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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 07: Ideas Change the World 1450-1750 SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the events which occurred during the Connecting Hemispheres period (1450 to 1750), including the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. This unit is primarily a study of ideas. A revival in trade in Europe during the fifteenth century facilitated the spread of ideas that ushered in a cultural Renaissance. During the Renaissance Europeans grappled with new ideas about humanity, the Renaissance was followed by the Reformation in which the teachings of the Catholic Church were brought into question and new ideas about religion were introduced in Europe. During the sixteenth century new ideas about science and observation of the natural world culminated in a Scientific Revolution. Building upon the idea that there a natural laws in science, social thinkers or philosophes began to explore ideas about the nature of governing societies, which resulted in the development of Enlightenment philosophies. The ideas presented during this time period brought about religious, social, and political changes and became the basis of modern thought. An examination of how the ideas of the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment is important for understanding the religious, scientific, and political patterns that characterize the world today.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students studied about the development of a global trade system and the political, economic and social changes that occurred because of European colonialism in the Americas during the Connecting Hemisphere Era.

During this Unit

During this unit students learn about how the ideas introduced during the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment brought into question traditional ideas and introduced new political, economic, and social patterns in Europe. Students specifically examine the development of humanism, the challenge to papal authority, the shift from traditional methods of truth-seeking to the use of scientific method, and the introduction of new political ideas by enlightened philosophers. The ideas of Thomas Aquinas are included in this unit as a contrast to the changes taking place during the fifteenth century. The emergence of Sikhism is also included in this unit and can be studied as a questioning of traditional religious teachings in India. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit of study students examine the political and social changes that resulted from the American and French Revolutions in the Age of Revolutions Era.

Additional Notes

The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about various religious beliefs, their origins, societal impact, and their interactions; including Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, Confucianism, and Hinduism. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.


Adopting new ideas and innovations has unintended consequences.  

  • Do new ideas and innovations improve the lives of people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

A revival of trade and learning in Europe resulted in new ideas about the nature of humanity.

  • How were writers and artists influenced by humanism?
  • How did the classical works of the Greeks and Romans influence Renaissance thinkers and artists?
  • In what ways did art, architecture and literature of the Renaissance reflect new ideas?

Cultural Patterns

  • Artistic Expressions

Historical Processes

  • Ideas/Innovation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Challenges to papal authority resulted in new theological thought in Europe, while in India a new religion emerged that was distinct from Islam and Hinduism.

  • What underlying causes brought about the Protestant Reformation?
  • How was technology used to advance the spread of ideas?
  • What political changes came about in England because the king challenged the authority of the Pope?
  • How did the Catholic Church respond to the new Protestant ideas?
  • Why did many political leaders embrace challenges to papal authority?
  • How is Sikhism similar and different from Hinduism and Islam?
  • Why did Sikhism gain popularity in the Punjab region of India initially?  

Cultural Patterns

  • Belief Systems

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
  • Ideas/Innovation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Increased literacy, the application of reason, and an emphasis on the natural law led many to question traditional teachings.

  • How was the use of scientific method different from previous methods of investigating the natural world?
  • What important new discoveries came about with the introduction of the scientific method?
  • Why did philosophers begin to question the authority of rulers?
  • What new ideas emerged about political power and the rights of individuals?

Historical Processes

  • Ideas/Innovation
  • Change/Continuity
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students generally lack understanding a variety of religious doctrines.

Unit Vocabulary

  • humanism – an intellectual and philosophical emphasis on the importance of individuals as creative and critical thinkers
  • Renaissance – a rebirth or resurgence; has been applied to the time period between 1450-1750 in Europe characterized by the rediscovery of the classical works of Greece and Rome, but can refer to any general cultural resurgence
  • Reformation – the process of updating an institution or practice; has been applied to refer to the 16th century events in Europe that resulted in the establishment of Protestant churches and changes to the Roman Catholic Church
  • Protestant – refers to Christian church denominations, teachings, and individuals during the Reformation that rejected Roman Catholic Church doctrines
  • sacraments – sacred religious practices or ceremonies first introduced by the Roman Catholic Church
  • secularism – refers to the belief that religion and politics should operate in separate spheres as well as the rejection of religion in the public sphere
  • vernacular – language used by the common people
  • scientific method –the use of hypothesis, observation and experimentation to reach conclusions about the natural and physical world
  • heliocentric theory –idea that the sun is the center of universe
  • Enlightenment –to gain understanding or knowledge; has been generally applied to an intellectual movement in Europe during the 18th century in which philosophers sought to find natural laws by which to govern societies
  • social contract  – political philosophy that argues that  the populous and the ruler/government enter into a mutual relationship
  • natural rights – liberties and freedoms inherent to being human

Related Vocabulary

  • heresy
  • annulment
  • excommunicate
  • recant
  • indulgence
  • movable type
  • universal law of gravity
  • natural law
  • philosophe
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
WH.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
WH.1D

Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1450 to 1750: the rise of the Ottoman Empire, the influence of the Ming dynasty on world trade, European exploration and the Columbian Exchange, European expansion, and the Renaissance and the Reformation.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1450 TO 1750

Including, but not limited to:

Renaissance
Causes

  • Crusades fostered a renewed interest in classical Western civilization that lead to a revival of learning.
  • Trade in the Mediterranean Sea flourished and brought wealth to Italian city-states.
  • Muslim scholarship in Spain trickled into Italy
  • Prominent Italian leaders and families used wealth to patronize the arts.

Effects

  • New intellectual ideas emerged, including humanism which focused on the achievements of humankind in the present as opposed to a focus on the afterlife.
  • Humanism is reflected in writing and artwork produced during the Renaissance.
  • Development of the ideal of a “renaissance man” or one who has many interests and talents
  • Reexamination of the classical texts and revival of Roman/ Greek architecture and an renewed interest in art, politics, religions, science and education
  • Unprecedented achievements in art, literature, and music

The Reformation
Causes

  • Corruption in the Church coupled with the growing political and economic power of the Church caused resentment especially among the noble class.
  • Impressions that Church leaders had become more concerned with gaining wealth than ministering to followers.
  • Invention of the printing press aided in spreading ideas that questioned the Church.
  • Most immediate cause was the sale of indulgences, which Martin Luther responded to in 1517 by posting the Ninety-five Theses or his list of grievances about the Catholic Church.

Effects

  • Excommunication of Luther, who later founded the Lutheran Church.
  • Introduction of new ideas of Christian thought that included the idea of salvation by grace alone
  • Translation of the Bible into vernacular languages promoted individual, personal interpretations of scripture
  • Other reform movements started, including Calvinism, which promoted a doctrine of predestination
  • Establishment of the Church of England when Henry VIII breaks from the Catholic Church following his dispute with the Pope surrounding Henry’s efforts to get a divorce
  • The Counter Reformation was launched by loyal Roman Catholics led by the new religious order the Society for Jesus (Jesuits), introduction of reforms at the Council of Trent
  • Religious conflicts ensue including the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) that highlights the German nobles contempt for paying taxes to the Pope and ends in a Catholic and Protestant territorial division in Europe
  • Revival of the Inquisition to try cases of heresy, dominated in Portugal, Spain and Italy and eventually used to expel Jews and Muslims from Iberia
  • Questioning of religious doctrine was followed by other questioning of the political and social status quo
WH.1E

Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1750 to 1914: the Scientific Revolution, the Industrial Revolution and its impact on the development of modern economic systems, European imperialism, and the Enlightenment's impact on political revolutions.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1750 TO 1914

Including, but not limited to:

Scientific Revolution
Causes

  • Challenges how people view the universe; scholars began to use observation, experimentation, and scientific reasoning to gather knowledge and draw conclusions about the physical world
  • New knowledge gained from translated works of Muslim scholars and classical manuscripts were spread by the printing press.
  • An emphasis on exploration and innovation in navigation led to greater research in mathematics and science.
  • Protestant Reformation created an environment of questioning long-held medieval notions, including those about the nature of the universe.

Effects

  • Use of  scientific methods of investigation became the standard for research
  • Development of “natural law” as fundamental to the order of the universe
  • Acceptance of the heliocentric theory and rejection of  medieval scientific notions
  • Acceleration of  scientific and technological discoveries and innovations; including the theory of natural selection proposed by Darwin in On the Origin of Species (1859)
  • Development of a secular worldview in the West

 

WH.5 History. The student understands the causes, characteristics, and impact of the European Renaissance and the Reformation from 1450 to 1750. The student is expected to:
WH.5A Explain the political, intellectual, artistic, economic, and religious impact of the Renaissance.

Explain

POLITICAL, INTELLECTUAL, ARTISTIC, ECONOMIC, AND RELIGIOUS IMPACT OF THE RENAISSANCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Political
    • Exploration of the New World leads to establishments of colonies and new markets for Spain, Portugal, France, England, and the Netherlands
    • Development of powerful nation-states in Western Europe
  • Intellectual
    • Humanism focuses on human potential and achievements through the study of classical texts
      • Popular subjects from classical civilizations like history, literature, and philosophy revived and known as the humanities
      • Secularism – less emphasis on religion with a more worldly view concerned with the here and now
      • Invention of the printing press spreads new ideas
  • Artistic
    • New techniques in perspective that make art and sculpture more three-dimensional than Medieval art
      • Donatello – Statue of David
    • Leonardo da Vinci
      • Observations and sketches on how the body works and new inventions
      • Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
    • Michelangelo
      • Architecture – St. Peter’s Basilica
      • Art – Sistine Chapel Ceiling
      • Sculpture – David
    • Raphael
      • Realism in series of Madonna paintings
      • School of Athens – connections to classical civilization
    • Literature written in vernacular languages instead of Latin; works of Shakespeare, which focused on the lives of English monarchs, are exemplary of humanistic/secular themes emerging in literature
  • Economic
    • Merchant class develops power through trade and banking
    • Italian city-states dominated by merchants, who often support politicians with loans of money
      • Medici family controls Florence
    • Nations that establish colonies through exploration grow wealthy with raw materials; beginning of mercantilism
  • Religious
    • Christian humanists like Erasmus and Sir Thomas More address improvements in society through Christian motives, but with less emphasis on religious ceremony
    • Corruption in the Catholic church through simony,  the sales of indulgences, and the worldly lifestyles of the clergy was brought into question
WH.5B Explain the political, intellectual, artistic, economic, and religious impact of the Reformation.

Explain

POLITICAL, INTELLECTUAL, ARTISTIC, ECONOMIC, AND RELIGIOUS IMPACT OF THE REFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Political
    • Europe becomes politically fragmented along religious lines and nations align themselves as either Catholic or Protestant
      • Spain and France – Catholic
      • England – Church of England or Anglican
      • Holy Roman Empire – Catholic with some of the northern principalities being Lutheran under the Peace of Augsburg
    • Holy Roman Empire began to weaken as it struggled to maintain its power
    • Henry VIII establishes a Protestant nation in England with the king as head of the Anglican Church. Act of Supremacy of 1534 gives Henry VIII legal sovereignty of civil laws over the laws of the Church of England.
    • Puritan revolt against the Anglican Church leads to civil war in England.
    • The state began to supersede the powers of the clergy.
    • John Calvin established theocratic government in Geneva, Switzerland
  • Intellectual
    • Lutheranism expanded educational opportunities for both men and women.
    • Invention of the printing press spreads religious ideas to different parts of Europe
    • Rising sense of individualism as people sought to create a better life for themselves
  • Artistic
    • Protestant ideas shown in the artwork of the Northern Renaissance
    • Protestant emphasis on the individual’s personal relationship with God was reflected in the number of common people and day-to-day scenes that were depicted in art.
    • Iconic images of Christ and scenes from the Passion became less frequent, as did portrayals of the saints and clergy. Narrative scenes from the Bible, and, later, moralistic depictions of modern life were preferred.
  • Economic
    • Growth of economic power for the middle class
    • New economic model of capitalism began to take shape
  • Religious
    • Unity in Europe as a Christian society was shattered by the different conflicts that erupted between Protestants and Catholics, including the Thirty Years War
    • Catholic Counter-Reformation is a response to the Protestant Reformation
    • Vernacular translations of scriptures allowed ordinary people to read the Bible and make their own interpretations.
    • Protestantism emphasized the role of the individual conscience in spiritual matters thus confronting the Church’s teachings on the need for priests.
    • Persecution of perceived heretics in both the Catholic and Protestant churches
    • Use of the Inquisition courts in Catholic Spain
    • Books perceived to be heretical were placed in the Index of Prohibited Books and banned.
    • Overall decline in the authority of the Catholic Church
WH.19 Government. The student understands how contemporary political systems have developed from earlier systems of government. The student is expected to:
WH.19C

Explain the political philosophies of individuals such as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Voltaire, Charles de Montesquieu, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Aquinas, John Calvin, and William Blackstone.

Explain

POLITICAL PHILOSOPHIES OF SPECIFIC INDIVIDUALS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thomas Aquinas – truth is known through reason and faith
  • John Calvin – government and religion should be interrelated; divinity and worship should be applied to uphold the laws of man
WH.22 Culture. The student understands the history and relevance of major religious and philosophical traditions. The student is expected to:
WH.22B

Describe the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism.

Describe

HISTORICAL ORIGINS, CENTRAL IDEAS, AND SPREAD OF MAJOR RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sikhism
WH.24 Culture. The student understands how the development of ideas has influenced institutions and societies. The student is expected to:
WH.24C Explain how the relationship between Christianity and Humanism that began with the Renaissance influenced subsequent political developments.

Explain

HOW THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRISTIANITY AND HUMANISM INFLUENCED SUBSEQUENT POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Humanism manifested an interest in the Classical Greek and Roman texts that focus on human potential and achievements. Humanist emphasis on the potential of the individual led to questions about the individual’s relationship with God.
  • With the Reformation new theology emerged teaching that individuals did not need the Church as an intermediary with God, but that individuals could have direct relationship with God. If this was true then God granted direct political rights to the people as opposed to a divinely chosen king granting rights to the people. These ideas gave rise to democratic ideas.
WH.25 Culture. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
WH.25A Analyze examples of how art, architecture, literature, music, and drama reflect the history of the cultures in which they are produced; and

Analyze

ART, ARCHITECTURE, LITERATURE, MUSIC, DRAMA REFLECT HISTORY OF CULTURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Societies produce art, architecture, literature, music, and drama that reflect the cultural values of the society.  For example religious influences are evident in the temples in ancient Greece and South Asia, as well as in the Gothic cathedrals of Europe. Landscape paintings produced by artists in East Asia reflect the ideal of living in harmony and nature, a cultural current of societies living in the region.
  • Artists are impacted by the culture and time period in which they live. For example the humanist influence that is reflected in many works of the European Renaissance or the influence of economic and social changes reflected in Romanticism and Realism art and literature in 19th century Europe.
  • An analysis of art, architecture, literature, music, and drama should include an examination of the political, religious, intellectual, and economic conditions of the time along with an examination of the universal theme conveyed by the work.

Possible examples for analysis:

  • The Book of the Courtier by Baldassare Castiglione is a reflection of the changes in society taking place during the European Renaissance
  • The Praise of Folly by Desiderius Erasmus is an example of Christian Humanist writing which reflects the changing thoughts about religion during the Renaissance
  • Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer are tales from a group characters on a pilgrimage that presents critical portrait of English society at the time, and particularly of the Church; reflects changing thoughts about religion and society
  • The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli reflects the humanist influence in this writing about political power as well as reflects the beginning of the examination of the nature of political power  as opposed to theological concepts
  • Julius Caesar by Shakespeare is a tragic play about the conspiracy against the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, his assassination and its aftermath reflects concerns with succession issues in England and focus on the monarchy
  • Romanticism is evident in numerous landscape paintings produced during the 19th century as well as in the works of English poets such as Keats, in historical adventure novels of Alexandre Dumas and the music of Beethoven. Wanting to escape from the social changes which accompanied industrialization, romanticism was characterized by an emphasis on emotional experiences, exotic subjects and individuals’ interaction with nature.
  • Most notable realism artwork was produced by Gustave Courbet and noted authors associated with realism include Charles Dickens, Mark Twain and the Brontë sisters. Realism developed as an artistic and literary movement in reaction to industrialization and as a rejection of romanticism. Characterized by artwork depicting common people doing ordinary daily tasks and literature that was created in everyday language and accessible to the masses.
WH.25B Describe examples of art, music, and literature that transcend the cultures in which they were created and convey universal themes.

Describe

EXAMPLES OF ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE THAT TRANSCEND AND CONVEY UNIVERSAL THEMES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Art, music, and literature transcend culture by effectively reflecting the universal commonalities of all humans. Transcendent art, music, and literature can be appreciated by people of different cultures, can become the basis of new artistic expressions, and can be revisited through time.
  • Universal themes in art, music, and literature give meaning, communicate ideas, and provoke an emotional response in order for the individual to understand their own unique experience and how the individual is connected to others across space and throughout time. Universal themes may include:
    • The life cycle – all experience birth, growth, and death
    • Use of symbols – all use language and non-linguistic symbols to express ideas and feelings
    • An aesthetic response – all experience art by having an emotional or intellectual reaction
    • Sense of time and place – all have the ability to recall the past and anticipate the future
    • Seek social connection – all hold membership in a variety of communities including cultural and religious institutions
    • Work – all are producers and consumers
    • Nature – all are connected to the ecology of the planet
    • Search for meaning – all attempt to discover the larger purpose to our lives
  • Using the universal themes as a lens for viewing artistic works allows humans to identify those examples that transcend the cultures in which they were produced.
WH.26 Science, technology, and society. The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations affected societies prior to 1750. The student is expected to:
WH.26C Explain the impact of the printing press on the Renaissance and the Reformation in Europe.

Explain

IMPACT OF PRINTING PRESS ON THE RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1455
  • Renaissance – printers could mass-produce copies of books at one time. Books were now cheap enough so that larger numbers of people could buy them. Travel books and medical journals spread new ideas and led to the Scientific Revolution. Literacy rose as more people began to read. Printing in vernacular languages made it easier for people who did not have a classical education to read.
  • Reformation – printing the Bible in vernacular languages led larger numbers of people to interpret it for themselves. This led to greater criticism of the Church and a call for reform.
WH.26D Describe the origins of the Scientific Revolution in 16th century Europe and explain its impact on scientific thinking worldwide.

Describe, Explain

ORIGINS AND IMPACT OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION (16th CENTURY EUROPE)

Including, but not limited to:

  • The invention of the printing press facilitated remarkable cultural growth in Western Europe and served to increase literacy. The Protestant Reformation created an environment in which medieval notions were challenged, especially about the nature of the universe. Scientists began to propose the heliocentric theory along with the idea that a scientific method of observation and experimentation should be the standard used to research and test knowledge. Eventually the heliocentric theory was accepted and medieval science rejected. With the introduction of scientific method advances were made in medicine and the pace of technological discoveries accelerated.
WH.26E

Identify the contributions of significant scientists such as Archimedes, Copernicus, Eratosthenes, Galileo, Pythagoras, Isaac Newton, and Robert Boyle.

Identify

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Copernicus (1473-1543) – proposed the theory that the Sun not the Earth was the center of the solar system in 1507(heliocentric theory), and that the Earth was really insignificant in the context of the universe.
  • Galileo (1564-1642) – developed and applied scientific principles that significantly increased astronomical understanding. In 1613, he proved Copernicus’ theory that the Sun was the center of the solar system (heliocentric theory). . Galileo also developed the modern experimental method. He proved that objects of different masses fall at the same velocity.
  • Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) – an English mathematician and physicist who devised principles to explain gravitation, that all matter attracts other matter. His idea of a universal law of gravity gave rise to the idea that the universe is governed by natural laws. This concept would be adopted by Enlightenment philosophes who argued that if there are natural laws governing the universe, then there are natural laws governing human behavior and institutions. Additionally he adapted the ideas of Galileo Galilei into three laws of motion including “for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.”
  • Robert Boyle (1627-1691) – English physicist and chemist who discovered the nature of elements and compounds, the basis of modern chemistry
WH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
WH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
WH.30 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
WH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

WH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
WH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
WH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
WH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
WH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
WH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
WH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
WH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
WH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
WH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

WH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

WH.31 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
WH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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