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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 06: An Expanding World 1450-1750 SUGGESTED DURATION : 8 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the events which occurred during the Connecting Hemispheres period (1450 to 1750), including the rising power of European nations, and changing global trade patterns. This unit is primarily a study of globalization. During this time period the first truly global trade network develops once European explorers initiate contact between societies in the western and eastern hemispheres. This contact had consequences for people in both hemispheres, but most significantly for indigenous populations in the Americas. Much of the precious metals taken from the Americans was traded in China where goods such as porcelain and tea were produced. The conquest of Constantinople by the Muslim Ottomans signaled the emergence of the Ottoman Empire which exerted control over the Anatolian peninsula and the eastern Mediterranean.  Africa continued as a source for enslaved peoples, yet during this time period the slave trade shifted from East Africa to the trans-Atlantic trade. This time period was marked by the rising power of the European nation-states. An examination of the changes brought about the shifting global patterns in the Connecting Hemispheres period is important for understanding the legacy of exploration and colonialism still affecting the world today.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit, students studied about the political, economic and social changes that occurred during the Post-Classical Era. Students learned about the rebuilding of political and economic systems in Europe and Asia as well as the emergence of a new Islamic empire. Students also learned about the increasing interactions between groups of people during the Post-Classical Era and the resulting diffusion of ideas and goods.

During this Unit

During this unit students learn about the expansion of European influence in the world with exploration, and the changing global trade patterns including the rise of the Ottoman Empire, the role of the Ming dynasty, the Columbian Exchange, the Atlantic slave trade, and the European commercial revolution as features of that development. During this unit students specifically study about European efforts to gain access to the Indian Ocean trade complex, the emergence of the Ottoman Empire, the indigenous societies in the Americas, European colonization of the Americas, and the development of a global trade network. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

It is important to note that while the inclusion of the Aztecs, Mayans and Incans in this unit is out of historical sequence, students benefit from a study of the pre-contact political, economic and social patterns in those societies in order to contrast them with the changes that result from exploration and expansion of European influence.

After this Unit

In the next unit of study students examine the causes and effects of the ideas generated during the Renaissance, Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment.

Additional Notes

The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about the impact of various societies and cultures on world events, including the influences of Islam. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.

 


Interactions among humans lead to change.

  • How does the world change as people become more connected?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

European states capitalized on new technologies, a commercial revolution, and Ming Chinese policies in their efforts to enter the Indian Ocean trade complex, while the Ottomans rebuilt a Muslim dominated trade empire.

  • Why did European traders want access to the Indian Ocean trade complex?
  • How did new technologies contribute to European exploration?
  • What economic changes were brought about by the Commercial Revolution in Europe?
  • What motivated European monarchs and explorers to pursue new routes for trade?
  • What role did the Ottomans and Ming Chinese play in global trade in the 15th century?

Economic Patterns

  • Factors of Production

Scientific/Technological Patterns

  • Exploration
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Prior to the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, indigenous groups, such as the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas had built thriving societies.

  • What was politically, socially, and economically characteristic of indigenous societies in the Americas?
  • What advances had been made by indigenous societies in the Americas?

 

Economic Patterns

  • Globalization

Political Patterns

  • Colonization

Human Processes

  • Migration

Cultural Patterns

  • Prejudice and Discrimination
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The arrival of Europeans to the Americas brought changes to the Americas, West Africa, and Europe and resulted in the creation of a global trade network.

  • How were indigenous societies in the Americas changed by colonization, the Atlantic slavery trade, and the Columbian Exchange?
  • What products were introduced to the Americas, Africa, and Europe in the Columbian Exchange?
  • How did the rapid growth of the Atlantic slave trade change West African societies?
  • What resources were part of a global trade market in the 16th century?

Political Patterns

  •  Colonization

Human Processes

  • Migration

Historical Processes

  • Change/Continuity

Cultural Patterns

  • Prejudice and Discrimination
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students often do not understand the sophistication of trade systems already in place around the world prior to European exploration.
  • Students often believe that the Trans-Atlantic slave system was primarily about trade with the southern colonies in the United States and do not know about the effects in Latin America or West Africa.

Unit Vocabulary

mercantilism – an economic philosophy that promoted the idea of a nation’s wealth was enhanced by the accumulation of bullion, a favorable balance of trade, and the establishment of overseas colonial monopolies
encomienda system– a forced labor system in which a tract of land was granted to Spanish colonists in Latin America during the 16th century that included the American Indians living on the land to serve as labor
mit’a – an economic system used by the Incas that required men to give labor service to imperial projects; the system was later adapted by Spanish colonists to require laborers to
work in the agriculture and mining sectors
Columbian Exchange –massive exchange of agricultural goods, livestock, disease, culture and people between the Old World the New World during the 16th-19th centuries
junks –  large Chinese sailing ships used for long voyages
Janissaries – an elite division of the Ottoman military that was mainly comprised of Christian boys captured in war or given as tribute

Related Vocabulary

  • tribute
  • bullion
  • mercenaries
  • indigenous
  • commercial
  • colonization
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
WH.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
WH.1D

Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 1450 to 1750: the rise of the Ottoman Empire, the influence of the Ming dynasty on world trade, European exploration and the Columbian Exchange, European expansion, and the Renaissance and the Reformation.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1450 TO 1750

Including, but not limited to:

The Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Causes

  • Turks were mercenaries for the Abbasids, which allowed them to gain military strength and political power.
  • At the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Turks obliterated a weakened Byzantine power in eastern Anatolia and by the 13th century Ottoman Turks were advancing into western Anatolia, being pushed by the Mongols.
  • Osman Bey ruled the Turks in what is today modern Turkey and established a capital at the city of Bursa.
  • In 1453 the Turks led by Mehmet II conquered Constantinople made it the new capital and renaming it Istanbul.

Effects

  • The Turks introduced an administrative system known as the devshirme and a military structure using janissaries which that lasted until 1922.
  • To avoid conflicts between Muslims and other religious groups, Turks established a religious court called the millet to settle differences.
  • The Ottomans controlled the overland trade routes that crossed Anatolia and converged in Constantinople serving as middlemen in the trade that took place throughout the empire. 
  • After the Mongol devastation of the Muslim world, the Ottomans recreated a Muslim-dominated empire that contained many ethnic groups.

The influence of the Ming dynasty of world trade
Causes

  • The Ming reestablished Chinese authority after the fall of the Mongol (Yuan) dynasty.
  • Ended the use of paper currency and required all taxes to be paid in silver, which the government hoarded.  This created demand for silver.
  • Oversees exploration were seen as a waste of money and where ended after the death of Chinese explorer Zheng He in 1433.

Effects

  • Ming demand for silver facilitated trade with the Spanish Empire. The trading port of Manila was created for this purpose.
  • Commercial ties were created with European traders wanting tea and porcelain.
  • Christian missionaries arrived in China.
  • The end of Chinese exploration left Portuguese explorers to make inroads into the Indian Ocean trade complex. 

European Exploration and the Columbian Exchange
Cause

  • Crusades created more contact and interest between European and non-European civilizations.
  • Interest in Indian Ocean trade and a need to avoid Ottoman middlemen led to attempts at finding a more direct route to the region.
  • Rumors of a “lost” Christian empire east of the Ottoman Empire fueled interest in discovering routes around Ottoman control.
  • The Portuguese were the first to make inroads into the Indian Ocean, later supplanted by the Dutch and eventually the English.
  • Christopher Columbus’ attempts to find a different route ended in the discovering the Americas by Europeans.
  • Spanish colonists brought livestock and crops, including sugar and coffee, to the New World, along with disease.  New World crops like potatoes, tomatoes, cassava, and peanuts were transferred to Africa and Eurasia.

Effects

  • Spanish conquest of regions in Central and South America and across the Caribbean.
  • Portuguese conquest of Brazil and establishment of a trading empire throughout the Indian Ocean.
  • Shift in the trans-Saharan trade to trans-Atlantic trade.
  • Vast expansion of the slavery trade created by the introduction of sugar in the New World and the expansion of sugar plantations.
  • Population increases in Europe supported by new crops, especially potatoes introduced in the Columbian exchange.
  • Decimation of the American Indian tribes with the spread of disease from the Old World and loss of local cultural practices.
  • Cultural convergence of European, American Indian and African cultures in South America (Latin America).

European Expansion
Causes

  • God, Gold, Glory- hope to spread Christianity, want of economic gain, and quest for power and personal prestige
  • Advances in navigation and ship-building coupled with the use of gunpowder weapons
  • Exploration was sponsored by wealthy European monarchs that benefited from political stability, such as the Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator
  • End of Chinese exploration
  • Perpetuation of mercantilism economic theory by European leaders

Effects

  • Development of triangular trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas
  • Rise of European political dominance and power
  • Growing competition between European nations for power and prestige
  • Rise of West African kingdoms gaining wealth by trading enslaved people for guns
  • Expansion of  capitalism
  • Commercial revolution in Europe to finance exploration coupled with the development of banking and a growing middle class
  • Loss of indigenous cultural traditions in some areas conquered by the Europeans
  • Spread of European languages, European customs and Christianity
  • Diffusion of new technologies such as guns, print materials, and scientific knowledge
  • Europeans control of key ports in Indian Ocean trade complex
  • Development of a truly global trade network
WH.6 History. The student understands the characteristics and impact of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations. The student is expected to:
WH.6A Compare the major political, economic, social, and cultural developments of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations and explain how prior civilizations influenced their development.

Compare

MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS OF MAYA, INCA, AND AZTEC CIVILIZATIONS

Explain

HOW PRIOR CIVILIZATIONS INFLUENCED DEVELOPMENT OF MAYA, INCA, AND AZTEC CIVILIZATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Descendants of hunter-gathers who cross Bering Strait and migrate to Mesoamerica
  • Olmec civilization (1200 BC-400 BC) influenced Maya civilization
    • Mesoamerica’s “Mother Culture”
    • Mexico’s Gulf coast
    • Large stone monuments and earthen pyramids
    • Elite ruling class of priests and nobles
    • Large trade network throughout Mesoamerica
  • Zapotec civilization (1000 BC-600 AD) influenced Aztec civilization as did the Toltec (c. 800-1000 AD)
    • Built capital at Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City)
    • Established a professional military and were noted warriors, which supported territorial expansion and empire-building
    • Stone temples and pyramids
    • Calendar based on movement of the Sun
    • Hieroglyphic writing
    • Toltec religious practices and mythology influenced Aztec culture
  • Andean cultures that influenced Inca civilization
    • Chavín (900 BC-200 BC) – religious civilization featuring temples; religious images and styles of art spread throughout Peru
    • Nazca (200 BC-600 AD) – irrigation systems that included underground canals; textiles and pottery; Nazca Lines (large drawings on soil of their gods)
WH.6B Explain how the Inca and Aztec empires were impacted by European exploration/colonization.

Explain

HOW INCA AND AZTEC EMPIRES WERE IMPACTED BY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Aztecs conquered by Hernando Cortes (1519)
  • Incas conquered by Francisco Pizarro (1532)
    • Superior weapons – muskets, cannons, armor
    • Use of the horse as a method of transportation
    • Diseases decimate native populations – smallpox, measles, mumps, typhus – no natural immunity
    • Intermarriage with native peoples produce a mixed-race social class knows as mestizos
    • Enslavement and harsh treatment
    • Forced labor on farms, ranches, and mines through the encomienda system
    • Conversion to Christianity
    • Native resistance that resulted in armed conflict
WH.7 History. The student understands the causes and impact of increased global interaction from 1450 to 1750. The student is expected to:
WH.7A Analyze the causes of European expansion from 1450 to 1750.

Analyze

CAUSES OF EUROPEAN EXPANSION FROM 1450 TO 1750

Including, but not limited to:

  • Renaissance ideas
  • Desire for trade routes, spices, and profits
  • Desire to spread Christianity
  • New technologies in ships and sailing
  • Desire to increase a country’s power
  • Absolute monarchs use their wealth and power to support the Age of Exploration
  • Mercantilist economic policies encouraged colonial development to exploit raw materials
WH.7B Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange.

Explain

IMPACT OF COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Columbian Exchange – the global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the European colonization of the Americas. These become staples in people’s diets in both regions.
    • New livestock including horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs and new foods including bananas, black-eyed peas, yams, and a variety of grains such as rice, barley, wheat, and oats were introduced into the Americas
    • Diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza spread to the Americans and led to the deaths of millions of members of American Indian tribes, who lacked immunities to these diseases
    • New foods and plants including corn, tomatoes, chocolate, tobacco, quinine, and potatoes introduced into the diets of Europeans resulting in large population gains
    • Inflation in Spain resulted from the influx of silver and gold into the economy
WH.7C Explain the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on West Africa and the Americas.

Explain

IMPACT OF ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE ON WEST AFRICA AND THE AMERICAS

Including, but not limited to:

  • During the 1450-1750 period, the slavery trade shifted to trans-Atlantic routes first initiated by the Portuguese and then other European traders joined in the trade
  • Africa (particularly West Africa)
    • Political – trade in enslaved people promoted warfare between African states; European weapons (guns) become an important component of political power; Europeans control very little territory in Africa; West African kingdoms emerged a powerful states –Oyo, Benin, Dahomey, Ashanti
    • At the height of the slavery trade, more than 6 million enslaved people were taken in the trans-Atlantic slavery trade
    • Economic – Atlantic slavery trade increased demand for African enslaved people by Europeans; volume of trade increased; trade patterns shifted from trans-Saharan to trans-Atlantic; demand for European manufactured goods (guns)
    • Cultural – introduction of Christianity to west Africa; African artists created products for European markets
    • Technological – gunpowder, guns
  • The Americas
    • Increase in the African populations, both directly from Africa and those who were subsequently born in the Americas and Caribbean
    • The dispersal of Africans throughout the New World is directly related to slavery, as they were forced to go wherever labor was demanded.
    • British colonies, in what is now the southern United States, depend on enslaved people labor for production of cash crops leading to increased agricultural production in North America
    • Knowledge of agriculture, including rice that spread into the Southern colonies
    • Aspects of African food, music, and art leave a lasting influence on American cultures
WH.7D Explain the impact of the Ottoman Empire on Eastern Europe and global trade.

Explain

IMPACT OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE ON EASTERN EUROPE AND GLOBAL TRADE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Eastern Europe
    • Constantinople conquered in 1453 and renamed Istanbul
    • Suleiman’s advances into Hungary and Austria in 1525, but expansion stopped with the Siege of Vienna in 1529
  • Global trade
    • Caravanseri (roadside inns) network – assured safety for traveling merchants and envoys
    • Naval trade in spices, wheat, and lumber throughout the Mediterranean, Aegean, Black and Red Seas, and the Persian Gulf
    • A desire of European traders to eliminate middlemen merchants led to new exploration efforts by Western European powers
WH.7E Explain Ming China's impact on global trade.

Explain

MING CHINA’S IMPACT ON GLOBAL TRADE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
    • Ming Dynasty moves capital to Beijing and has curiosity about the outside world
    • Expeditions launched, especially those of Zheng He
    • Impact voyages
      • Expeditions to Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and East Africa
      • Goals – impress world with the power and splendor of Ming China and expand China’s tribute system
      • Envoys from different countries travel to China with tribute
    • Voyages end after Chinese scholar-officials complain of financial waste
    • China withdraws into isolation
WH.7F Explain new economic factors and principles of Europe's Commercial Revolution.

Explain

NEW ECONOMIC FACTORS AND PRINCIPLES OF THE COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION IN EUROPE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Commercial Revolution – new business and trade practices brought about in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries
    • New wealth brought from colonies in the Americas
    • Maritime innovations such as galleons and sextants increase overseas trade and voyages of exploration
    • Rise of capitalism – private ownership and investment of wealth for profit lead to the growth of the merchant class and an increase of the money supply.
    • Joint-stock companies (Jamestown, Virginia) – investors pooled their money together to establish American colonies and usually faced minimal monetary losses because of the large number involved in the investment.
    • Mercantilism – colonies provided gold and silver (bullionism), as well as a favorable balance of trade, since they were both suppliers of raw materials and markets to their mother countries
    • Establishment of new institutions such as banks, stock exchanges, insurance companies, and futures markets
WH.15 Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
WH.15A Locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history.

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Connecting Hemispheres (1450-1750)
    • European Renaissance – Hanseatic League, Italy, Rome, Florence
    • Exploration – Spain, Portugal, Cape of Good Hope, Spice Islands, The Middle Passage, Strait of Malacca, Goa, Oyo, Benin, Dahomey, Kongo, Ashanti
    • Seljuk and Ottoman Turks – Istanbul, Anatolia, Asia Minor
WH.22 Culture. The student understands the history and relevance of major religious and philosophical traditions. The student is expected to:
WH.22C Identify examples of religious influence on various events referenced in the major eras of world history.

Identify

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

Including, but not limited to:

Connecting Hemispheres (1450-1750)

  • Missionaries and explorers were motivated to spread Christianity to colonial regions.
  • Leaders of the Reformation including Martin Luther and John Calvin were influenced to reform religious practices.
WH.23 Culture. The student understands the roles of women, children, and families in different historical cultures. The student is expected to:
WH.23B

Describe the major influences of women during major eras of world history such as Elizabeth I, Queen Victoria, Mother Teresa, Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, and Golda Meir.

Describe

INFLUENCES OF WOMEN IN WORLD HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Elizabeth I (1533-1603) – Queen of England who restored Protestantism and defeated the Spanish Armada, which solidified England as a major naval power
WH.26 Science, technology, and society. The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations affected societies prior to 1750. The student is expected to:
WH.26B Summarize the major ideas in astronomy, mathematics, and architectural engineering that developed in the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations.

Summarize

SCIENTIFIC IDEAS DEVELOPED IN THE MAYA, INCA, AND AZTEC CIVILIZATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maya
    • Astronomy – observe the movement of the Sun, Moon, and stars and relate these to the activities of their gods
    • Mathematics – 260 day religious calendar, concept of zero
    • Architectural engineering – elaborate pyramids, temples, and ball courts
  • Aztec
    • Astronomy and Mathematics – ceremonial calendar
    • Architectural engineering – Tenochtitlan designed as a planned city constructed on an island with raised causeways to the mainland; aqueducts to bring fresh water to the city; elaborate temples, palaces, and pyramids
  • Incas
    • Astronomy – two separate calendars for the day and night
    • Mathematics – accounting device known as a quipu (knotted strings); decimal system incorporated in system of governing
    • Architectural engineering – elaborate temples and palaces Machu Picchu, extensive road system, uniform system of architecture for government buildings in the empire ,terrace farming
WH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
WH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
WH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
WH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

WH.30 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
WH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

WH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
WH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
WH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
WH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
WH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
WH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
WH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
WH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
WH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
WH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

WH.31 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
WH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
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ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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