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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 09: Industrialization and Imperialism 1750-1914 SUGGESTED DURATION : 8 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that relate to the Industrial Revolution and imperialism during the Age of Revolutions (1750-1914). This unit is primarily a study of industrialization, nationalism, and imperialism. New technologies introduced in the eighteenth century facilitated industrialization in Europe and with it major economic and social changes, including the end of legal slavery and serfdom. The nineteenth century was marked by the growth of nationalism in Europe, which culminates in the First World War. While the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were characterized by the growing power of the European nation-states it is during this time period that the European powers dominate the globe. It is during this time period that the European powers come to control most of Africa and Asia, after having lost colonial control in the Americas. Studying about the industrial revolution is necessary for understanding the current economic patterns of the world and examining imperialism is important for understanding the nature of globalization, conflict, and cultural patterns in the world today.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the political and social changes that resulted from the American Revolution, French Revolution and Latin American revolutions.

During this Unit

During this unit students learn about the causes and consequences of industrialization including the shift in Europe from an agricultural based economy to an industrial economy and the resulting political, economic, and social changes.  Students examine the new economic theories that emerged in response to industrial working conditions. Students also study about the increasing nationalistic competition and rising imperial power of western European nations along with the effects of imperialism in Asia and Africa. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about the rise of dictators and the outbreak of global conflicts that characterized the early 20th century and the influence of nationalism on these events

Additional Notes

The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about various economic and political systems; including the free-market system, communism, socialism, and fascism. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.


Adopting new ideas and innovations has unintended consequences.

  • Do new ideas and innovations improve the lives of people?

Economies develop to manage limited resources.

  • How have different economic systems addressed people’s wants and needs?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

New technological advances along with political stability facilitated a shift from agricultural based economies to industrial economies.

  • What resources are needed to bring about industrialization?
  • What conditions made industrialization happen in Europe first?
  • How did the invention of new technologies facilitate industrialization?

Economic Patterns

  • Factors of Production
  • Resources

Scientific /Technological Patterns

  • Mechanization
  • Transportation
  • Communication
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Industrialization resulted in the emergence of new urban settlement patterns, new social patterns, and new economic theories.

  • How did industrialization change the roles of women and children?
  • What new social and settlement patterns emerged with industrialization?
  • How did the response to industrial working conditions lead to the development of new economic systems?
  • How did industrialization facilitate the expansion of political rights?
  • How was the spirit of entrepreneurship a force for change?

Economic Patterns

  • Economic Systems
  • Factors of Production

Spatial Patterns

  • Population Distribution
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Industrialization and nationalism fueled competition among European powers leading to imperialism in Africa and Asia.

  • Why did the European powers compete to control territory in Asia and Africa during the eighteenth century?
  • How were the European powers able to politically, economically and socially dominate in Asia and Africa?
  • How were political systems, economies, and cultures in Asia, Africa, and Europe impacted by imperialism?

Political Patterns

  • Imperialism
  • Human Rights
  • Nationalism

Economic Patterns

  • Resources
  • Competition

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Revolution is often associated only with political change.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Industrialization – the process that involves building and operating factories and businesses in a city, region, country, etc.
  • enclosure movement – the process of fencing land off from common usage
  • factory system ­– a shift to production of goods in a central location as opposed to production in homes
  • free enterprise – economic system in which private business operates for profit in a competitive system free from  government regulation except for that which is necessary to protect public interest and keep the national economy in balance
  • socialism – economic system in which some industries are operated by the state to provide for the public good as opposed to making profits
  • communism – economic system in which production of goods and services is controlled entirely by the state
  • imperialism – political, economic, and cultural domination imposed on a society by another society

Related Vocabulary

  • market economy
  • command economy
  • capital
  • labor
  • factors of production
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.1E

Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1750 to 1914: the Scientific Revolution, the Industrial Revolution and its impact on the development of modern economic systems, European imperialism, and the Enlightenment's impact on political revolutions.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1750 TO 1914

Including, but not limited to:

Industrial Revolution and its impact on the development of modern economic systems
Causes

  • New machines introduced into the agricultural sector increased output and lessened the demand for agricultural workers.
  • Passage of enclosure laws in England forced small farmers out of business, who moved to the cities creating a pool of labor.
  • The Industrial Revolution began in England in the 1780's, starting with the application of steam power to coal mining and textile industries. The availability of deposits of iron ore and coal, political stability, favorable infrastructure including roads and canals, along with entrepreneurial investment, promoted industrialization in Great Britain.
  • Depletion of forests for shipbuilding resulted in increased demand for coal and eventually mechanization of the industry.
  • Technological innovations and inventions that mechanized work, such as the spinning jenny, and mechanical loom.

Effects

  • Increasing urbanization and access to inventions.
  • Economic shift from predominately agricultural based economies to industrialization and commerce.
  • Creations of a working class and expansion of the middle class.
  • Growth of capitalism and introduction of new economic theories of socialism and communism.
  • Social shift towards consumerism
  • Development of labor movements and eventually passage of legislation addressing the demands of labor.
  • Universal male suffrage in industrialized nations and demands for women’s suffrage.
  • Eventual end to serfdom along with legislation outlawing slavery.

European Imperialism
Causes

  • Demand for raw materials and new markets brought about by industrialization
  • Nations gained wealth from industrialization; used to finance overseas empires
  • New technologies developed, especially new weapons used in warfare
  • European nationalism fueled a competition for land and control of strategic sites
  • Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 divided Africa between fourteen European nations
  • Christian missionaries felt a duty to “civilize” non-westerners
  • A European sense of supremacy used theories such as social Darwinism for justification of paternalistic attitudes

Effects

  • European empires extended into Africa and Asia, as Europeans dominate the political, economic and cultural lives of those they subjugated
  • Political boundaries created by the imperial powers divided tribal lands and/or placed tribal rivalries within the same political boundaries
  • Cultural diffusion including the spread of English and French along with loss of indigenous cultural practices as Europeans migrated to colonies
  • Infrastructure was built in colonized regions, including railroads and telegraph lines
  • Nationalism intensified between European nations, as the Europeans politically and economically dominated the world
  • Conflicts broke out in colonial areas such as the Sepoy Mutiny, Boer War, Opium Wars, and Boxer Rebellion
  • Colonies were stripped of natural resources
  • European military presence reduced local warfare
  • Humanitarian efforts improved sanitation and promoted education resulting in increased life expectancy and literacy in colonies
  • Long-term problems for former colonial areas after gaining independence including establishing traditions of democratic governance
NewWH.8 History. The student understands the causes and the global impact of the Industrial Revolution and European imperialism from 1750 to 1914. The student is expected to:
NewWH.8A Explain how the Industrial Revolution led to political, economic, and social changes.

Explain

HOW THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION LED TO POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL CHANGES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Political
    • New laws to reform industrialization
    • Extension of suffrage to larger number of people
    • Growth of nationalism in industrialized nations led to desires for expansion both through war and imperialism
    • Establishment of colonies in Africa and Asia to obtain sources of raw materials and markets for the sale of manufactured goods
  • Economic
    • Creation of the factory system that led to mass production of goods
    • Reduction of tariffs to promote trade (Corn Laws, etc.)
    • Spread of free enterprise, as well as responses to free enterprise through socialist and communist philosophies
  • Social
    • Increase in population and life expectancy due to improvements in food production and health care
    • Long work hours, low wages, and dangerous working conditions for industrial workers
    • Class tensions between the upper/middle classes and the working classes
    • Migration from rural to urban areas
    • Increase in child labor which later led to child labor reform laws
    • Poor housing conditions for workers that result in poor sanitary conditions and health epidemics
    • Urbanization of industrial areas in Europe and the United States
    • Destruction of factories and machinery by the Luddites in response to the demise of cottage industries
    • Emergence of labor unions that result in better working and housing conditions for workers
NewWH.8B Identify the major political, economic, and social motivations that influenced European imperialism.

Identify

MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL MOTIVATIONS THAT INFLUENCED EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Political – nationalism leads to a desire for overseas colonies. The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 divides Africa between 14 European nations.
  • Economic – Industrial Revolution led for a search for new markets and raw materials; rubber, palm oil, and cocoa become cash crops in European colonies; mining in diamonds, copper, gold, and tin provide Europeans with great wealth
  • Social – Social Darwinism promotes the ideas that the fittest for survival enjoy wealth and success and superior to others; Christian missionaries wanted to “civilize” non-westerners.
  • Berlin Conference facilitate European imperialism in Africa, as European nations used the Conference as an opportunity to establish colonial spheres of influence in Africa
NewWH.8C Explain the major characteristics and impact of European imperialism.

Explain

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPACT OF EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Characteristics
    • Forms of colonial control
      • Colony – governed internally by a foreign power
      • Protectorate – country with its own internal government, but controlled by an outside power
      • Sphere of influence – area claimed by an outside power for exclusive investment and trading
      • Economic Imperialism – independent countries controlled by private interests (e.g., the Dole Fruit Company in Hawaii)
    • Patterns of management
      • Indirect control – local government officials with limited self-rule; laws based both on European styles and local rules
      • Direct control – exclusive use of foreign officials with no self-rule; laws based only on European law; policies of assimilation to absorb local cultures into European culture
      • Resistance movements from native cultures, (e.g. Zulu Wars in South Africa, Algerian resistance movement, Sepoy Rebellion in India, Ho Chi Minh in French Indochina, Emilio Aguinaldo in the Philipp
  • Impact
    • Native people lose control of their lands and independence
    • New diseases like smallpox reduce native populations
    • Resistance movements, famines resulting from shifts to cash crop production, and harsh working conditions also reduce native populations
    • Problems of identity as Westerners contemptuously view native cultures
    • Cultural changes, such as introduction of Christianity, use of English
    • Areas stripped of natural resources (the Congo under Belgian rule)
    • Artificial boundaries either combine rival groups or divide kinship groups that continue to create political problems in former colonies
    • European military presence reduces local warfare
    • Humanitarian efforts improve sanitation and education that leads to growth in life expectancy and literacy
    • Colonial lands equipped with infrastructure to aid in economic growth
    • In some colonies, such as India, infrastructure was built; railroads, roads, telegraph
NewWH.8D Explain the effects of free enterprise in the Industrial Revolution.

Explain

EFFECTS OF FREE ENTERPRISE IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Challenges to mercantilist theory by David Hume and Adam Smith that wealth does not remain constant and does not have to involve acquisition at another country’s expense
  • Merchant class replaced by industrialists as the dominant economic group in Britain and other industrial nations
  • Decline in traditional artisan skills by artisans, journeymen, and guilds
  • Increase in commercial agriculture leads to mechanization of agricultural production
  • Development of factory system with a complex division of labor and routine work tasks
  • Abandonment of protectionist policies that were part of mercantilism
NewWH.15 Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
NewWH.15A Locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history.

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Age of Revolutions (1750-1914)
    • Imperial empires, Africa, Belgian Congo, Nigeria, South Africa, French West Africa, Dutch East Indies, French Indochina, India
    • Straits of Malacca, Goa, Suez Canal, Panama Canal
    •  Manchester, Liverpool
    • Absolute monarchies in Europe – Prussia, Nantes, Paris, Versailles, St. Petersburg
    • American Revolution – Lexington and Concord, Boston, Philadelphia
    • French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars – France, Paris, Trafalgar, Elba, Waterloo, St. Helena
    • Latin America in the 19th Century – Haiti, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Brazil
NewWH.15B

Analyze the influence of human and physical geographic factors on major events in world history such as the development of river valley civilizations, trade in the Indian Ocean, and the opening of the Panama and Suez canals.

Analyze

INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Opening of the Panama Canal (1914)
    • Facilitates trade by connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
    • United States maintained a political and economic presence in Latin America by solely controlling the canal until 1977
  • Opening of the Suez Canal (1869)
    • Connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea to expand international trade between European countries and their colonies in Asia and Africa
    • Modernizes Egypt, but expenses used to maintain communication networks and irrigation projects enable Britain to oversee the canal’s financial affairs and then occupy Egypt
NewWH.16 Economics. The student understands the impact of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions and globalization on humanity. The student is expected to:
NewWH.16B Summarize the role of economics in driving political changes as related to the Industrial Revolution.

Summarize

ROLE OF ECONOMICS IN POLITICAL CHANGES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Growth of a middle class and working class eventually resulted in universal male suffrage.
  • Emergence of new economic theories resulted in socialist party political candidates in United States and Europe.
  • Reform movements emerged working to pass legislation to reform and protect workers’ rights.
NewWH.17 Economics. The student understands the historical origins of contemporary economic systems and the benefits of free enterprise in world history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.17A Identify the historical origins and characteristics of the free enterprise system, including the influence of Adam Smith.

Identify

ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Free enterprise system – an economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned. Competition is based on free enterprise. Supply, demand, and prices, not politics, determine the answers to the economic questions of how, what, and for whom to produce. Characteristics include: economic freedom, voluntary exchange, competition, private property, and the profit motive.
  • Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776 – free market economies are more productive and beneficial to their societies; preference to local/domestic industry instead of international trade; self-interest guided by an “invisible hand” (laissez-faire) to effectively use resources in a nation’s economy without interference from government policies; public welfare is a byproduct and is ineffectual when promoted by state and personal efforts, only unbridled market efforts help social good
  • Since free enterprise is based on natural laws governing economics, the practice of free enterprise can be traced to the earliest bartering and trade of early civilization. Many societies have encouraged free enterprise by establishing standardized weights, measures, and coinage; providing protection along trade routes; and encouraging new markets through the granting of charters to private companies.
NewWH.17B Identify the historical origins and characteristics of communism, including the influence of Karl Marx.

Identify

ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Communism originated with the ideas presented by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels in the Communist Manifest published in 1848. Marx and Engels argued that capitalism exploited workers or the proletariat and to end this exploitation the means of production should be owned by the entire community, essentially abolishing all private ownership. Marx and Engels believed that community ownership of the means of production would result in a classless society and that societies may need to pass through a phase of socialism to develop a communist economy. Communism as an economic and political philosophy and was first applied to government by Vladimir Lenin in Russia in 1917. 
NewWH.17C Identify the historical origins and characteristics of socialism.

Identify

ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIALISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Socialism as an economic and political philosophy developed as a response to the poverty and atrocious working conditions associated with industrialization in the early 1800s. One of the first to be associated with the idea of socialism was Robert Owen. Socialism was first applied to various utopian communities in Britain and the United States. Socialists argued that wealth was created by the working class but concentrated to the owners and that these inequities could be corrected if workers’ had rights. Socialism grew with the interest in the writings of Karl Marx and the rise of labor unions.   
NewWH.20 Citizenship. The student understands the significance of political choices and decisions made by individuals, groups, and nations throughout history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.20C Identify examples of key persons who were successful in shifting political thought, including William Wilberforce.

Identify

KEY PERSONS WHO SUCCESSFULLY SHIFTED POLITICAL THOUGHT

Including, but not limited to:

  • William Wilberforce (1759-1833) – British politician who successfully led the movement to abolish slavery in Great Britain In 1807, the Slave Trade Act of 1807 led to the end of the African slavery trade. Shortly before his death in 1833, Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 that ended slavery in most of the British Empire.
NewWH.23 Culture. The student understands the roles of women, children, and families in different historical cultures. The student is expected to:
NewWH.23A Describe the changing roles of women, children, and families during major eras of world history.

Describe

ROLES OF WOMEN, CHILDREN, FAMILIES IN WORLD HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

Age of Revolutions (1750-1914)

  • Little changed in the roles of women, children and families until the advent of industrialization, when women and children took on jobs in factories and as domestic servants in homes of middle class families.
  • Urbanization, followed by public education developing in industrialized regions, resulted in a shift in the role of children. Children became financial liabilities rather than a labor source.
NewWH.23B

Describe the major influences of women during major eras of world history such as Elizabeth I, Queen Victoria, Mother Teresa, Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, and Golda Meir.

Describe

INFLUENCES OF WOMEN IN WORLD HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Queen Victoria (1819-1901) – Queen of Great Britain whose reign saw the British Empire reach its height of wealth and power
NewWH.27 Science, technology, and society. The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations have affected societies from 1750 to the present. The student is expected to:
NewWH.27A Explain the role of textile manufacturing, steam technology, development of the factory system, and transportation technology in the Industrial Revolution.

Explain

ROLE OF TEXTILE MANUFACTURING, STEAM TECHNOLOGY, DEVELOPMENT OF FACTORY SYSTEM AND TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Textile Industry
    • New inventions in the textile industry – flying shuttle, spinning jenny, spinning mule, water frame – modernize the cotton and textile industry; quicker and cheaper production; demise of cottage industries
    • Cotton gin (Eli Whitney) – mechanized way to remove seeds from cotton; more labor could be dedicated to field work than to seeding cotton; greater agricultural output results and leads to growth of slavery in the United States
  • Steam Technology
    • Steam engine as a source of power – James Watt
    • Steamboat makes water transportation easier – Robert Fulton (American)
  • Factory system
    • Factory system used for the housing of large machinery
  • Transportation technology
    • Improvement of roads in England – turnpikes and tollgates for profit; macadam roads of crushed rock that make transportation easier
    • Railroads – inexpensive way to transport materials and finished products; creation of new jobs; boost to agriculture and fishing industries that could be transported to different areas; brought rural people to cities to find work
NewWH.27B Explain the roles of military technology, transportation technology, communication technology, and medical advancements in initiating and advancing 19th century imperialism.

Explain

FACTORS THAT INITIATED AND ADVANCED IMPERIALISM (19th CENTURY)

Including, but not limited to:
Advances brought about by the Industrial Revolution allowed western nations to build empires

  • Military technology – made conquest of native people easier and faster
    • Ocean fleets
    • Modern rifles and rapid-fire artillery (Maxim guns)
  • Transportation technology – used to bring products to market and to transport people to areas that had been conquered both by land and sea
    • Steamboats and steamships – facilitated upriver travel and allowed settlement beyond coastal areas
    • Railroads
  • Communication technology – allowed wide communication within and beyond conquered areas
    • Telegraphs and cables
    • Wireless radio
  • Medical advancements – controlled and eliminated diseases that prevented conquest of specific areas
    • Quinine – controlled yellow fever and malaria in tropical environment
NewWH.27E

Identify the contributions of significant scientists and inventors such as Marie Curie, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Louis Pasteur, and James Watt.

Identify

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS AND INVENTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Marie Curie (1867-1934) – proved that radioactivity, when properly applied, was an effective treatment of some diseases.
  • Thomas Edison (1847-1931) – one of the greatest inventors of all time, received more than 1,300 patents for a range of items including the automatic telegraph machine, the phonograph, and improvements to the light bulb, a modernized telephone, and motion picture equipment
  • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) – French chemist discovered that heat could kill bacteria; he proved that the growth of bacteria resulted from germs in the air and not spontaneous generation. He applied the process of heating liquids to kill bacteria to other products including milk. The process is known as “pasteurization.”
  • James Watt (1736-1819) – a Scottish engineer, James Watt created a steam engine which worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines.
NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewWH.30 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewWH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
NewWH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
NewWH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewWH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
NewWH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
NewWH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewWH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

NewWH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

NewWH.31 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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