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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 10: Global Conflicts 1914-Present SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address events related to the global conflicts during the 20th century (1914-present), including the influence of nationalism in the cause of global conflict. This unit is primarily a study of two global conflicts. The outbreak of the First World War marks the beginning of the twentieth century and the decline of the global dominance of the European powers. Following the First World War political upheaval in Russia resulted in the demise of the Russian monarchy, while western European countries experienced an economic depression. These two events gave rise to totalitarian dictators in Europe. Unresolved issued from the First World War and the rise of dictators in Europe coupled to bring about a Second World War. Both world wars where characterized by the introduction of new technologies applied to warfare. Studying the global conflicts of the early 20th century is important for understanding the political divisions of the world today and for understanding the conditions that bring about conflicts in the world along with the efforts being taken to avoid those conflicts.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the transformations in the world as a result of industrialization and imperialism.

During this Unit

During this unit students learn about the causes and consequences of the First World War, the causes and effects of the Russian Revolution, the response to global economic depression, the rise of totalitarian governments, and the causes and characteristics of the Second World War. Students examine how European dominance of the globe diminished with the world wars and the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as super powers. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about the causes and consequences of the Cold War, decolonization, and globalization that characterized the second half of the twentieth century.

Additional Notes

The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about various economic systems; including the free-market system, communism, socialism, and fascism. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.


Competition for power over territory, resources, and people leads to tension and conflict.

  • Why have societies not been successful at avoiding conflict?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Nationalistic tensions along with growing militarism led to the outbreak of the First World War characterized by the use of new technologies resulting in a stalemate.

  • How did a local conflict in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire grow to a conflict between all of Europe?
  • How did political boundaries in Europe and Southwest Asia change after the First World War?
  • In what ways were the ideals of the Fourteen Points honored and ignored?
  • How did the mechanization of warfare impact the course of the First World War?

Political Patterns

  • Nationalism

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Mechanization

Human Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Inequities of power triggered revolution in Russia resulting in the end of the Russian monarchy, the creation of the Soviet Union, and the introduction of communism to Russia

  • Why did the Russian Revolution happen “later” than other major revolutions?
  • Why did the Russians leave the First World War before the end of the war?
  • What new political, economic, and social patterns emerge in Russia following the communist revolution?
  • How did the Soviet Union deal with the various ethnic groups in its territory?

Political Patterns

  • Revolution

Historical Processed

  • Change/Continuity
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

In the midst of the economic depression of the 1930s, fascist governments emerged in Germany and Italy, while Japan’s leaders adopted imperialist policies.

  • Why was the economic depression following the First World War so severe and widespread?
  • What policies were introduced in the United States to address the economic depression?
  • How are fascism and communism alike and different?
  • Why were many totalitarian leaders popular?
  • Why did the Japanese invade China in the 1930s?

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems

Economic Patterns

  • Scarcity/Choices
  • Globalization
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The failure to resolve issues from the First World War combined with the rise of aggressive dictatorships resulted in a second World War, where the Allied powers and Axis powers fought on multiple fronts.  

  • How did the unresolved issues of the First World War lead to the Second World War?
  • What role did political ideologies play in igniting the Second World War?
  • How did technological advances impact the fighting of the Second World War?
  • In what ways could the two world wars be considered on long war?

Political Patterns

  • Nationalism

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Mechanization

Human Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • There is a misconception that the Great Depression affected only the United States.
  • Students may not be aware that the United States only fought for part of the durations of First World War (1917-1918) and Second World War (1941-1945)
  • Students may not be aware of the differences among various totalitarian ideologies, including the Italian Fascist Party, the German National Socialist Party, and the Soviet Communist Party.

Unit Vocabulary

  • alliance – an association created to further  the common interests of the members
  • militarism – a policy of aggressive military preparedness
  • trench warfare – type of combat where fighting takes place on land between earthen ditches
  • totalitarianism – category of political systems characterized by centralized governmental control of all aspects of society through thesuppression of rights and the use of propaganda, examples include fascism and communism
  • fascism – a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual generally characterized by centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader
  • self-determination – the idea that people living in a particular region have the right to form their own government 
  • appeasement – making concessions in order to avoid conflict
  • total war – condition in which all aspects of society are involved in the production for war and the consequences of war
  • economic depression – economic conditions characterized by  high unemployment, and  business failures

Related Vocabulary

  • assassination
  • nationalism
  • propaganda
  • dictatorship
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
WH.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
WH.1F

Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1914 to the present: the world wars and their impact on political, economic, and social systems; communist revolutions and their impact on the Cold War; independence movements; and globalization.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1914 TO THE PRESENT

Including, but not limited to:

World War I
Causes

  • Militarism, alliance systems, imperialism and nationalism were the (MAIN) causes of WW I.
  • Immediate cause of WW I was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife while they were on a tour of the southern Balkan provinces of Austria-Hungary.
  • Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip was responsible for the assassination, so Austria-Hungary suspected Serbian involvement in the assassination. Russian officials came to the defense of Serbia and mobilized troops on western borders of Russia.  Germany who pledged support to Austria-Hungary viewed this as an aggressive action and responded by declaring war on Russia. Other nations joined the war as part of the alliance systems.  

Effects

  • Significant loss of lives as a stalemate developed on the Western Front.
  • New political boundaries were created in Eastern Europe with the dismantling of Austria-Hungary and the defeat of Germany.
  • Intensified nationalism
  • Division of the former Ottoman Empire into mandates controlled by British and French; outbreak of war for Turkish independence
  • Arab resentment when promises to support Arab independence on the part of the Allies was not fulfilled
  • Weakened Europe and the rise of United States as a world power
  • Economic depression in the United States and later in Europe
  • Women suffrage movement intensified

World War II
Causes

  • Rise of dictators – fascist dictators amassed internal power in the 1920s and 1930s in Europe, including Mussolini and Hitler
  • Growing militarism – leaders in Japan, Germany, and Italy battled economic crises by expanding production for the military
  • Failure to respond effectively to aggression – Japan was condemned for invading Manchuria in 1931 by the League of Nations, yet no other actions were taken to stop the aggression; the League of Nations also failed to act in 1935 when Hitler began rearming Germany after withdrawing from the League of Nations in 1933; European powers adopted a policy of appeasement, which Hitler seized upon as an opportunity to rearm, occupy the Rhineland, annex Austria, and seize the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia without any resistance.

Effects

  • Total war effort involving over sixty-one nations; one-third of the world’s production capacity was involved in the war effort; government controls on pricing and industrial production
  • Massive property destruction; displacement of millions left homeless; 55-60 million deaths, over half of which were civilians
  • Migration of women into the workforce
  • Economic recovery and boom in the United States followed by a demographic “baby boom” and renewed civil rights movement
  • Demilitarization, democratization, and economic rebuilding of Japan by the United States
  • Funding for science and technology along with a space race
  • Cold War developed with the emergence of the United States and Soviet Union as global superpowers and end of European dominance
  • Creation of international or supranational organizations such as the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), World Trade Organization (WTO), and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed as a defensive alliance between the United States and European powers
  • Decolonization of the former European colonies including independence for India, the creation of Israel, and African independence movements
WH.10 History. The student understands the causes and impact of World War I. The student is expected to:
WH.10A Identify the importance of imperialism, nationalism, militarism, and the alliance system in causing World War I.

Identify

CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I

Including, but not limited to:

  • Imperialism – European nations compete for colonies in Africa and Asia; France and Germany nearly go to war over Morocco in 1905 and 1911; distrust grows among rivals; the Ottoman Empire struggling to maintain control of its territories
  • Nationalism – competition for industrial dominance develops between Great Britain and Germany; territorial disputes over Alsace-Lorraine after the Franco-Prussian War promote rivalry between France and Germany; Austria-Hungary and Russia compete for dominance of the Balkan Peninsula, where independence movements of various Slavic people develop
  • Militarism – increasing nationalism led to a European arms race; all major powers except Great Britain had large standing armies; generals develop various plans (Schlieffen Plan) that promote quick mobilization of troops in case of war
  • Alliance System – alliances between the great powers of Europe were complicated and shifted constantly during the last half of the 20th century. The intent was to maintain the balance of power in Europe.
    • Triple Entente – Great Britain, France, and Russia
    • Triple Alliance (Central Powers) – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (and Bulgaria).
WH.10B Identify major characteristics of World War I, including total war, trench warfare, modern military technology, and high casualty rates.

Identify

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF WORLD WAR I

Including, but not limited to:

  • Total war – belligerents use all available resources against their enemies
    • Mobilization of large numbers of soldiers that results in their removal from production jobs
    • Food rationing
    • Use of propaganda to divert attention to the war effort
    • Changes in government policy to address wartime economics
    • Civilians act to support war efforts by contributing to production and implementing rationing
  • Trench warfare – Western Front in France; little gains for each side resulting in high casualties for both sides
  • Modern military technology – airplanes, poison gas, machine guns, armored tanks, larger artillery
  • High casualty rates – 8.5 million soldiers killed, 21 million soldiers wounded; countless civilian deaths due to starvation, disease, and slaughter
WH.10C Explain the political and economic impact of the Treaty of Versailles, including changes in boundaries and the mandate system.

Explain

POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Treaty of Versailles
    • Political impact
      • Sole responsibility of starting World War I placed on Germany
      • Loss of German territory in Europe – return of Alsace-Lorraine to France; extension of French border to Rhine River
      • German colonies in Africa and the Pacific declared mandates administered by the League of Nations
      • Creation of the League of Nations including the five allied powers and 32 neutral nations; Germany and Russia excluded
      • Limits on the size of German army
      • Germany forbidden to have an air force or to purchase/build submarines
      • Britain and France divide the Ottoman Empire/Arab lands (Sykes-Picot Agreement) and establish mandates in the former empire
    • Economic impact
      • Germany prohibited from importing or manufacturing war materials and weapons
      • Article 231 (“War Guilt Clause”) – Germany forced to pay over $30 billion in war reparations over 30 years
      • Severe inflation and economic disaster affect Germany after the war, since large amounts of paper money printed to pay off war debts
      • United States rejects Treaty of Versailles and signs a separate peace with Germany
WH.10D Identify the causes of the February (March) and October (November) revolutions of 1917 in Russia, their effects on the outcome of World War I, and the Bolshevik establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Identify

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1917 IN RUSSIA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Causes of the 1917 Revolutions in Russia
    • Widespread discontent among all classes of Russian society
    • Agitation from revolutionaries, mainly Bolsheviks promising “Peace, Land, Bread”
    • Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II
    • Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905
    • Bloody Sunday (1905) results in the deaths of nearly 1,000 unarmed workers and their families who march on the palace in St. Petersburg to protest better working conditions and are fired on by Russian soldiers
    • Heavy Russian losses in World War I
    • Strikes and riots including the protest riot in March 1917 over food and fuel shortages that leads to the abdication of the czar
  • Effects on the outcome of World War I
    • Civil unrest due to war – related food and fuel shortages lead to Nicholas II’s abdication in March 1917
    • War-weariness in Russia – 5.5 million casualties by 1917, although the provisional government pledged continued participation on the Allies’ side
    • Germans arrange for Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin to return to Russia to stir unrest for the provisional government
    • When Lenin seizes power in November 1917, he offers Germany a truce.
    • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) ends Russia’s participation in World War I and results in the losses of the Baltic States, Finland, and Poland that emerge as independent nations after the Treaty of Versailles is signed
    • War threat on the Eastern Front is eliminated for Germany, which moves its forces to the Western Front and mounts one last unsuccessful attempt to overrun France
  • Bolshevik establishment of the U.S.S.R.
    • Lenin topples the provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky in November 1917
    • All Russian farmland distributed to peasants
    • Workers’ groups known as soviets take control of factories
    • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany ends Russian involvement in World War I
    • Civil war with White Army and its Western allies between 1918 and 1920 led the widespread famine that follows, leads to over 15 million Russian deaths before the White Army is defeated
    • To revive the economy, Lenin launches the New Economic Policy (NEP) that allows a limited amount of capitalism for farmers and small businesses while major industries, banks, and communications are under state control
    • To prevent nationalism from spreading among Russia’s many ethnic groups, the country is organized into several smaller republics with a central government in Moscow. Emergence of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.
    • Bolshevik party renamed Communist party
    • Power struggle develops between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky after Lenin’s death in 1924 with Stalin emerging as the new leader
WH.11 History. The student understands the causes and impact of the global economic depression immediately following World War I. The student is expected to:
WH.11A Summarize the international, political, and economic causes of the global depression.

Summarize

INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CAUSES OF THE GLOBAL DEPRESSION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Political
    • Impact of World War I – United States emerged as a major creditor and financier of post-war restoration. Germany was burdened with massive war reparations. Britain and France needed to rebuild. U.S. banks were more than willing to loan money; however, once U.S. banks began failing, the banks not only stopped making loans, they wanted their money back. This put pressure on European economies, which had not fully recovered from WW I, contributing to the global economic downturn.
    • Protectionism – series of tariffs passed by the U.S. Congress between 1913 and 1930 to protect American business against European competition; Smoot-Hawley Tariff of 1930 led to 66% decline in global trade between 1930 and 1934
  • Economic
    • Stock Market Crash of 1929 – $30 billion loss in four days
    • Bank failures resulting from farmers’ inability to pay back loans
    • Overproduction of business and farm goods in the United States
    • Uneven distribution of wealth in the United States
    • Lessened demand for consumer goods
    • Global depression affected developed economies, United States, European nations and Japan.  Reduction in trade limited Japan’s access to raw materials. Soviet Union was not adversely affected by the global depression as the Soviet economy was not industrialized fully nor a part of the global trade system in the 1930’s
WH.11B Explain the responses of governments to the global depression such as in the United States, Germany, Great Britain, and France.

Explain

RESPONSE OF GOVERNMENTS TO THE GLOBAL DEPRESSION

Including, but not limited to:

United States

  • New Deal legislation was enacted to provide government spending intended to create jobs and economic recovery; regulations were instituted on the stock market and banking; government agencies were created to assist businesses and farms; demands were made for repayment of loans made to European nations; public works projects provided employment
Germany
  • Fearing inflation the Weimer government addressed the crisis by increasing taxes and making wage cuts, this exacerbated poor economic conditions and public discontent; in this atmosphere Hitler was able to amass power, by appealing to those seeking relief from the depression conditions; economic recovery resulted from government policies limiting imports, spending for public works projects, such as the autobahn, and investment in industry especially industries needed for military rearmament

Great Britain

  • Cuts were made to government spending and public sector wages and taxes increased to avoid more debt; gold standard was abandoned; cut in interest rates resulted in boom in construction that facilitate some economic recovery; by 1936 began rearming coinciding with the rise of Nazi party in Germany

France

  • Economic reform was accompanied by labor reforms, including instituting a 40-hr work week, paid vacations, and collective bargaining; did not suffer the same mass unemployment as the United States or Great Britain; remained a large holder of gold deposits; armaments industry was nationalized and growth in the armaments industry provided for economic growth
WH.12 History. The student understands the causes and impact of World War II. The student is expected to:
WH.12A Describe the emergence and characteristics of totalitarianism.

Describe

EMERGENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TOTALITARIANISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Emergence
    • Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union (1924)
    • Benito Mussolini – Italy (1922)
    • Adolf Hitler – Germany (1933)
    • Mao Zedong – China (1949)
    • Kim II Sung – North Korea (1948)
  • Characteristics
    • Dictatorship and absolute rule, characterized by a use of censorship and propaganda to maintain power
    • Dynamic leader who unites people towards a common goal and expects unconditional loyalty and uncritical support
    • Ideology glorifies the aims of the state and justifies government actions
    • State control over all aspects of society including business, religion, family life, education, and the arts
    • State control over the individual including denial of all civil liberties, including religious persecution
    • Dependence on mass technology including mass communication to spread propaganda and advanced military weapons
    • Organized violence that uses force such as police terror (Stalin’s Great Purge) and targeting of groups such as national minorities (Jews and Germans) and political opponents
WH.12B Explain the roles of various world leaders, including Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Hideki Tojo, Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill, prior to and during World War II.

Explain

ROLES OF VARIOUS WORLD LEADERS PRIOR TO AND DURING WORLD WAR II

Including, but not limited to:

  • Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) – fascist dictator of Italy during World War II
  • Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) – Nazi dictator of Germany during World War II
  • Hideki Tojo (1884-1948) – Prime Minister of Japan during World War II
  • Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) – communist dictator of the Soviet Union
  • Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945) – President of the United States
  • Winston Churchill (1874-1964) – Prime Minister of Great Britain

Leaders of the Axis Powers: Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo
Leaders of the Allied Powers: Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin (met during Yalta Conference in 1945 to determine outcome of Europe after World War II)

 

WH.12C Explain the major causes and events of World War II, including the German invasions of Poland and the Soviet Union, the Holocaust, the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Normandy landings, and the dropping of the atomic bombs.

Explain

MAJOR CAUSES AND EVENTS OF WORLD WAR II

Including, but not limited to:

Major Causes
  • Rise of dictators – fascist dictators amassed internal power in the 1920s and 1930s in Europe, including Mussolini and Hitler
  • Growing militarism – leaders in Japan, Germany, and Italy battled economic crises by expanding production for the military; as early as 1931 Japan and China were involved in a series of military skirmishes including Japan’s invasion of Manchuria by army officers without official orders. In 1937 full-scale war erupted between China and Japan. Japanese forces committed atrocities including the slaughter of over 300,000 civilians in what became known as the Rape of Nanjing.
  • Unresolved nationalism – the First World War failed to resolve the nationalism in Europe; the Nazis party in Germany capitalized on nationalism to rise to power in responding to the punishing terms of the Treaty of Versailles 
  • Failure to respond effectively to aggression – Japan was condemned for invading Manchuria in 1931 by the League of Nations, yet no other actions were taken to stop the aggression; the League of Nations also failed to act in 1935 when Hitler began rearming Germany after withdrawing from the League of Nations in 1933; European powers adopted a policy of appeasement, which Hitler seized upon as an opportunity to rearm, occupy the Rhineland, annex Austria, and seize the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia without any resistance.
Major events
  • German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, leads to Great Britain and France’s declarations of war on Germany; the invasion is also the   first use of the German blitzkrieg (“lightning war”) that incorporates fast-moving airplanes and tanks.
  • German invasion of the Soviet Union (1941-1943) – also known as Operation Barbarossa; results in the unsuccessful German sieges of Leningrad and Moscow. The harsh Russian winter halts further invasion in Russia. At the crucial turning point of the Battle of Stalingrad, Germans besiege Stalingrad in 1942, but Soviet forces divide and besiege part of the German army leading to part of the German forces surrendering the following year after running out of food and ammunition. The Soviet army then begins to push westward into Europe.
  • The Holocaust – genocide of over 6 million Jews and other groups throughout Europe considered by Germany to be inferior; known as “The Final Solution” and resulted in the extermination of these people in death camps
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) – for some time the Japanese had made plans for a Pacific empire that included China. This would allow Japan to solve its economic problems by gaining access to raw materials needed for industrialization and markets for its goods, as well as providing more room for its growing population. Manchuria and China were invaded in the 1930s. During 1941 the Japanese moved into French controlled Indochina. In response to these invasions the United States froze Japanese assets and embargoed oil and gas sales to Japan, straining the relationship between the U.S. and Japan. When the U.S. Pacific Fleet moved to Pearl Harbor the Japanese saw it as a threat to their expansionist plans and launched a surprise attack on the United States. The United States responded by declaring war on Japan along with making a declaration of war on Germany and Italy.
  • Normandy landings (June 6, 1944 – “D-Day”) by Allied forces on the coast of France lead to a German retreat. As a result, France and the Low Countries are liberated and Allied troops push eastward into Germany. Germany surrenders in 1945.
  • Dropping of atomic bombs (August 6 and 9, 1945) by United States on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki leads to Japan’s surrender.
WH.15 Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
WH.15A Locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history.

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • 20th Century-Present (1914-present)
    • World War I – Triple Alliance/Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria), Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, Russia), Serbia, Balkan Peninsula,
    • Belgium, Western Front, Eastern Front
    • Russian Revolution and The Stalin Era – St. Petersburg, Leningrad, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Moscow
    • The world between world wars – Weimer Republic, Manchuria, Nanking, Ethiopia, Spain, Third Reich, Rhineland, Sudetenland, Munich
    • World War II – Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, U.S.S.R., the United States), Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan), Poland, North Africa,
    • Pearl Harbor, Pacific War Theater, Normandy, Berlin, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Yalta, Nuremberg
WH.17 Economics. The student understands the historical origins of contemporary economic systems and the benefits of free enterprise in world history. The student is expected to:
WH.17D Identify the historical origins and characteristics of fascism.

Identify

ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Origins
    • Italy – (1922) with rise of power of Benito Mussolini (“Il Duce”)
    • Rising inflation and unemployment led to social unrest
    • Fascist leaders include: Mussolini, Hitler, and Franco
  • Characteristics
    • No clearly defined theory or program either economically or politically
    • Strict obedience to national authoritarian leader
    • Existence of only the leader’s political party
    • No individual rights
    • The state was supreme
WH.18 Government. The student understands the characteristics of major political systems throughout history. The student is expected to:
WH.18B

Identify the characteristics of the following political systems: theocracy, absolute monarchy, democracy, republic, oligarchy, limited monarchy, and totalitarianism.

Identify

POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Totalitarianism – government control over every aspect of public and private life (Stalin in the U.S.S.R.)
WH.19 Government. The student understands how contemporary political systems have developed from earlier systems of government. The student is expected to:
WH.19D

Explain the significance of the League of Nations and the United Nations.

Explain

SIGNIFICANCE OF LEAGUE OF NATIONS AND UNITED NATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • League of Nations - international peace-keeping organization proposed by President Wilson in his Fourteen Points was established following the First World War. The international body was the first of its kind intended to foster diplomacy between nations to avoid war. The organization excluded Germany and Russia from membership and the U.S. never joined as the U.S. Senate refused to ratify Treaty of Versailles, because of the League of Nations and preferred an isolationist policy.
    • While the League of Nations had some diplomatic successes, the outbreak of the Second World War effectively brought an end to the organization. In 1943 at the Tehran Conference Allied leaders agreed to replace the League of Nations with the United Nations.
WH.21 Citizenship. The student understands the historical development of significant legal and political concepts related to the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. The student is expected to:
WH.21F Identify examples of American ideals that have advanced human rights and democratic ideas throughout the world.

Identify

EXAMPLES AMERICAN IDEALS THAT HAVE ADVANCED HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Rights of man through a written declaration (e.g., Revolutionary France and the Declaration of the Rights of Man)
  • Rebelling against tyranny (e.g., French Revolution, Revolutions in Latin America, Russian Revolution)
  • Fighting for freedom and democracy in World Wars I and II
  • Solidarity movement in Poland
  • Berlin Airlift
  • Break-up of the Soviet Union
  • End of apartheid in South Africa
  • Human rights advocacy in areas of conflict or those ravaged by war (e.g., Marshall Plan, Darfur)
WH.27 Science, technology, and society. The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations have affected societies from 1750 to the present. The student is expected to:
WH.27C

Explain the effects of major new military technologies on World War I, World War II, and the Cold War.

Explain

EFFECTS OF NEW MILITARY TECHNOLOGY ON WORLD WAR I, WORLD WAR II, AND THE COLD WAR

Including, but not limited to:

  • World War I
    • Poison gas – caused blinding, blistering, and death by choking
    • Machine guns – improved during WWI; large numbers of casualties at one time made it difficult for forces to advance and created stalemates
    • Tanks – armored vehicles that moved across wide areas, but did not promote the fast-moving war that was planned
    • Airplanes – photo reconnaissance, dropping of bombs, warfare in the air
    • Submarines (U-boats) – unrestricted warfare on naval ships
    • Flame throwers – used to flush soldiers out of trenches
  • World War II
    • Jet fighters and bombers – improved and increased bombing raids
    • Aircraft carriers – warships of deploying and recovering aircraft; acted as floating airbases
    • Amphibious vehicles – tanks, trucks, and landing crafts used when landing on beaches
    • Tanks – improved since World War I with strong firepower and armor
    • Ballistic missiles (V-1 flying bombs) – guided warheads
    • Helicopters
    • Radar – use of electromagnetic waves to detect objects like airplanes and ships that improves communication and espionage
    • Sonar – use of sound propagation to detect underwater submarines
    • Atomic bomb – Manhattan Project developed nuclear fission warheads dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that accelerated the end of World War II
    • Non-military technology – synthetic rubber and penicillin
WH.27E

Identify the contributions of significant scientists and inventors such as Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Louis Pasteur, and James Watt.

Identify

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS AND INVENTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955) – one of the most well-known and visionary physicists in the history of science, published article on the theory of relativity, and his theories were critical to the development of the atomic bomb
WH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
WH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
WH.30 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
WH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

WH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
WH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
WH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
WH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
WH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
WH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
WH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
WH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
WH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
WH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

WH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

WH.31 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
WH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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