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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 08: Political Revolutions 1750-1914 SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address changes in political and social systems during the Age of Revolutions (1750 to 1914), relevant to the movement from absolute monarchs towards democratic-republic systems of government. This unit is primarily a study of political and social change. By the middle of the eighteenth century most European nation-states were ruled by absolute monarchs, with the exception of Great Britain. It was during this time period that political unrest instigated by taxation in the English colonies of North America manifested an independence movement and ultimately the creation of the United States of America. Social, political, and economic conditions in France ignited a revolution that brought an end to the monarchy for a time in France and culminated with the creation of a French empire led by Napoleon. Napoleon’s rise to power spurred independence movements in the Latin American colonies. The political revolutions of this time period were heavily influenced by the Enlightenment ideas and new political patterns were established based on those ideas. An examination of revolutions is important for recognizing the conditions that continue to bring about political and social revolutions today.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about how the ideas diffused during the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment changed the world. Students should have familiarity with the Magna Carta from 8th grade American history.

During this Unit

During this unit students learn about the development of representative government rooted in the Magna Carta and the ideas of philosophers such as John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and others. While the Magna Carta was signed in 1215, a review of its significance is conceptually important in teaching the political developments of the eighteenth century.  In this unit students study about how Enlightenment ideas laid the intellectual foundation for political revolutions such as the Glorious Revolution, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution along with examining the impact of absolutism. Students also study about the political changes in Latin American and the whole of Europe brought about by the French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students study about the Industrial Revolution, the development of new economic theories that resulted from industrialization and the changes brought about by imperialism during the Age of Revolutions.

Additional Notes
The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about various economic and political systems; including the free-market system, communism, socialism, and fascism. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.


People act for change when they can no longer tolerate the conditions in which they live.

  • How do people act effectively to address intolerable conditions in society?

Change creates anxiety for those who want to preserve the status quo. 

  • How do people react to changes that are perceived to threaten their current way of life?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

While absolute monarchies were common in much of Europe, the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers became the foundation of democratic-republican government.

  • When is a monarch’s power absolute?
  • What conditions led the evolution of limited monarchy in England?
  • What was significant about the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights in the political history of England?
  • How did the idea of a social contract become a catalysis for political change?
  • How were the significant ideas were introduced by John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire later applied by leaders of revolutions?

Political Patterns

  • Revolution

Historical Processes

  • Power
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The American Revolution was initiated by colonial leaders wanting independence from Britain, while the French Revolution was intended to bring political, economic and social change to French society.

  • How were the causes of the American and French Revolutions similar and different?
  • How did the creation of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution affect leaders of the French Revolution?
  • In what way did political, social and economic inequities bring about the American and French Revolutions?
  • What social and political changes resulted from the American and French Revolutions?

Political Patterns

  • Revolution
  • Independence Movements
  • Nationalism

Civic Engagement

  • Civic Virtue
  • Democratic Principles
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Following the French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon, European leaders worked to address the political and social changes that had occurred across Europe.

  • How did the French Revolution contribute to the spread of nationalism in Europe?
  • How were European nations affected politically and socially by the rule of Napoleon?
  • How did the Congress of Vienna work to reestablish a balance of power in Europe?

Political Patterns

  • Revolution
  • Independence Movements
  • Nationalism

Civic Engagement

  • Democratic Principles
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The Napoleonic Wars along with inequalities in colonial society resulted in a wave of independence movements in Latin America.

  • How did political changes in Europe provoke independence movements in Latin America?
  • What inequalities in Latin American society led some to support independence?
  • How did Simón Bolivar shape the revolution in Latin America?

Civil Engagement

  • Civic Virtue

Historical Processes

  • Change/Continuity
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Many believe that the American Revolution inspired the French to have a revolution. There are multiple causes of the French Revolution, including debt for helping to fund the American Revolutionary War, lack of social mobility in French society, and significant economic disparities. What did inspire the French was the American revolutionaries’ application of Enlightenment ideas to create a new political system. The French revolutionaries hoped to be as successful as the Americans in creating a new political system.

Unit Vocabulary

  • absolute monarchy – a political system in which the ruler  is chosen by hereditary title and uses power to control all aspects of political life
  • limited monarchy – political system in which the power of the monarch is limited by a constitution
  • divine right – belief that a monarchy’s power was given to them by the authority of God
  • political revolution –  the overthrow of one government and its replacement with another
  • sovereignty freedom from external control
  • constitutionalism – political idea that government should be limited by a constitution or set of policies and laws
  • bourgeoisie – middle class in revolutionary France
  • estate – division of social class in revolutionary France
  • nationalism – extreme patriotism and devotion to the supremacy of one’s nation

Related Vocabulary

  • balance of power
  • Estates General
  • Parliament
  • social contract
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.1E

Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1750 to 1914: the Scientific Revolution, the Industrial Revolution and its impact on the development of modern economic systems, European imperialism, and the Enlightenment's impact on political revolutions.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1750 TO 1914

Including, but not limited to:

Enlightenment’s impact on political revolutions
Causes

  • Absolutism and divine right of the monarchs came into question with the proposition of a social contract
  • Scientific Revolution promoted application of reason and natural law to all aspects of society, including government

Effects

  • Expansion of political rights and limited government following revolutions in Europe
  • Colonial independence movements developed in the Americas
  • Nationalism spread in Europe
NewWH.9 History. The student understands the causes and effects of major political revolutions between 1750 and 1914. The student is expected to:
NewWH.9A Compare the causes, characteristics, and consequences of the American and French revolutions, emphasizing the role of the Enlightenment.

Compare

CAUSES, CHARACTERISTICS, AND CONSEQUENCES OF AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • American Revolution (1775-1783)
    • Causes
      • Ideas from the Glorious Revolution – limited monarchy, written bill of rights (English Bill of Rights)
      • Ideas from the Enlightenment – all people have rights and governments are responsible for protecting these rights; people have the right to remove governments that fail to do so
      • Enlightenment focuses on a more secular outlook on religion and calls for greater religious tolerance
      • Belief that “rights as Englishmen” were being violated – “No taxation without representation”
      • Desire to participate in parliament
      • British polices related to the American colonies, especially concerning the imposition of taxes
      • The Americans declared independence in the Declaration of Independence expressing ideas about liberty, equality, and democracy.
    • Characteristics – revolution started by the merchant class as a protest against British taxation without representation; many colonists remained loyal to Great Britain; success due to alliances with France and Spain; British overconfidence and difficulty in fighting a long-distance war
    • Consequences
      • United States became independent from a colonial power and established first constitutional republic
      • U.S. Constitution (1789) included the ideas of constitutionalism, separation of powers, and popular sovereignty
      • The Bill of Rights was added as the first 10 amendments
  • The success of the American Revolution was admired by the French who saw the Americans as successfully applying the Enlightenment principles to create a new political order.
  • French Revolution (1789-1795)
    • Causes
      • Influences from the Enlightenment
      • Inequality in the class system (1st, 2nd, 3rd estates)
      • Abuses of the Ancien Régime of nobility and the kings
      • Debt from helping fund the American Revolution and an unfair and inequitable tax system
      • Crop failures cause the price of bread to rise beyond the ability of the peasants to pay (starvation)
    • Characteristics – originates with the middle class wanting more political rights as opposed to the merchants starting the American Revolution; characterized by extreme violence – Reign of Terror, guillotine, executions of nobility including Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
    • Consequences
      • A restructuring of the political, economic and social systems in France
      • The “Declaration of the Rights of Man” was published
      • A Parliament was established and peasants were freed from lingering feudal obligations
      • King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were beheaded along with others during the Reign of Terror
      • Chaos in government resulted allowing Napoleon and the army coming to power and creating the French Empire
NewWH.9B Explain the impact of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Napoleonic Wars on Europe and Latin America.

Explain

IMPACT OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE AND NAPOLEONIC WARS ON EUROPE AND LATIN AMERICA

Including, but not limited to:

  • France
    • Order restored after French Revolution
    • Economy improved through an efficient tax collection system and a national bank
    • Napoleonic Code established a uniform set of laws in France, but limited freedom of speech and of the press in addition to restricting women’s rights
  • Other parts of Europe
    • Annexation of the Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy
    • Puppet government in Switzerland
    • War against the Third Coalition – Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden, later Prussia
    • Britain retains naval supremacy after French defeat at Trafalgar
    • Napoleon implements the Continental System – an economic blockade against Britain that proved unsuccessful
    •  Napoleon invades Spain and names his brother Joseph as king
    • Attempted to invade Russia, but was turned back by the harsh winter weather
    • Napoleon is defeated at Leipzig by the Third Coalition and sent into exile on Elba
    • Returns to power, but is defeated at Waterloo; exiled to St. Helena
  • Congress of Vienna – restored order and established collective security in Europe after Napoleon’s defeat
    • Weaker countries around France strengthened in order to contain France
    • Kingdom of the Netherlands created from Austrian Netherlands and Dutch Republic
    • German Confederation formed of 39 German states headed by Austria; first steps toward consolidation of Germany
    • Switzerland recognized as an independent nation
    • Kingdom of Sardinia annexes Genoa
    • Balance of power restored by reducing France to its original holdings
    • Beginnings of nationalistic movements in Germany, Italy, and Greece
  • Latin America
    • Establishment of Haiti as an independent republic after French troops sent by Napoleon are decimated by yellow fever
    • Independence movement in Spanish colonies begins when Napoleon conquers Spain in 1808 and replaces King Ferdinand VII with Joseph Bonaparte. Spanish creoles in the colonies have no loyalty and argue that power should shift to the people. Independence movements continue after Ferdinand is restored to the Spanish throne in 1814.
    • The Portuguese monarchy, exiled in Brazil because of Napoleon’s invasion, returned to Portugal in 1821; independence for Brazil in 1823
NewWH.9C Trace the influence of the American and French revolutions on Latin America, including the role of Simón Bolivar.

Trace

INFLUENCE OF THE AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS ON LATIN AMERICA

Including, but not limited to:

  • American Revolution demonstrated that colonies could successfully win independence from a European power.
  • Both the American and French Revolutions had written declarations that specifically address the rights of man.
  • American government allowed a free market to flourish.
  • French Revolution was the uprising of the common man.
  • Ideas from the Enlightenment travel to France and the United States influencing Simón Bolivar to start a revolution against Spanish rulers in Colombia and Venezuela.
  • American and French Revolutions also inspire revolutions led by José de San Martín in Argentina, Chile, and Peru, as well as the Mexican Revolution led by Miguel Hidalgo.
NewWH.9D Identify the influence of ideas such as separation of powers, checks and balances, liberty, equality, democracy, popular sovereignty, human rights, constitutionalism, and nationalism on political revolutions.

Identify

INFLUENCE OF ABSTRACT CONCEPTS ON POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Separation of powers – the belief that power should not rest in the hands of one or few, but should be delegated
  • Checks and balances – measures designed to prevent one branch of government from becoming more powerful than the others
  • Liberty – freedom, the ability to make choices; not to be oppressed by the government or by any social or economic classes
  • Equality – the belief that all men (individuals) are equal in regards to their political rights
  • Democracy – an ideal of governing where the people make political decisions. This ideal has taken many forms, such as the direct democracy of Greece and the Roman Republic where elected representatives speak and vote on behalf of the people.
  • Popular sovereignty – the concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, or abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation.
  • Human rights – include inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, as well as freedom of speech, religion, and the press. While each government or culture determines the rights for their society, human rights tend to cross cultural barriers.
  • Constitutionalism – the idea that the basic principles and laws of a government should be organized and administered through compliance with a written or unwritten constitution
  • Nationalism – devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation; the belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals; aspirations for national independence in a country under foreign domination
NewWH.15 Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
NewWH.15A Locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history.

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Age of Revolutions (1750-1914)
    • Imperial empires, Africa, Belgian Congo, Nigeria, South Africa, French West Africa, Dutch East Indies, French Indochina, India
    • Straits of Malacca, Goa, Suez Canal, Panama Canal
    •  Manchester, Liverpool
    • Absolute monarchies in Europe – Prussia, Nantes, Paris, Versailles, St. Petersburg
    • American Revolution – Lexington and Concord, Boston, Philadelphia
    • French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars – France, Paris, Trafalgar, Elba, Waterloo, St. Helena
    • Latin America in the 19th Century – Haiti, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Brazil
NewWH.18 Government. The student understands the characteristics of major political systems throughout history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.18B

Identify the characteristics of the following political systems: theocracy, absolute monarchy, democracy, republic, oligarchy, limited monarchy, and totalitarianism.

Identify

POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Absolute monarchy – King or Queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society (Louis XIV of France)
  • Republic – power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by the people (Roman Republic, United States)
  • Limited monarchy – laws limit the power of a ruler (constitutional monarchy- England after the Glorious Revolution)
NewWH.19 Government. The student understands how contemporary political systems have developed from earlier systems of government. The student is expected to:
NewWH.19A Explain the development of democratic-republican government from its beginnings in Judeo-Christian legal tradition and classical Greece and Rome through the French Revolution.

Explain

THE DEVELOPMENT OF  DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • English Civil War and Glorious Revolution
    • England transformed from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. In 1689 the English monarch agreed to the English Bill of Rights
  • Enlightenment
    • Enlightened philosophes developed ideas of a social contract, separation of powers, checks and balances, and individual rights.
    • The idea of the social contract stressed the mutual relationship between the governed and rulers.
    • Efforts to apply reason to the development of governments resulted in the development of theories related to limiting governmental powers and protecting the rights of individuals.
  • French Revolution
    • The American Founding Fathers and the French revolutionaries applied these Enlightenment philosophies in the creation of new governments no longer led by monarchs.
NewWH.19B

Identify the impact of political and legal ideas contained in the following documents: Hammurabi's Code, the Jewish Ten Commandments, Justinian's Code of Laws, Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

Identify

IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS FROM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Magna Carta
    • King John of England was forced by his nobles to sign in 1215
    • Political ideas – limited power of the monarchy by requiring the king to consult nobles when raising taxes
    • Legal ideas – no one is above the law, representative government, trial by jury
  • English Bill of Rights
    • Limitations on absolute monarchy
      • No levying of taxes without Parliament’s permission
      • No suspension of freedom of speech in Parliament
      • Citizens have right to petition king with grievances
  • Declaration of Independence
    • Unalienable rights – life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness
    • Governments established to protect these rights
    • People have the right to change or abolish a government that does not protect their rights
  • U.S. Constitution
    • Powers divided among three branches of government
    • Checks and balances between the three branches of government
    • Federal system of government where power is divided between the state and national governments
    • Bill of Rights that protects personal freedoms, including those of speech, religion, the press, and of petition
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    • Men are born and remain free and equal in rights that include liberty, property, security, and freedom from oppression
    • Governments have the goal of preserving these rights
    • Freedom of religion, freedom of speech, equal justice to all citizens
    • “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
NewWH.19C Explain the political philosophies of individuals such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Voltaire, Charles de Montesquieu, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Aquinas, John Calvin, and William Blackstone.

Explain

POLITICAL PHILOSOPHIES OF SPECIFIC INDIVIDUALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • John Locke – governments have contact with the people; governments must protect their citizen’s life, liberty and property, and should they fail to do so, they can and should be replaced; influence of his ideas are evident in the Declaration of Independence
  • Thomas Hobbes – men should put their faith (create a contract) in a strong government to provide stability for their lives, since people have lives that are “cruel, nasty, brutish and short.”
  • Voltaire – advocacy of civil liberties including tolerance, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech
  • Charles de Montesquieu – power should be balanced between three branches of officials (separation of powers)
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau – the general will, usually defined as the majority, should determine the laws of the nation
  • Thomas Aquinas – truth is known through reason and faith
  • John Calvin – government and religion should be interrelated; divinity and worship should be applied to uphold the laws of man
  • William Blackstone – people have the right to property as “sole and despotic dominion which one man claims and exercises over the external things of the world.”
  • Mary Wollstonecraft – argued that women deserved the same rights as men
NewWH.20 Citizenship. The student understands the significance of political choices and decisions made by individuals, groups, and nations throughout history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.20A Describe how people have participated in supporting or changing their governments.

Describe

HOW PEOPLE CAN SUPPORT OR CHANGE THEIR GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Support
    • Voting
    • Registering others to vote
    • Paying taxes
    • Recruitment in the military
  • Change
    • Revolution – United States, France, Glorious Revolution in England, Spanish colonies in Latin America, Russia; Arab Spring in Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, Egypt
    • Non-violent protests – Gandhi in India, Mandela in South Africa, Martin Luther King, Jr. in United States, Solidarity in Poland
    • Secession – Confederate States of America
    • Military coup d’états – Argentina, Nigeria
    • Peaceful transitions through voting – United States when political parties shift powers, Mandela in South Africa
    • Religious influences – John Paul II in Poland, Khomeini in Iran
NewWH.20B Describe the rights and responsibilities of citizens and noncitizens in civic participation throughout history.

Describe

RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF CITIZENS AND NONCITIZENS

Including, but not limited to:

  • The modern notion of citizens having legal protection of rights from the state and being responsible through civic participation coincides with the rise of republicanism. Most notably were the changes in the nature of citizenship that came about with the Glorious Revolution in Britain, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution.
  • Generally citizens in modern republics are afforded individual rights and freedoms along with political representation. Citizens are expected to be responsible for following the laws of the state, serving the state in times of need, pledging loyalty to the nation, and participating in the civic affairs of the state.
NewWH.20C Identify examples of key persons who were successful in shifting political thought, including William Wilberforce.

Identify

KEY PERSONS WHO SUCCESSFULLY SHIFTED POLITICAL THOUGHT

Including, but not limited to:

  • William Wilberforce (1759-1833) – British politician who successfully led the movement to abolish slavery in Great Britain In 1807, the Slave Trade Act of 1807 led to the end of the African slavery trade. Shortly before his death in 1833, Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 that ended slavery in most of the British Empire.
NewWH.21 Citizenship. The student understands the historical development of significant legal and political concepts related to the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. The student is expected to:
NewWH.21A Summarize the development of the rule of law from ancient to modern times.

Summarize

DEVELOPMENT OF RULE OF LAW

Including, but not limited to:

  • Rule of law – the idea that government is a rule of law, not a rule of men; this principle is reflected in the idea that the law be applied fairly to all and that all individuals and institutions are subject to accountability to the law; no one is above the law
    • Originated in early civilizations of the Tigris-Euphrates River valley
    • Exemplified by written codes of law, such as the Code of Hammurabi
    • Brought forward by Jewish law recorded in the 10 Commandments, the Torah, and other teachings of Judaism
    • Recorded in Greco-Roman law by Solon, Pericles and the Twelve Tables of Law in Rome
    • Explained and further organized in Justinian’s Codes of Law
  • English Common law influenced the rule of law in the American colonies
    • Rights of the “ Englishman”
    • Magna Carta – Asserts the rights of the nobles and limits the authority of the king
  • England, United States, and France create bill of rights documents ensuring the protection of individual rights.   
NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewWH.30 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewWH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
NewWH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
NewWH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewWH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
NewWH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
NewWH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewWH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

NewWH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

NewWH.31 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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