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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 11: An Interdependent World 1914-Present SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the global issues that characterized the latter half of the 20th century (1914-present), including the tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, the spread of communism, the end of colonial empires, and the growth of globalization. This unit is primarily a study in human rights. Following the Second World War, the world divided ideologically between communism and democracy, as Russia came to control Eastern Europe and communist governments were established in China, Korea, and Vietnam. The western powers of Europe and the United States allied to stop the spread of communism. The end of the Second World War marked the end of European global dominance, as the European colonial empires slowly dismantled with independence movements throughout Africa and Asia. By the turn of the century the world’s people were more connected than ever before, whether in international organization, by technology, or global trade. In the twenty-first century the world’s people continue to struggle to protect human rights and share the resources of the globe. Knowledge of the Cold War, the collapse of colonialism, and the growth of globalization is important for understanding many of the policy decisions made in the world today and for understanding the relationships between global powers in the world today.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about early 20th century global conflicts, including the First World War, the Russian Revolution, global economic depression and the Second World War.

During this Unit

During this unit students learn about major events of the twentieth century following Second World War.  Students study the causes, characteristics and consequences of the Cold War, including the spread of communism in Eastern Europe and East Asia and the decolonization movements that took place in colonial regions. Additionally, students study about the fall of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, the social, economic and cultural impact of globalization, as well as the continued challenges of recognizing, protecting, and expanding human rights. Students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

Additional Notes

The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about the impact of various societies and cultures on world events, including the influences of Islam. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.


Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?

Democratic societies strive to guarantee the rights and freedoms of the individual.

  • How are the rights and freedoms of individuals protected in a democratic society?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Following the Second World War the United States and the Soviet Union became embroiled in a Cold War that divided the world between communist and democratic ideologies until the 1990s when communism failed in the Soviet Union.  

  • How did the Cold War policies of Soviet Union and the United States affect other nations in the world?
  • How did communism spread to Eastern Europe?
  • How did the United States respond to Cold War threats in Eastern Europe?
  • How did the Communist Revolution in China differ from other political revolutions?
  • How did the United States and the Soviet Union respond to the spread of communism in East Asia?
  • What steps were taken to relieve Cold War tensions?
  • Why did communism ultimately fail in the Soviet Union?

 

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems

Economic Patterns

  • Economic Systems

Historical Processes

  • Power
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

After the Second World War the European powers could no longer justify nor afford continued control of their colonies resulting in independence for many former colonies and the formation of Israel.

  • Why did the European system of imperialism come to an end?
  • What was politically and culturally characteristic of newly independent nations that were former colonies?
  • How did the creation of a Jewish state in Southwest Asia affect the region?
  • How did the decline in European power affect events in the Middle East?

Political Patterns

  • Independence Movements
  • Nationalism

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The latter half of the twentieth century has been marred by incidents of genocide, political oppression, and terrorism, yet many continue to work for human rights.

  • What motivations are responsible for many of the human rights violations of the twentieth century?
  • What differences continue to fuel conflict in the twenty-first century?
  • How have the ideals of freedom and democracy proliferated in the world?
  • Why have multinational and supranational institutions developed in the twentieth century?

Political Patterns

  • Human Rights
  • Supranational Organizations

Economic Patterns

  • Globalization

Historical Processes

  • Interdependence
  • Empathy/Identity
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may not understand the ongoing results of the Second World War on European border changes during the 1990s.
  • Students may believe all acts of terrorism are related to religion.

Unit Vocabulary

  • human rights –rights regarded as belonging fundamentally to all persons
  • supranational organizations –groups that collectively bring together groups of nations to promote common goals, such as the European Union, NATO, and the UN
  • genocide –systematic killing of a particular ethnic group
  • Marshall Plan – policy of the United States adopted after the Second World War to provide money to European nations to rebuild
  • Truman Doctrine – policy of the United States adopted after the Second World War to aid countries such as Turkey and Greece to stop the spread of communism
  • Zionism –movement to establish a homeland nation for Jews
  • glasnost – policy adopted in the Soviet Union under the leadership of Gorbachev that allowed for more political openness and dialogue
  • perestroika – policy promoted in the Soviet Union by Gorbachev that allowed for economic restructuring and easing of central planning
  • decolonization – process of former colonies moving towards independence
  • terrorism – the use of violence to draw attention to a cause or political aim

Related Vocabulary

  • interdependence
  • globalization
 
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
WH.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
WH.1F

Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1914 to the present: the world wars and their impact on political, economic, and social systems; communist revolutions and their impact on the Cold War; independence movements; and globalization.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1914 TO THE PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

Communist Revolutions and their impact on the Cold War
Causes

  • Communism spread to Russia with the Russian Revolution and the creation of the Soviet Union. Despite fighting with the Allies the Soviet, western Allied powers were suspect about Soviet ambitions to spread communism. This made settlement of the peace terms following the Second World War difficult to negotiate.
  • The spread of communism to China intensified the Cold War as a fear grew in the United States that communism would then spread to Southeast Asia.
  • The continued spread of communism to Korea, Cuba, Vietnam and later Nicaragua heightened tensions in the United States and around the world.

Effects

  • The nations of the world aligned with the United States or with the Soviet Union causing regional issues, such as the Suez Crisis, to become international incidents and creating very tenuous alliances.
  • The United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a massive increase in weapons, including stockpiling nuclear weapons.
  • A preoccupation in both the Soviet Union and the United States centered on one another’s culture and society reflected in popular culture.

Independence movements
Causes

  • European nations could no longer afford to maintain imperial empires nor could they justify imperialism in the face of calls for self-determination
  • Leaders in many of the colonial empires had received western educations and were inspired to institute democratic ideals.

Effects

  • European colonies in Africa and Asia gain independence from colonial powers; violence and/or corruption emerge in many of the newly independent countries due to a lack of stable democracies or ethnic/religious conflicts.
  • Indian independence in 1947 resulted in the partition between Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan.
  • Israeli nationhood in 1948 created an ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict that continues to threaten stability in that region.
  • Independence movements in Southeast Asia lead to both conflict (Vietnam) and rise of new economic powers (Singapore).
  • Numerous African nations become independent between 1957 and 1975 and many struggled with economic development.
  • Nationalism continues to be a force for unity and for division.

Globalization
Causes

  • New systems of trade, transportation, and communication have brought larger numbers of people into contact with each other.
  • A decline in protectionist economic policies and an increase in free trade agreements have promoted economic globalization.

Effects

  • Advances in technology after World War II have resulted in increased global interaction, allowed for faster travel, increased access to information, and improved quality of life for many.
  • Rapid economic developments have linked the economies of many world nations so that the actions of one nation affect others.
  • Increasing economic disparity between some nations coupled with the rise of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) formed to address economic and social issue around the globe.
  • Technological innovations like television and the mass media have fostered cultural diffusion, especially of western culture, resulting in changed cultural landscapes
WH.13 History. The student understands the impact of major events associated with the Cold War and independence movements. The student is expected to:
WH.13A Summarize how the outcome of World War II contributed to the development of the Cold War.

Summarize

HOW THE END OF WORLD WAR II LED TO THE COLD WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • As a result of the Yalta Conference (1945) Stalin creates a buffer zone against invasion by taking control of Eastern Europe; Soviet satellite nations with communist governments installed in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania; Germany divided into two sections with East Germany under communist control; city of Berlin is also divided with the Soviets taking control of East Berlin
  • Following the Second World War, the United States role as a world power is solidified with the United States poised to defend democratic values
  • As a world leader the United States develops policies to address the spread of communism with a goal of containment, including:
    • Truman Doctrine (1947) – the United States would support any nation resisting a communist insurgency, demonstrated by U.S. aid to Turkey and Greece to prevent spread of communism to these two countries
    • Marshall Plan (1947) – aid to Western Europe for economic recovery and prevention of spread of communism to this region; spurred by Soviet takeover of Czechoslovakia
  • Creation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949) between Western European countries and the United States as a defensive military alliance provoked the Soviet Union to create the Warsaw Pact (1955)
WH.13B Summarize the factors that contributed to communism in China, including Mao Zedong's role in its rise.

Summarize

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO COMMUNISM IN CHINA 

Including, but not limited to:

  • 1921 the communist party forms in China, with the Russian Revolution as a model; the party originates as a study group within the Nationalist Party
  • Communists and the Nationalist Army fight together to overthrow a warlord system in China that prevented the formation of a strong central government
  • 1925 Nationalist leaders establish a central government in China
  • 1927 the Nationalists purge the Communists from the party in the “White Terror” with the expulsion and killing of many communists
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 threatens the Nationalist government; Communists continue to gain support in the countryside and the Nationalist government diverts resources needed to fight the Japanese to containing the Communists
  • War time corruption and dictatorial suppression of dissent by Nationalist leaders facilitated the growth of popular support for the Communists throughout the Second World War.  
  • Despite efforts to broker agreements following the Second World War civil war between Mao Zedong’s Communist Red Army and Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) Nationalist forces resumes in the midst of the extreme devastation of Chinese cities and the economy brought about by the Japanese; the Red Army receives support form the Soviet Union and the United States provides support for the Nationalist Army
  • Civil War is fought from 1947 to 1949 with an eventual Communist victory facilitated by their strong grassroots support, superior military organization, and access to large stockpiles of weapons seized from Japanese supplies in Manchuria. Support for the Nationalists had eroded over the years due to corruption and mismanagement within the Nationalist led government.
  • Mao defeats Nationalists in 1949 and establishes a communist government on the mainland while the Nationalists retreat to Taiwan
WH.13C Identify major events of the Cold War, including the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the arms race.

Identify

MAJOR EVENTS OF THE COLD WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • Soviet satellites nations established in Eastern Europe resulting in the metaphorical Iron Curtain (1945-1948)
  • Berlin Airlift (1948) – after Allied withdrawal from Germany, Soviets close off Berlin to the West; Allies drop food and medicine through an airlift that leads to the removal of the Soviet blockade of this city
  • Communist takeover of mainland China by Mao Zedong (1949)
  • Korean War (1950-1953) that results in a divided Korean peninsula – North Korea (communist) and South Korea (democracy)
  • Development and testing of a thermonuclear bomb by the United States (1952) followed by Soviet thermonuclear denotation (1953)
  • Vietnam War (1953-1975) that results in communist-backed North Vietnam overtaking U.S.-backed South Vietnam
  • Launching of Sputnik satellite by Soviet Union (1957)
  • Cuban revolution led by Fidel Castro that leads to a communist takeover (1959-1960)
  • Berlin Wall divides the city into communist East Berlin and free West Berlin (1961)
  • Cuban Missile Crisis between U.S. and U.S.S.R. that almost leads to nuclear war (1962)
  • Civil war in Nicaragua that leads to communist-backed Sandinistas taking over the government (1979)
  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979) that lead to the formation of the Mujahideen, resistance fighters trained by U.S. and Pakistani covert services
  • Civil war in El Salvador that leads the United States to back anti-communist forces known as the Contras (1980-1992)
  • Election of Mikhail Gorbachev in U.S.S.R. leads to political and economic reforms – Glasnost, Perestroika (1985)
  • Fall of Berlin Wall (1989)
  • End of  communist governments in Eastern Europe (1989-1990)
  • Reunification of Germany (1990)
  • Yeltsin overthrows Gorbachev in a coup and U.S.S.R. breaks up (1991)
WH.13D Explain the roles of modern world leaders, including Ronald Reagan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Lech Walesa, and Pope John Paul II, in the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.

Explain

ROLES OF MODERN WORLD LEADERS IN THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND THE SOVIET UNION

Including, but not limited to:
Ronald Reagan (1911-2004)

  • U.S. President who described Soviet Union as “evil empire”
  • Negotiated with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty that eliminated nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges
  • Vastly increased U.S. defense spending led the Soviet Union into additional spending which contributed to the deterioration of the Soviet economy; research into the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) troubled Soviet leadership with the concern the arms race may suddenly shift towards Western superiority if a “space shield” would protect the West from nuclear attack
  • Berlin Wall speech to Gorbachev to tear down the wall

Mikhail Gorbachev (1931– )

  • Soviet Secretary General from 1985 – 1991 who introduced reforms to the Soviet system while head of state in the Soviet Union. Those reforms ultimately led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
  • Glasnost – openness that led to greater discussion of issues by the Soviet public, including new ideas for economic reform and economic problems like the long lines to buy limited supplies of food and other products
  • Perestroika – economic restructuring where local managers gain greater authority over their farms and factories and allow for opening of small private businesses
  • Democratization process that allowed more political freedom for voters, who could choose candidates supporting economic reform

Lech Walesa (1943-)

  • Polish dockworker who led strike in Gdansk in order to get Polish government to recognize the Solidarity union, the first independent free-trade union in the Soviet bloc
  • After martial law was imposed and Solidarity outlawed, he established the Round Table Agreements where the Polish government agrees to parliamentary elections and a Solidarity-led government
  • Elected president of Poland in 1990 after the fall of communism in that nation

Pope John Paul II (1920-2005)

  • Polish archbishop who, after his election as pope, was instrumental in ending communism in Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe by giving spiritual inspiration to rise against communist leaders
WH.13E Summarize the rise of independence movements in Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia and reasons for ongoing conflicts,

Summarize

RISE OF INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST, AND SOUTH ASIA AND REASONS FOR ONGOING CONFLICTS

Including, but not limited to:
Africa

  • In 1900, only Liberia and Ethiopia were independent African nations
  • South Africa (1910), Egypt (1922), Libya (1951)
  • Ghana (Gold Coast) – first sub-Saharan colony to become independent after WW II (1957)
    • Kwame Nkrumah led the independence movement from Britain and became the first leader of a former colonial nation in Africa; supported the spread of independence movements throughout Africa
    • Power remained unstable until a democratic government was elected in 2000
  • Kenya (1963)
    • Jomo Kenyatta – leader of independence movement  from Britain and first president
    • Mau Mau uprising between Kenyans and British before independence
    • Corruption in government and ethnic conflicts remain in Kenya
  • Congo (1960)
    • Independence from Belgium (1960) leads to civil war between different factions
    • Mobutu Sese Seko rules as a dictator from the 1960s through the 1990s; country’s name changed to Zaire during his time in power
    • Coups and civil war continue; numerous issues with refugees both from other nations and within the nation
  • Algeria (1962)
    • Independence from France
    • Unemployment and unfulfilled promises from independence fuel Islamic uprisings in the 1980s and 1990s that lead to the establishment of an Islamic republic
  • Angola (1975)
    • Independence from Portugal in 1975
    • Civil war between communist-backed and pro-democracy forces continues until resolution in the 2000s
    • Civil war leads to ongoing problems associated with detonations of land mines

Middle East

  • Israel
    • Balfour Declaration of 1917 calls for partition of Palestine that includes an independent Jewish state
    • Israel achieves independence in 1948 with David Ben Gurion as the first prime minister
    • Arab-Israeli conflict continues as both Israelis and Palestinians claim the same territory.
  • British, French, and Soviet departure from the region after World War II led to several new independent nations including Iran, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Cyprus

South Asia

  • India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh
    • Mohandas Gandhi begins non-violent independence movement from  Great Britain that leads to independence in 1947
    • Conflicts between Hindus and Muslims lead to the partition of  India into India and Pakistan
    • Civil war, coups, wars with India, and political assassinations have challenged Pakistan’s efforts to establish a stable government.
    • Continued  tensions between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir
    • Bangladesh, the eastern wing of Pakistan after Indian partitioning, declared independence from Pakistan in 1971
  • Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
    • Independence from Great Britain in 1948
    • Conflict between the Buddhist majority and the Tamils, a Hindu group, lead to civil war from the 1980s to 2009 with a defeat of the Tamil Tigers
WH.13F Discuss factors contributing to the Arab-Israeli conflict, including the rejection of the existence of the state of Israel by the Arab League and a majority of Arab nations.

Discuss

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Following waves of Jewish immigration to Palestine in the early 20th century the United Nations proposed a plan to partition Palestine, which was rejected by Palestinian leaders. In1948 the state of Israel was established in territory inhabited by a Palestinian population. One day later six Arab states invaded Israel. Israel was victorious and gained more territory. Major conflicts between Arab states and Israel broke out in 1956, 1967, and 1973. Hostilities with Egypt ended with the Camp David Accords of 1979 and included the return of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. Conflict continues based on a number of factors.
    • Formation of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and the use of terrorism
    • Palestinians and  a majority of Arab nations do not recognize the existence of the state of Israel
    • Hamas militants’ control of the Gaza Strip; Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by Israel
    • Rocket fire from the Gaza Strip threatens the security of Israelis
    • Presence of Israel forces in some territories gained during 1967, despite a U.N. Security Council resolution calling for the withdrawal of these forces
    • Israeli policies requiring Palestinians to have permits to move between the West Bank, Gaza, and East Jerusalem and travel through checkpoints
    • Building of Israeli settlements and a wall separating Israel from the West Bank
WH.14 History. The student understands the development and use of radical Islamic terrorism in the second half of the 20th century and the early 21st century. The student is expected to:
WH.14A Explain the impact of geopolitical influences on the development of radical Islamic terrorism.

Explain

IMPACT OF GEOPOLITICAL INFLUENCES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF RADICAL ISLAMIC TERRORISM ON EVENTS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

Including, but not limited to:

1968 – 1979

  • Post-colonial struggles of newly independent nations and the establishment of the state of Israel resulted in the development of many anti-Western groups throughout the Islamic world. Most of these organizations were secular in nature, so that while their membership may have been of Muslims the organizations goals were not necessarily religiously motivated. Additionally, the successful defense of Israel against conventional Arab attacks led some to believe that other tactics were needed.  Groups, such as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine saw terrorism as a way to reach their political goals. These groups started directing attacks at civilians, including bombings, airplane hijackings, shootings, and most notably the killing of the 1972 Israeli Olympic team. A Palestinian network of secular terrorist groups facilitate the spread of terrorist techniques worldwide.

 1979 – 1991

  • The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the subsequent anti-Soviet mujahedeen war facilitated an expansion of terrorist groups. Fighters from all over the Islamic world converged in Afghanistan where they gained expertise in terrorist fighting and access to weapons. These fighters were supported by conservative Arab nations. Afghanistan subsequently became a training ground for terrorists.
  • The Iranian revolution sparked fears throughout the world that a Shia Islam revolution would spread. Western nations then began focusing their attention on state-sponsored terrorist organizations, such as Hezbollah. Many of these organization targeted their attacks on Israel and other Western targets, such as the U.S. Marines in Beirut, Lebanon in 1983. Terrorist groups followed Hezbollah’s lead and began deploying suicide bombers.

 1991– 2001

  • The end of the Cold War created a vacuum of power in many places, such as in Africa and access to advanced conventional weapons was exploited by terrorist groups. International networks of terrorist groups exploited drug trafficking routes and expanded their efforts at training and recruitment. The absence of political authority in Afghanistan and Pakistan’s domestic struggles fueled the emergence of the Pakistani-supported Taliban militia. The Taliban came to control significant territory in Afghanistan and provided logistical support, travel documentation, and training facilities in Afghanistan for other groups including Al-Qaeda led by Osama bin Laden. The result has been a focus on the sustained development of terrorist capabilities. During this time these groups became more embolden to strike at far away targets including attacks on the World Trade Center in 1993 and 2001.

 2001 – Present

  • In response to the Al-Qaeda attacks on the World Trade Center, the United States attacked Afghanistan and Iraq. The premise for attack in Iraq was the potential use of weapons of mass destruction by Iraq’s leader Saddam Hussein. Iraq had no connection to the World Trade Center bombings nor did Al-Qaeda operate in Iraq at that time. In 2004 Al-Qaeda in Iraq formed and when its leader was killed it joined with other groups to form Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) and later changed its name to Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).Civil War broke out in Syria in 2011 allowing for the infiltration of terrorist groups in the region. In 2014 ISIL changed its name to Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) expressing a goal of creating a caliphate across territory in Iraq and Syria. In 2019, an alliance of Syrian fighters backed by the United States defeated the last territorial stronghold of ISIS, though many fighters and leaders remain a threat.
WH.14B Explain the impact of radical Islamic terrorism on global events.

Explain

IMPACT OF RADICAL ISLAMIC TERRORISM ON GLOBAL EVENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Continued threats of hijackings, hostage taking, bombings, shootings, and other acts intended to instill fear.
  • Need for additional security measures in public venues.
  • Limits on individual freedoms in exchange for increased security.
WH.14C Explain the U.S. response to the events surrounding September 11, 2001, and other acts of radical Islamic terrorism.

Explain

U.S. RESPONSE TO TERRORISM SINCE SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 AND OTHER ACTS OF RADICAL ISLAMIC TERRORISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • The War on Terror declared
    • Articulated by President George W. Bush referring to U.S. efforts to actions taken to combat terrorist networks and nations supporting those networks. Immediate goal was to Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to justice.
  • USA PATRIOT Act  (2001) enacted
    • Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism
    • Reduced restrictions on law enforcement agencies' ability to search telephone, e-mail communications, medical, financial, and other records
    • Eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering within the United States
    • Expanded the Secretary of the Treasury’s authority to regulate financial transactions, particularly those involving foreign individuals and entities
    • Broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism-related acts
  • National Security Agency initiated a secret operation to eavesdrop on telephone and e-mail communications between U.S. citizens and people overseas without a warrant
  • Joint Congressional Resolution 107- 40 authorizing the use of military force "to deter and prevent acts of international terrorism against the United States."
  • Stricter aviation security under the responsibility of the federal government

Department of Homeland Security created in 2002

Operation Iraqi Freedom began in 2003

  • Iraqi President Saddam Hussein captured and executed in 2007

Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan began in 2001

  • Taliban and al-Qaeda targets bombed after 9/11
  • Taliban overthrown from power in 2001
  • NATO forces including U.S. troops have been in Afghanistan since 2001
  • The United States has transitioned security to Afghan forces, but remains fighting terrorist groups. Afghan, Taliban, and U.S. joint diplomacy for peace continues into 2019.
WH.15 Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
WH.15A Locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history.

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • 20th Century-Present (1914-present)
    • Cold War Era – United States, Washington, D.C., Soviet Union, Moscow, Potsdam, Iron Curtain, Soviet satellite nations, Warsaw, Berlin,
    • China, North Korea, South Korea, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Cuba, Nicaragua, Iran, Afghanistan
    • Post-war independence – India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Kenya, Senegal, The Congo, Algeria, Angola, Mozambique
    • The Middle East in the 20th Century – Israel, Egypt, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, Sinai Peninsula, Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran
WH.16 Economics. The student understands the impact of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions and globalization on humanity. The student is expected to:
WH.16C Describe the economic impact of globalization.

Describe

ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Economic impact
    • Development of mass communication and information industries including satellites, computers, and the Internet that allow people to transmit information and business transactions quickly and cheaply
    • Increase of goods and services led to a shift in manufacturing jobs from developed to undeveloped nations and outsourcing
    • Importation and adaptation of western products and rapid industrialization, especially in electronics, resulted in emergence of Japan and the Four Tigers of Asia (South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong) as global economic powers
    • Development of multinational companies that operate in different countries, (e.g., Ford, Nestlē, Mazda, Honda)
    • Expansion of free trade to eliminate trade barriers between nations, (e.g., GATT, European Union, NAFTA)
WH.17 Economics. The student understands the historical origins of contemporary economic systems and the benefits of free enterprise in world history. The student is expected to:
WH.17E Explain why communist command economies collapsed in competition with free market economies at the end of the 20th century.

Explain

REASONS FOR COLLAPSE OF COMMUNIST COMMAND ECONOMIES WHEN COMPETING WITH FREE-MARKET ECONOMIES IN THE LATE 20th CENTURY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Post World War II western capitalist nations experienced huge rises in the standard of living and expansion of the middle class.  Homeownership became common along with car ownership.   A wide variety of consumer goods were produced including radios, televisions, phones, VCR's, microwaves and clothing.  Huge production of consumer goods fueled economic growth as well as growing consumer debt. 
  • In contrast, post-World War II communist Soviet satellite nations and the Soviet Union experienced rapid industrialization, yet industry concentrated on producing military equipment and supplying the arms race. Production of consumer goods lagged resulting in a shortage of basic living staples.   Standing in line for products and rationing became common along with a shortage of housing; eventually military spending at the expense of consumer production led to the collapse of the Soviet economy.
    • Gorbachev’s reforms in the Soviet Union
      • Glasnost – openness that led to greater discussion of issues by the Soviet public, including new ideas for economic reform and economic problems like the long lines to buy limited supplies of food and other products
      • Perestroika – economic restructuring where local managers gain greater authority over their farms and factories and allow for opening of small private businesses
      • Democratization process that allowed more political freedom for voters, who could choose candidates supporting economic reform
    • Eastern Europeans saw the changes taking place in the Soviet Union as an opportunity to gain independence from communist control and eventually the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe.
    • Solidarity legalized as a workers’ union in Poland
    • Private enterprise and a small stock market established in Hungary
    • Yeltsin implements “shock therapy” in Russia’s economy that eliminated government intervention in the economy, reduced trade barriers, removed price controls, and eliminated subsidies to state-run industries
WH.19 Government. The student understands how contemporary political systems have developed from earlier systems of government. The student is expected to:
WH.19D

Explain the significance of the League of Nations and the United Nations.

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF LEAGUE OF NATIONS AND UNITED NATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • United Nations – international peace-keeping body established by the UN Charter (1945) with 51 original members committed to protect against aggression, advance human rights and develop democratic principles throughout the world. Responsible for issuing the Declaration of Human Rights.
WH.20 Citizenship. The student understands the significance of political choices and decisions made by individuals, groups, and nations throughout history. The student is expected to:
WH.20A Describe how people have participated in supporting or changing their governments.

Describe

HOW PEOPLE CAN SUPPORT OR CHANGE THEIR GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Support
    • Voting
    • Registering others to vote
    • Paying taxes
    • Recruitment in the military
  • Change
    • Revolution – United States, France, Glorious Revolution in England, Spanish colonies in Latin America, Russia; Arab Spring in Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, Egypt
    • Non-violent protests – Gandhi in India, Mandela in South Africa, Martin Luther King, Jr. in United States, Solidarity in Poland
    • Secession – Confederate States of America
    • Military coup d’états – Argentina, Nigeria
    • Peaceful transitions through voting – United States when political parties shift powers, Mandela in South Africa
    • Religious influences – John Paul II in Poland, Khomeini in Iran
WH.21 Citizenship. The student understands the historical development of significant legal and political concepts related to the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. The student is expected to:
WH.21C Identify examples of politically motivated mass murders such as in Cambodia, China, Latin America, and the Soviet Union.

Identify

POLITICALLY MOTIVATED MASS MURDER

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cambodia (1975-1979) – Pol Pot’s Killing Fields in Cambodia, where he sought to return his country to its agrarian roots by forcing people out of the cities and executing the intellectuals and professionals, resulted in over 2 million deaths
  • China (1937-1938) – “Rape of Nanking” occurred when Japanese Imperial soldiers murdered 300,000 civilians and soldiers out of the 600,000 in that city.
  • Latin America – various countries such as Chile, Argentina, and El Salvador in the 1970s and 1980s as a result of military coups and civil wars
  • Soviet Union
    • Stalin’s Forced Famine of the Ukraine (1932-1933) was Stalin’s response to quell an independence movement and resulted in over 7 million deaths, when Stalin issued mandatory quotas that shipped foodstuffs from this region until no food was left
    • Stalin’s Great Purge (1934-1939) – removal of the old leaders of the communist movement and the many high ranking military officers to ensure Stalin’s complete control
WH.21D Identify examples of genocide, including the Holocaust and genocide in Armenia, the Balkans, Rwanda, and Darfur.

Identify

EXAMPLES OF GENOCIDE

Including, but not limited to:

  • The Holocaust (1933-1945) – began with the deterioration of conditions for Jews in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s, including the Nuremberg Laws (1935), the establishment of ghettos and concentration camps, and culminated in the genocide of 6 million or approximately two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe
  • Armenia (1915-1918) – 1,500,000 Armenians die through forced marches and massacres that result when Turkey expels them from their native homeland in that country
  • The Balkans – ethnic cleansing of communities in Bosnia by Serbian troops; Srebrenica massacre (1995) involves the murder of over 8,000
  • Bosnian Muslim (Bosniak) males in this community
  • Rwanda – mass murders by the majority Hutu population of over 800,000 minority Tutsi and pro-Tutsi supporters (1994)
  • Darfur – western region of Sudan where Sudanese government-supported Arab militias known as the Janjaweed against native groups in this region have resulted in over 400,000 deaths and the displacement of 2.8 million civilians
WH.21E Identify examples of individuals who led resistance to political oppression such as Nelson Mandela, Mohandas Gandhi, Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo, and Chinese student protestors in Tiananmen Square.

Identify

INDIVIDUALS WHO LED RESISTANCE TO POLITICAL OPPRESSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Nelson Mandela (1918-) – anti-apartheid activist whose actions after his release from prison led to the establishment of a multi-ethnic South African government that he headed as president
  • Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) – led Indians to independence from Great Britain through nonviolent resistance
  • Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo – association of Argentine mothers who assembled in the main square of Buenos Aires to protest the disappearance of their children during Argentina’s “Dirty War” between 1976-1983; symbolized by white head scarves embroidered with their children’s names
  • Chinese student protestors in Tiananmen Square (April-June 1989) – several thousand students who organized in Beijing to protest Deng Xiaoping’s anti-democratic policies through demonstrations and hunger strikes; symbolized by the Goddess of Democracy and “Tank Man;” Deng responds with a declaration of martial law and a crackdown of 250,000 Chinese soldiers who fire into the crowd of demonstrators and results in the deaths of several hundred protestors
WH.21F Identify examples of American ideals that have advanced human rights and democratic ideas throughout the world.

Identify

EXAMPLES AMERICAN IDEALS THAT HAVE ADVANCED HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Rights of man through a written declaration (e.g., Revolutionary France and the Declaration of the Rights of Man)
  • Rebelling against tyranny (e.g., French Revolution, Revolutions in Latin America, Russian Revolution)
  • Fighting for freedom and democracy in World Wars I and II
  • Solidarity movement in Poland
  • Berlin Airlift
  • Break-up of the Soviet Union
  • End of apartheid in South Africa
  • Human rights advocacy in areas of conflict or those ravaged by war (e.g., Marshall Plan, Darfur)
WH.23 Culture. The student understands the roles of women, children, and families in different historical cultures. The student is expected to:
WH.23B

Describe the major influences of women during major eras of world history such as Elizabeth I, Queen Victoria, Mother Teresa, Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, and Golda Meir.

Describe

INFLUENCES OF WOMEN IN WORLD HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Mother Teresa (1910-1997) – humanitarian who established the Sisters of Charity in Calcutta, India, to assist the poor, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979
  • Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) – Prime Minister of India who increased food production through the Green Revolution
  • Margaret Thatcher (1925- ) – Prime Minister of Great Britain who revitalized that nation’s economy and defeated Argentina in the war over the Falkland Islands.
  • Golda Meir (1898-1978) – Prime Minister of Israel who led her nation through the 1973 Yom Kippur War with Egypt and Syria.
WH.24 Culture. The student understands how the development of ideas has influenced institutions and societies. The student is expected to:
WH.24D Explain how geopolitical and religious influences have impacted law and government in the Muslim world.

Explain

HOW GEOPOLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS INFLUENCES HAVE IMPACTED LAW AND GOVERNMENT IN THE MUSLIM WORLD

Including, but not limited to:

  • Some nations have huge revenues from the exportation of oil, such as Saudi Arabia and Iraq while others such as Egypt do not. Nations in the Muslim world with large oil revenues have money which is used to provide government services or payments. Such policies help to placate the populace so corrupt or absolutist leaders gain popular support, such as Saudi Arabia.
  • While established as a republic in which political leaders are elected, Iran’s government and law is significantly influenced by religion. The supreme leader in Iran is an Islamic religious figure.
  • Religious influence in the Muslim world is evident in countries in which the sharia, or Islamic law based on the teachings and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad, exists
WH.27 Science, technology, and society. The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations have affected societies from 1750 to the present. The student is expected to:
WH.27C

Explain the effects of major new military technologies on World War I, World War II, and the Cold War.

Explain

EFFECTS OF NEW MILITARY TECHNOLOGY ON WORLD WAR I, WORLD WAR II, AND THE COLD WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • Cold War
    • Hydrogen bomb – had 1,000 times the power of an atomic bomb
    • Napalm – incendiary weapon used extensively in Korean and Vietnam conflicts
    • Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) – long-range guided missiles used to deliver nuclear warheads
    • Satellites – improved communications and espionage
    • Rocketry – promoted the exploration of space
WH.27D Explain the role of telecommunication technology, computer technology, transportation technology, and medical advancements in developing the modern global economy and society.

ROLES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICAL ADVANCEMENTS IN DEVELOPING THE MODERN GLOBAL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Telecommunications
    • Development of mass communication and information industries including satellites, computers, the Internet that allow people to transmit information and business transactions quickly and cheaply
    • Television broadcasts of news and popular shows to different areas of the world in short amounts of time spread culture
  • Computer
    • Smaller computers developed as a result of the space program where equipment had to be downsized for space capsules (e.g., silicon chips replace vacuum tubes)
    • Variety of consumer products used computers and silicon chips as part of production – telephone, microwave ovens, automobiles
    • Computers and the Internet allow people to transmit information and business transactions quickly and cheaply
  • Transportation
    • Modern airplanes (e.g., Concorde, make world travel faster and easier)
    • Bullet trains
    • Supertankers accelerate ocean trade
    • Interstate highways in the United States
  • Medical Advancements
    • Penicillin –  first step in the use of antibiotics to fight infections
    • Laser and ultrasound improves surgery
    • Medical imaging – CAT scans and MRIs provide three-dimensional images of regions of the body
    • Genetic engineering and cloning that introduces new genes into an organism
WH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
WH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
WH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
WH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

WH.30 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
WH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

WH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
WH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
WH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
WH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
WH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
WH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
WH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
WH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
WH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
WH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

WH.31 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
WH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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