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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 03: Emergence and Collapse of Classical Empires 500 BC-600 AD SUGGESTED DURATION : 20 days

Unit Overview

 Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the historical events of the Classical Era (500 BC to AD 600), including the development of Greece, Rome, Persia, India, and China. This unit is primarily a study of institutions. Empires created bureaucracies, instituted laws, used ideologies to unify the population, constructed infrastructure which facilitated movement of people and goods, and maintained large armies in order to secure large territories. The political structure of empire dominated world history from the classical period until the collapse of the Soviet Union in the twentieth century. A study of the classical civilizations is important for students to gain an understanding of how civilizations developed human systems that are evident today in religions, politics, and economics.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students learned about the Neolithic Revolution, and the establishment of the early river valley civilizations. Students also learned about the defining characteristics of civilizations.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the growth of more sophisticated political entities, specifically empires that emerged from the core of the River Valley Civilizations. This unit is very comprehensive, covering an expansive period of time and the following contexts  1) the characteristics of empires; 2) the characteristics of Persian rule; 3) the consolidation of imperial rule in India with the Gupta and Mauryan dynasties; 4) the development of dynastic rule in China; 5) the establishment of legal and governmental systems in classical Greece and Rome; 6) the political, scientific and cultural legacies of the classical civilizations; and 7) the collapse of the classical empires, especially Han China and the Roman Empire. Students also examine how the expansion of empires provided political stability and cultural unity during the time period as well as increased cultural diffusion, including the spread of religion. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

Following this unit, students will study about the rebuilding of political systems following the collapse of the classical empires and the increasing connectivity and contact between societies that characterizes the Post-Classical period.

Additional Notes

The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about various religious beliefs, their origins, societal impact, and their interactions; including Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, Confucianism, and Hinduism. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of its people?

Culture serves to unify people.

  • What commonalities binds people together as a group?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Empires, such as the Persian, exercise authority over territory where a variety of ethnic groups live.

  • What characteristics are common to all empires?
  • What steps were taken by Persian leaders to provide stability within the empire?
  • How were the Israelites treated by Persian rulers?
  • What was characteristic of the development of monotheism?

India was first consolidated as an empire by Mauryan leaders, who introduced Buddhism to the region, and was later led by Gupta rulers.

  • Who did Chandragupta fight to establish the Mauryan dynasty?
  • What role did Hinduism and Buddhism play in providing social and cultural unity to the India subcontinent?
  • What changes were brought to India during the rule of Asoka?
  • What was similar and different about the Mauryan dynasty and the Gupta dynasty?
  • Why is the time of Gupta rule sometime referred to as a “Golden Age” for India?

Classical Chinese civilization came to be characterized by dynastic rule where the consolidation of Confucian teachings provided social cohesion.

  • What was significant about the Mandate of Heaven?
  • What is characteristic of Confucian, Daoist, and legalist beliefs?
  • What was characteristic about the policies of Shi-Huangdi?
  • How did Confucianism provide social cohesion in classical China?
  • What was characteristic of the Chinese bureaucracy?
  • What accomplishments were made in China during the Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties?

Classical Greek and Roman civilizations introduced legal systems and government structures that provided social stability and ideas about citizenship.

  • What was characteristic of political systems in the Greek city-states?
  • What aspects of Greek culture united the Greek city-states?
  • Who were citizens in Greece and in the Roman Empire?
  • What role did Alexander the Great play in cultural diffusion during the Classical Era?
  • What was politically characteristic of the Roman republic and the Roman Empire?
  • What political ideas were introduced with the creation of the Twelve Tables?
  • How do the experiences of Jews and Christians living in the Roman Empire compare?

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems

Cultural Patterns

  • Belief Systems
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Empires experience cycles of growth and decay.

  • What factors account for the rise of a powerful empire?
  • What factors account for the collapse of empires?
  • What was similar and different about the collapse of the Han dynasty and the Roman Empire?
  • What empire was created with the split of the Roman Empire?
  • What political and social changes resulted from the fall of the Roman and Han empires?

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The large territories of the classical empires facilitated the cultural diffusion of scientific advances and cultural changes.

  • What scientific, mathematical, and cultural advances were made during the Gupta rule of India?
  • How did the Chinese play a role in cultural diffusion during the classical period?
  • What are the political, scientific, and cultural legacies of the classical Greek and Roman empires?
  • How did Justinian’s Code reflect the legacy of Roman legal traditions?
  • What was characteristic of the cultural diffusion of religions by the end of the Classical Era?

Spatial Patterns

  • Region/Borders

Historical Processes

  • Diffusion
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may not be aware that classical civilizations existed in India, China, and Southwest Asia as well as in Greece and Rome.
  • Students may not understand the political significance and characteristics of empires.

Unit Vocabulary

  • filial piety – respect for one’s elders, parents and ancestors; a feature of Confucianism
  • caste system – a strict social stratification system that characterized Hindu society in South Asia
  • oligarchy –   rule by a small group, generally of wealthy men
  • bureaucracy  –administrative offices of a government staffed with non-elected workers
  • patricians   upper class of Roman society
  • plebeians   commoner social class of Roman society
  • Mandate of Heaven –idea that the right to rule was granted to the Chinese Emperor from the gods
  • autocratic   refers to rulers who have absolute power
  • diffusion –the spread of ideas and products
  • latifundia – large agricultural estates owned by wealthy Roman citizens
  • democracy – a governmental system in which power is given to the populous and political decisions are made based on the will of the people
  • republic – a governmental system in which people choose representatives to make policies

Related Vocabulary

  • empire
  • republic
  • dynasty
  • autocrat
  • democracy
  • city-state
  • plague
  • patriarchal
  • patriarchal
  • tyrant
  • dynastic cycle
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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TEKS# SE# Unit Level Taught Directly TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
NewWH.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.1B Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following events from 500 BC to AD 600: the development of the classical civilizations of Greece, Rome, Persia, India (Maurya and Gupta), China (Zhou, Qin, and Han), and the development of major world religions.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC EVENTS BETWEEN 500 BC AND AD 600: THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS IN GREECE, ROME, PERSIA, INDIA, AND CHINA, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS

Including, but not limited to:

Development of Classical Civilizations
Causes

  • The River Valleys served as the geographic center from which new civilization emerged as leaders used more advanced military tactics to conquer nearby groups of people and territory.

Effects

  • Governments became more complex as empires emerged with bureaucratic structures.
  • Empires developed in the Mediterranean region (Persia, Greece, Rome), India (Maurya and Gupta)  and China (Zhou, Qin, and Han)
  • Empire was established as the predominate form of political organization
  • Future civilizations copied, emulated, and built upon classical empires
  • Trade expanded as did the establishment of routes such as the Silk Routes
  • Military technology advances improved the capacity to control territory and defeat enemy military forces
  • Increased social stratification and emergence of patriarchal social systems

 Development of Major World Religions

Causes

  • Religions and belief systems emerged as humanity began to explore the questions of “Where did humanity come from?”, “What is the purpose of life?”, and “What happens after death?”

Effects

  • Spread of various religious/philosophical traditions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism, Judaism, Christianity
  • Religion was often used to support or justify a ruler’s authority, such as the Mandate of Heaven
  • Cultural diffusion as missionaries used trade routes to spread religious teachings
  • Reinforcement of patriarchal social structure
NewWH.2 The student understands how early civilizations developed from 8000 BC to 500 BC. The student is expected to:
NewWH.2C Explain how major river valley civilizations influenced the development of the classical civilizations.

Explain

HOW MAJOR RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS INFLUENCED CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Lay the foundations for political centralization and organization
  • Monument building
  • Written articulation of legal codes
  • Social classes
NewWH.3 The student understands the contributions and influence of classical civilizations from 500 BC to AD 600 on subsequent civilizations. The student is expected to:
NewWH.3A Describe the major political, religious/philosophical, and cultural influences of Persia, India, China, Israel, Greece, and Rome.

Describe

MAJOR POLITICAL, RELIGIOUS/PHILOSOPHICAL, AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Persia
    • Royal Road connects the empire for over 1,500 mile
    • Use of standardized metal coins promote trade and unify the empir
    • Zoroaster establishes a religion in which people’s own choices determine their fate
    • Zoroastrianism – monotheistic worship of Ahura Mazda and sacred writings known as the Avesta; establishes early beliefs in heaven, hell, and a final judgment
  • India
    • Development of Buddhism in India by Siddhartha Gautama (530 BC)
    • Mauryan Empire under Chandragupta and Ashoka (302 BC-232 BC) – bureaucracy, improved roads, spread of Buddhism
    • Gupta Empire (300 AD) – Chandra Gupta I; India’s Golden Age through literature, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics; characterized by a flourishing of Hindu culture
  • China
    • Early Chinese religion is often characterized by filial piety and a cyclical view of nature
    • Zhou Dynasty (1027 BC-256 BC) – Mandate of Heaven justifies royal authority and establishes dynastic cycles; nobles rule through feudalism
    • Many early Chinese philosophies were established under the Zhou
    • During the Period of the Warring States prior to the Zhou’s collapse, the ethical philosophy of Confucianism called for reform  society including the social order of family and government
    • Daoism – philosophy established by Laozi that addresses order and harmony
    • Legalism – stressed punishment over rewards
    • Qin Dynasty (256 BC-202 BC) – ruled by Shi Huangdi, who uses Legalist ideas to unify China through autocrac
    • Centralized system of highway and irrigation networks
    • Mass murder of Confucian scholars
    • Great Wall of China built
    • Han Dynasty (202 BC-9 AD) – centralized government, complex bureaucracy, civil service jobs, promotion of Confucianism, invention of paper
  • Israel
    • Hebrews are monotheistic and worship Yahweh, who establishes a covenant of protection with them
    • Sacred writings are the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Bible
    • Ten Commandments become the basis for civil and religious laws in Judaism
  • Greece
    • Establishment of the early Greek city-state (polis)
    • Greek political structures include monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy
    • Limited democracy in Athens in that only free male Athenian citizens over the age of 30 could participate.
    • The Persian Wars (490 BC-479 BC
    • Effects of the Persian War – new confidence and freedom for Greek city-states; Athens begins a golden age and becomes leader of the 140 city-state Delian League
    • Pericles and Democracy in Athens leads to a golden age – establishment of direct democracy; strengthening of navy and overseas trade; wealth used to create great works, including the Parthenon
    • Development of Greek art – classical art that addresses order, balance, and proportion
    • Greek drama
    • Growth of philosophy with the ideas of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle being central to subsequent philosophical learning
    • A Hellenistic empire under Alexander the Great (336 BC-323 BC) spreads Greek thought and practices across Africa, Europe, and Southwest Asia
    • Alexander inherits throne of Macedonia; conquers Greece, Babylon, Persia, and Egypt; boundaries extend east to India
    • Conquests bring about end of independent Greek city-states and blend Greek cultures with eastern cultures to establish the Hellenistic Age
    • Hellenistic Era brings about advancements in trade, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and art; Alexandria in Egypt is center of Hellenistic world, which is conquered by Rome in 150 BC
  • Rome
    • Religious and cultural ideas borrowed from Greeks and Etruscans
    • Roman Republic established in 509 BC; voting rights extended only to free-born male citizens
    • Roman society divided into patricians (aristocracy) and plebeians (farmers and artisans)
    • Legal code – Twelve Tables (written list of rules based on the Roman legal system)
    • Religious and philosophical influences
    • Philosophy based on Greek Stoicism that emphasizes virtue, duty, and moderation
    • Christianity develops in the Roman province of Judea and spread throughout the empire by missionaries
    • Nicene Creed written in 325 AD defines core Christian beliefs
    • Cultural Influences – many of these borrowed from Classical Greeks; Greco-Roman culture develops
    • Frescoes painted on walls
    • Literature follows Greek forms and models, but address Roman themes
    • Latin – remains language of learning after fall of Rome and becomes official language of the Roman Catholic Church
    • Develops into vernacular Romance languages after the collapse of the empire – French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian
    • Architecture – spectacular wonders like the Coliseum created with elaborate arches; domes and concrete also are key features of Roman architecture.
    • Aqueducts used to transport water to urban areas
    • Roman law becomes basis for laws in the Western world
NewWH.3B Explain the impact of the fall of Rome on Western Europe.

Explain

IMPACT OF FALL OF ROME ON WESTERN EUROPE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Disruption of trade that leads to collapse of businesses, destruction of economic centers, and scarcity of money as a result of invasions
  • Downfall of cities as centers of administration
  • Shift to a rural population as Roman citizens abandoned destroyed cities
  • Decline of learning since Germanic invaders could not read or write
  • Loss of a common language as Latin changes and different dialects develop
  • Rise in the power of the Church – as a surviving institution the Church provides cultural unity to Western Europe and emerges as a political force
  • Change in the concept of government from one of loyalty to public government and written law to governance through unwritten laws and feudal traditions
NewWH.3C Compare the factors that led to the collapse of Rome and Han China.

Compare

FACTORS THAT LED TO COLLAPSE OF ROME AND HAN CHINA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Corrupt governments in both empires
  • Infighting among political elites
  • Empires too large in area to manage
  • Invasions from hostile nomadic tribes
  • Social inequality among the classes with tax burdens on lower classes
  • Inequitable distribution of lands
  • Decline in traditional morals and values at the cultural core of each civilization
  • Public health and urban decay
  • Unemployment and inflation
NewWH.15 The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
NewWH.15A Locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history.

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Classical Era (500BC-600AD)
    • Persia, Greece, Athens, Sparta, Alexandria, Alexander the Great’s Empire, Italian peninsula, Rome, Roman Empire, Mediterranean, Silk Road
NewWH.15C Interpret maps, charts, and graphs to explain how geography has influenced people and events in the past.

Interpret

MAPS, CHARTS, GRAPHS

Explain

HOW GEOGRAPHY INFLUENCED PEOPLE AND EVENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical geographic features greatly influence settlement patterns as population tend to concentrate in regions with favorable climates, access to water, and arable land. Examples include the patterns exhibited by the River Valley Civilizations, and the pattern of city-states settlements in Ancient Greece.
  • Physical geographic features may also provide protection from invasion or facilitate multiple invasions.
  • Access to transportation routes facilitates trade and cultural diffusion.
NewWH.18 The student understands the characteristics of major political systems throughout history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.18B

Identify the characteristics of the following political systems: theocracy, absolute monarchy, democracy, republic, oligarchy, limited monarchy, and totalitarianism.

Identify

POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Democracy – government controlled by its citizens, either directly or indirectly (Ancient Athens)
  • Republic – power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by the people (Roman Republic, United States)
  • Oligarchy – rule by a few, especially when rule is based on wealth (Greek city-states)
NewWH.19 The student understands how contemporary political systems have developed from earlier systems of government. The student is expected to:
NewWH.19A

Explain the development of democratic-republican government from its beginnings in Judeo-Christian legal tradition and classical Greece and Rome through the French Revolution.

Explain

THE DEVELOPMENT OF  DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENT

Including, but not limited to:

  • Judeo-Christian beliefs 
    • Most exemplified by the Ten Commandments and Mosaic Law based on the idea of laws to govern personal behavior.
  • Greece
    • City-state of Athens first society to create a democracy, in which free males had the right to vote on laws, as well as the obligation to participate in a democratic government.
  • Rome
    • Early republic gave power to some citizens to vote for representative leaders in governmental bodies. Written legal code known as the Twelve Tables protected the rights of free citizens. Government was divided into executive, legislative and judicial branches. Legal traditions of trial by jury of peers and innocent until proven guilty introduced. Roman political ideas spread throughout Europe as the empire grew.
NewWH.19B

Identify the impact of political and legal ideas contained in the following documents: Hammurabi's Code, the Jewish Ten Commandments, Justinian's Code of Laws, Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

Identify

IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS FROM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Justinian's Code of Laws
    • Byzantine Law code (529 AD) that influenced European laws
    • The eastern Byzantine Empire carries on the Roman law, while the western part of the empire goes through a rather lawless time.
NewWH.20 The student understands the significance of political choices and decisions made by individuals, groups, and nations throughout history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.20B Describe the rights and responsibilities of citizens and noncitizens in civic participation throughout history.

Describe

RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF CITIZENS AND NONCITIZENS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Ideas about the nature of the relationship between individuals and the state (citizenship) originated in the ancient Greek city-states. Military competition between the Greek city-states as well as with outside powers necessitated a citizenry obligated to provide military service. Athenian citizens were expected to actively participate in civic affairs, as many political decisions involved when to go to war. Greek citizenship emphasized the responsibilities of citizens and in return citizens had the right to own property, the right to vote, and the right to hold public office. The citizens of the Greek city-state essentially had a voice in political affairs that was not given to noncitizens.
  • In the Roman republic and Roman Empire the nature of citizenship became based more on a legal relationship. Roman citizens were given many legal protections along with political representation and in return were expected to be loyal to the state, provide military service, and follow the legal decrees of the state. As Roman citizenship was extended to many conquered peoples, citizenship came to be a unifying concept where people of many different ethnicities would have the same rights and responsibilities. This was important in the transition from small Greek city-states to encompass the large Roman Empire.
  • The modern notion of citizens having legal protection of rights from the state and being responsible through civic participation coincides with the rise of republicanism. Most notably were the changes in the nature of citizenship that came about with the Glorious Revolution in Britain, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution.
  • Generally citizens in modern republics are afforded individual rights and freedoms along with political representation. Citizens are expected to be responsible for following the laws of the state, serving the state in times of need, pledging loyalty to the nation, and participating in the civic affairs of the state.
NewWH.21 The student understands the historical development of significant legal and political concepts related to the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. The student is expected to:
NewWH.21B Identify the origins of ideas regarding the right to a "trial by a jury of your peers" and the concepts of "innocent until proven guilty" and "equality before the law" from sources including the Judeo-Christian legal tradition and in Greece and Rome.

Identify

INFLUENCE OF LEGAL IDEAS FROM JUDEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITIONS, GREECE, AND ROME

Including, but not limited to:

  • Trial by a jury of your peers
    • Greece – a jury of peers
    • Rome – yearly selection of judges who resolved disputes; tribunals were judges who were like juries since they were civilians and not professional judges
  • Innocent until proven guilty
    • Judeo-Christian – Moses decreed that testimony could be found in the testimony of two or three witnesses
    • Greece – included in the laws of Sparta and Athens
    • Rome – Twelve Tables – “Accusers are to understand that they are not to prefer charges unless they can be proven by proper witnesses or by conclusive documents.”
  • Equality before the law
    • Greece – equal justice to all
    • Judeo-Christian – all people share equality before a universal God
    • Rome – Twelve Tables called for the fair administration of laws
NewWH.22 The student understands the history and relevance of major religious and philosophical traditions. The student is expected to:
NewWH.22A Describe the historical origins and central ideas in the development of monotheism.

Describe

HISTORICAL ORIGINS AND CENTRAL IDEAS OF MONOTHEISM

Including, but not limited to:

  • Monotheism is the belief that a single, all-powerful deity is to be worshiped.
  • The practice of monotheism was adopted by various societies, including ancient Egyptians, some Persians, and most significantly the Hebrews.
  • Monotheism was first introduced as an idea by Egyptian ruler Akhenaten in the 14ht century BCE.  Akhenaten espoused that Aten was an all-powerful, all-loving, deity and creator of the universe. Some historians believe these ideas influenced Moses.  Later Egyptian rulers returned state religious practices to worshiping the old gods.
  • Zoroastrianism as a monotheistic belief system emerged in Persia approximately during the 6th century BCE. While the teachings may have influenced Judaism, Christianity, and Islam it survives mostly in small areas of modern Iran and India.
  • Monotheism as a practice was adopted by the Hebrews living in Palestine on the eastern shores of the Fertile Crescent. This new religious practice became known a Judaism. Jews or the followers of Judaism recorded their history and teachings in the Torah as part of the Tanakh, or Jewish biblical writings prior to Christianity. As such Judaism was the first major monotheistic faith.
  • Christianity as a monotheistic faith started as a splinter group of Jews. Christianity spread when it accepted non-Jewish members, hence becoming a universal religion open to all.
  • Islam also emerged from the monotheistic teaching of Judaism and Christianity and together the three religions are referred to as Abrahamic, believing that the prophet Abraham was the first to accept that there is only one true God.  
NewWH.22B

Describe the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism.

Describe

HISTORICAL ORIGINS, CENTRAL IDEAS, AND SPREAD OF MAJOR RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Buddhism
  • Confucianism
  • Hinduism
  • Judaism
NewWH.22C Identify examples of religious influence on various events referenced in the major eras of world history.

Identify

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

Including, but not limited to:

Classical Era (500BC-600AD)

  • Hindu caste system provided social order in South Asia.
  • Confucian teachings were instrumental in the creation the Chinese bureaucracy
  • Ashoka’s policies of religious tolerance were influenced by his conversion to Buddhism
  • Proclamation of the Edict of Milan established officially sanctioned toleration of Christianity in the Roman Empire.

 

NewWH.23 The student understands the roles of women, children, and families in different historical cultures. The student is expected to:
NewWH.23A Describe the changing roles of women, children, and families during major eras of world history.

Describe

ROLES OF WOMEN, CHILDREN, FAMILIES IN WORLD HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

Classical Era (500BC-600AD)

  • All Classical empires developed patriarchal social systems where women had little political influence. Yet women ran households and shared in family businesses in the western world. Children were primarily educated at home by mothers, especially girls. Children were contributors to family economic ventures especially agricultural.
  • Spartan boys were sent to military school at a young age.
  • In Roman society women had freedom to own property and could testify in court.
  • Families were the basic social unit in all classical civilizations.

 

NewWH.24 The student understands how the development of ideas has influenced institutions and societies. The student is expected to:
NewWH.24A Summarize the fundamental ideas and institutions of Eastern civilizations that originated in China and India.

Summarize

FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS/INSTITUTIONS OF EASTERN CIVILIZATIONS THAT ORIGINATED IN CHINA AND INDIA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Filial piety is rooted at the center of most Chinese religious traditions
  • Yin-Yang is a Chinese philosophy describing the dynamic interconnection of complementary forces such as light/dark, dry/wet, male/female; the Chinese classical text I Ching used as an oracle to detect and predict changes in the relationship of yin-yang forces
  • Daoism in China emphasizes a life lived in harmony with the “Dao” or “way”; the Dao is the driving force behind everything that exists
  • Confucianism highlighted the reciprocal nature of relationships and the sacrifices one must make for the group, especially the family group.
  • Emphasis given to duty, honor and learning.
  • Society operates best when individuals regulate their own behavior for the benefit of all.
  • Time is viewed as cyclical much like the dynastic cycle in China.
  • The mind(spiritual) and body(physical) are linked as evidenced in the martial arts and yoga practices
  • People should live in harmony with nature as evidenced in artwork and architecture.
  • Society is hierarchal as evidenced by the Confucian relationships and the caste system.
  • Social status was given to educators; historically entertainers were viewed with lower status because they did not produce for society.
NewWH.24B Summarize the fundamental ideas and institutions of Western civilizations that originated in Greece and Rome.

Summarize

FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS/INSTITUTIONS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION THAT ORIGINATED IN GREECE AND ROME

Including, but not limited to:

  • Stresses the fundamental worth of the individual with rights and responsibilities.
  • Pride in athletic competition originating with the ancient Olympics.
  • Application of logic to science and literature originating with the ancient philosophers, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
  • Creation of monumental structures
  • Government can use a representative system (republic) to facilitate political decision-making in a large, diverse empire
  • Society is best regulated with laws and legal principles such as:
    • A person is considered innocent until proven guilty.
    • The burden of proof rests with the accuser rather than the accused.
    • A person should be punished only for actions, not thoughts.
    • Any law that seems unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
NewWH.25 The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
NewWH.25B Describe examples of art, music, and literature that transcend the cultures in which they were created and convey universal themes.

Describe

EXAMPLES OF ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE THAT TRANSCEND AND CONVEY UNIVERSAL THEMES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Art, music, and literature transcend culture by effectively reflecting the universal commonalities of all humans. Transcendent art, music, and literature can be appreciated by people of different cultures, can become the basis of new artistic expressions, and can be revisited through time.
  • Universal themes in art, music, and literature give meaning, communicate ideas, and provoke an emotional response in order for the individual to understand their own unique experience and how the individual is connected to others across space and throughout time. Universal themes may include:
    • The life cycle – all experience birth, growth, and death
    • Use of symbols – all use language and non-linguistic symbols to express ideas and feelings
    • An aesthetic response – all experience art by having an emotional or intellectual reaction
    • Sense of time and place – all have the ability to recall the past and anticipate the future
    • Seek social connection – all hold membership in a variety of communities including cultural and religious institutions
    • Work – all are producers and consumers
    • Nature – all are connected to the ecology of the planet
    • Search for meaning – all attempt to discover the larger purpose to our lives
  • Using the universal themes as a lens for viewing artistic works allows humans to identify those examples that transcend the cultures in which they were produced.
NewWH.26 The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations affected societies prior to 1750. The student is expected to:
NewWH.26A

Identify the origin and diffusion of major ideas in mathematics, science, and technology that occurred in river valley civilizations, classical Greece and Rome, classical India, the Islamic caliphates between 700 and 1200, and China from the Tang to Ming dynasties.

Identify

ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY THAT TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 700 AND 1200

Including, but not limited to:

  • Classical Greece
    • Balance and proportion in architecture – columns
    • Hellenistic Era – Alexandria center of science
    • Eratosthenes (closely calculated the Earth’s true size)
    • Aristarchus (Sun is larger than the Earth, and Earth and other planets revolve around Sun)
    • Hipparchus – latitude and longitude
    • Euclid and Pythagoras – geometry
    • Archimedes – value of pi
    • Sundial
  • Classical Rome
    • Architecture – arch, dome, and concrete
    • Aqueducts to transport water into cities
    • Stone paved roads
  • Classical India
    • Astronomy – Earth is round
    • Mathematics – modern numbers, zero, decimals, value of pi to four decimal places (Aryabhata)
    • Sophisticated medical guides and complex surgery including plastic surgery
NewWH.26E

Identify the contributions of significant scientists such as Archimedes, Copernicus, Eratosthenes, Galileo, Pythagoras, Isaac Newton, and Robert Boyle.

Identify

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archimedes – considered the greatest thinker of his era, Archimedes was a Greek mathematician and physicist. His mathematical writings explaining mechanics (e.g., the principle of the lever) were his most important contributions to western knowledge.
  • Copernicus (1473-1543) – proposed the theory that the Sun not the Earth was the center of the solar system in 1507(heliocentric theory), and that the Earth was really insignificant in the context of the universe.
  • Eratosthenes – considered the "father of geography" and first to calculate the circumference of Earth
  • Galileo (1564-1642) – developed and applied scientific principles that significantly increased astronomical understanding. In 1613, he proved Copernicus’ theory that the Sun was the center of the solar system (heliocentric theory). . Galileo also developed the modern experimental method. He proved that objects of different masses fall at the same velocity.
  • Pythagoras (ca. 580-500 BC) – a Greek philosopher and mathematician credited with the discovery that numbers are useful for more than counting physical things. Mathematical ideas or formulas could help establish patterns in the apparently chaotic nature in which he lived. Modern scientific theory is based on mathematical ideas associated with Pythagoras.
NewWH.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewWH.29 The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewWH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

NewWH.30 The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewWH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

TEKS# SE# Unit Level Developing TEKS Unit Level Specificity
 

Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
NewWH.28 The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
NewWH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
NewWH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewWH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
NewWH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
NewWH.29 The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewWH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

NewWH.31 The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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