polar, temperate, tropical, arid, and highland along with many sub categories within these larger groups.
    • Climate affects the creation of biomes or ecosystems, which are defined by a specific community of plants and animals that inhabit that region. Biomes are classified into four main categories: forests, grasslands, deserts, and tundra.
    • Humans must adapt to the climate in which they live and human lifestyles are impacted by the climate in which they live. For example people living in polar climates participate in different outdoor activities as compared to people living in tropical regions.
    • The variation in biomes created by climate impacts availability of natural resources, diets, clothing, dwellings, and economic activities of people
New6.5B Identify and analyze ways people have adapted to the physical environment in various places and regions.

Identify, Analyze

WAYS PEOPLE HAVE ADAPTED TO THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • A variety of clothing is used to adapt to various climates
  • Terrace farming is used as an adaption for farming in elevated regions
  • Desalinization of saltwater is an adaption used in regions where fresh water is scarce
  • Air conditioning is used to adapt to hot/humid climate regions
  • Introduction of crops that are conducive to the surrounding climate, such as planting rice in wet areas
  • Use of sunscreen to adapt to living in regions with intense sunlight
  • Modifying structures to adapt to hazardous weather conditions, such as elevating homes in regions that experience heavy flooding because of precipitation brought with monsoon winds, or building to withstand earthquakes, or digging below permafrost to underpin buildings
New6.5C Identify and analyze ways people have modified the physical environment such as mining, irrigation, and transportation infrastructure.

Identify, Analyze

WAYS PEOPLE HAVE MODIFIED THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mining – allows for the extraction of natural resources; may result in erosion of the soil, pollution of soil, ground water, and surface water
  • Irrigation – allows for the expansion of farming and ranching into areas that lack water resources
  • Transportation infrastructure – allows for the increasing movement of people and products via canals, highways, airports
  • Deforestation – removing forests for the expansion of commercial ventures including agriculture, most notable in Amazon River region of Brazil
  • Diverting water sources – Aral Sea has shrunk considerably in size because of a policy to divert water from two rivers which supplied the sea
  • Desertification – results from overgrazing as well as diverting water sources, such as with Lake Chad
  • Dams – allows for flood control and the production of hydroelectricity, examples include Three Gorges Dam (China), Aswan (Egypt), Ataturk (Turkey)
  • Ozone hole created by chemicals – Australia and New Zealand most effected as the populations in this region are experiencing higher rates of skin cancer as a result of exposure to ultra-violet rays; public health campaign has been instituted to alert people in the region to the danger of sun exposure and promote the use of sunscreen
  • Overfishing in Pacific Islands
New6.7 The student understands the various ways in which people organize economic systems. The student is expected to:
New6.7A Compare ways in which various societies organize the production and distribution of goods and services.

Compare

WAYS IN WHICH SOCIETIES ORGANIZE PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Traditional economies – Custom and tradition determines what is to be produced; products are owned by families, or the entire village. Distribution of goods and services are kept locally.
  • Free market capitalism – Production and distribution of goods and services is based on private ownership and response to consumer demand.
  • Socialism – The government owns some factors of production, usually the major industries along with private ownership of some businesses.
  • Communism – National ownership of all production and distribution of goods and services.
  • Command economy – State directs the economic system, central government controls industry, such as in Cuba and North Korea.
New6.13 The student understands the similarities and differences within and among cultures in various world societies. The student is expected to:
New6.13C Analyze the experiences and contributions of diverse groups to multicultural societies.

Analyze

EXPERIENCES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIVERSE GROUPS TO MULTICULTURAL SOCIETIES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Multicultural societies have generally resulted from historical migration processes.
  • Experiences of diverse groups within multicultural societies will vary by society.
    • Indigenous populations have generally suffered a loss of culture and power as a result of colonial migration processes. Examples include the experiences of American Indian tribes in the Americas along with indigenous groups in Africa, Asia and Australia.
    • The experiences of refugees and immigrants are related to assimilating into a new culture and maintaining the home culture. Examples include immigrants to the United States and those to Europe as well as the historical forced migration of Africans to the Americas.
  • Contributions of diverse groups to multicultural societies will vary by society.
    • Groups that migrate to a region bring new cultural traditions to the region, including foods, languages, religious practices, new forms of art, music, dance, fashion, and architecture along with new traditions and customs.
    • Some cultural practices of indigenous populations are adopted by migrants to the region. Examples include foods that American Indians introduced to colonists, integration of words from American Indian tribes to English (skunk, caribou, moccasin), the practice of honoring past ancestors on Dia de Los Muertos in Latin America, and haka dancing in New Zealand.
New6.16 The student understands the relationship that exists between the arts and the societies in which they are produced. The student is expected to:
New6.16A Explain the relationships that exist between societies and their architecture, art, music, and literature.

Explain

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOCIETIES AND THEIR ARCHITECTURE, ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Societies produce architecture, art, music and literature that reflect the cultural values of that society. For example the Gothic cathedrals that reflect the influence of Christianity in European culture; landscape paintings produced by artists in East Asia reflect the idea of living in harmony with nature, which is consistent with philosophical beliefs that originated in this region. African folktales which encompass a range of myths, proverbs, and poetry reflect the oral traditions of African cultures.  An artistic heritage of using natural materials is reflected in the sculpture and carvings of African cultures.
  • Artists are impacted by the culture and time period in which they live. For example the humanist influence that is reflected in many works of the European Renaissance.
  • Artists also influence cultures with the art, music and literature they produce. For example the murals of Diego Rivera and the works of Frida Kahlo which showcased Mexican workers and indigenous people.
  • Societies use architecture, art, music and literature as a means of communicating values. For example the architectural monuments in Europe like the Eiffel Tower, Arc de Triomphe and the Brandenburg Gate; the temples that are a part of the India’s cultural landscape communicate the importance of Hinduism in Indian society. Government buildings in South Asia also mirror temple architecture.
New6.19 The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
New6.19A Differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as oral, print, and visual material, and artifacts to acquire information about various world cultures.

Differentiate between, Locate, Use

VALID PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES TO ACQUIRE INFORMATION ABOUT VARIOUS WORLD CULTURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Oral materials
  • Print materials
  • Visual material
  • Artifacts
New6.19B Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions.

Analyze

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns and predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
New6.19C Organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps.

Organize, Interpret

INFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Outlines
  • Reports
  • Databases
  • Visuals
    • Graphs
    • Charts
    • Timelines
    • Maps
New6.19D Identify different points of view about an issue or current topic.

Identify

DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW ABOUT AN ISSUE OR CURRENT TOPIC
New6.20 The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
New6.20A Answer geographic questions, including: Where is it located? Why is it there? What is significant about its location? How is its location related to the location of other people, places, and environments? Using latitude and longitude, where is it located?

Answer

GEOGRAPHIC QUESTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Where is it located? Position on a map (absolute location vs. relative location), latitude and longitude
  • Why is it there? trade routes, altitude, availability of natural resources, transportation corridor
  • What is significant about its location? historically, economically, socially, politically
  • How is its location related to other people, places, and environment? conflicts, cultural diffusion, climate, availability of resources
  • Where do people live and not live? Why?
  • How does geography affect migration patterns?
  • What patterns are evident in the demographic make-up, language distribution, and distribution of religious groups in the world?
New6.20B Pose and answer questions about geographic distributions and patterns for various world regions and countries shown on maps, graphs, and charts.

Pose, Answer

QUESTIONS ABOUT GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS

Including, but not limited to:
Possible questions to pose related to any region of study.

  • How does climate affect settlement patterns (where people live) in this region/country?
  • How does physical geography affect settlement patterns (where people live) and migration patterns (where people move to and from) in this region/country?
  • How does physical geography facilitate/impede trade in this region/country?
  • How has physical geography affected the spread of languages, religions and ethnic groups?
New6.20C Compare various world regions and countries using data from maps, graphs, and charts.

Compare

WORLD REGIONS AND COUNTRIES

Including, but not limited to:
Possible comparisons to make

  • Levels of development
  • Standard of living
  • Voting participation
  • Types of economic activities
  • Levels of education
  • Gross domestic product
  • Settlement patterns over time
  • Demographics
  • Literacy rates
New6.20D Create and interpret regional sketch maps, thematic maps, graphs, and charts depicting aspects such as population, disease, and economic activities of various world regions and countries.

Create, Interpret

REGIONAL SKETCH MAPS, THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Creation of regional sketch maps by students
  • Thematic maps may depict population patterns, climate regions, language distribution, religious patterns, ethnic patterns, economic activities
  • Charts and graphs may depict birth rate, death rate, population growth rate, life expectancy, literacy level, GDP, average family size
New6.21 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New6.21A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

New6.21B Incorporate main and supporting ideas in verbal and written communication based on research.

Incorporate

MAIN, AND SUPPORTING IDEAS IN VERBAL AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION BASED ON RESEARCH

New6.21D Create written and visual material such as journal entries, reports, graphic organizers, outlines, and bibliographies based on research.

Create

WRITTEN AND VISUAL MATERIAL BASED ON RESEARCH

Including, but not limited to:

  • Journal entries
  • Reports
  • Graphic organizers
  • Outlines
  • Bibliographies
New6.21E Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations to avoid plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE WRITTEN COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
New6.21 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
New6.21C Express ideas orally based on research and experiences.

Express

IDEAS ORALLY BASED ON RESEARCH AND EXPERIENCES

New6.22 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
New6.22A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

Use

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/17/2019
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