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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 05: Interactions and Diffusion 600-1450 SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the major events during the Post-Classical Era (600 to 1450) which deal with the interactions that occurred between Christian, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, and Mongols. This unit is primarily a study of human interactions. The Post-Classical Era was characterized by increasing human interactions throughout the civilized world, facilitated by the development of extensive trade routes. Additionally, human interactions were facilitated by conquest most notably during this time period was the conquest of Spain. Andalusia Spain during this time, was ruled by a Muslim Umayyad descendent which resulted in the creation of a unique society characterized by the interactions of Muslims, Jews, and Christians. The spread of Islam to India brought Muslims into contact with Hindus and its spread to Sub-Saharan Africa facilitated the conversion of many Africans. The Mongol conquests resulted in the creation of the world’s largest land based empire and facilitated the spread of Islam to East Asia, the diffusion of ideas and products across the Eurasian continent, the solidification of serfdom in Russia, and brought to an end the Islamic Empire as well as feudalism in Europe. A study of the interactions of various groups during the Post-Classical Era is necessary for understanding how technological advances and ideas were spread in the world.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit students learned about the rebuilding of political and social systems in Medieval Europe, the development of the Islamic caliphate, and the reconsolidation of China during the Post-Classical Era.

During this Unit

During this unit students study about the increasing interactions between various groups during the Post-Classical Era and the resulting changes in social, cultural, and economic patterns. Students examine diffusion along the Silk Routes, the Indian Ocean trade complex, and trade along the trans-Saharan routes; the nature of the interactions between Jews, Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; the changes brought about by the creation of the Mongol Empire; and the events that led to the end of the feudal and manorial structures of medieval Europe. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students will study about the Connecting Hemispheres Era (1450-1750) by examining the rising power of the European nations and changing global trade patterns.

Additional Notes

The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about various religious beliefs, their origins, societal impact, and their interactions; including Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, Confucianism, and Hinduism. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.


Interactions among humans lead to change.

  • How does the world change as people become more connected?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The Silk Road, the Indian Ocean trade complex, and the trans-Saharan trade routes served as conduits for both goods and culture.

  • What changes result from the diffusion of ideas and goods along major trade routes?
  • How did physical geography affect the development of trade routes?

Economic Patterns

  • Globalization

Human Processes

  • Diffusion
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Interactions between Jews, Muslims, Christians and Hindus resulted in conflict and cooperation.

  • What was characteristic of the interactions between Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Andalusia Spain?
  • What was characteristic of the interactions between Muslims and Hindus in India?
  • What was characteristic of the interactions between Muslims and Africans living in East Africa as well as sub-Saharan Africa?
  • How did the relationships between Jews, Christians, and Muslims change over time during the Post-classical Era?

Cultural Patterns

  • Belief systems
  • Customs/Traditions

Human Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

The Mongol Empire unified the Eurasian continent by obliterating the Islamic heartlands, taking over the rule of China, and making Russia a vassal state. 

  • How did the rise and fall of the Mongol Empire change the history of Russia, China and the Islamic Empire?
  • How did the creation of the Mongol Empire facilitate the diffusion of products, ideas and disease?
  • Why are the Mongols the last nomadic society to overrun Eurasian cultural centers?

Spatial Patterns

  • Migration
  • Region/Borders

Economic Patterns

  • Globalization

Human Processes

  • Conflict/Cooperation
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Political, social, and economic changes led to the end of feudalism and manorialism in Europe.

  • How did the Crusades, and Hundred Years’ War bring changes to European society?
  • How did the Bubonic Plague affect demographics and economic development in Europe?
  • How did new technologies contribute to shifting social and political patterns in Europe?

Spatial Patterns

  • Demographics

Human Processes

  • Conflict
  • Change/Continuity
  • Diffusion
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may have stereotypes about Muslim societies that characterize them as less developed and lacking advancements. 
  • Students may believe that Muslims, Jews, and Christians are constantly in conflict and may lack knowledge about times of cooperation.

Unit Vocabulary

  • diffusion –the spread of cultural elements from one area or group of people to others by contact
  • pilgrimage – a journey to a religious site
  • Crusades –series of war fought between Christians and Muslims from the 11th-13th centuries for control of the Holy Land
  • monarchy – political system in which a single ruler gains power through inheritance
  • excommunicate –to exclude someone from participation in the sacraments
  • inquisition – an official investigation, usually conducted by a political or religious group

Related Vocabulary

  • interaction
  • plague
  • Spanish Inquisition
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.1C Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 600 to 1450: the spread of major world religions and their impact on Asia, Africa, and Europe and the Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe, China, India, and Southwest Asia.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 600 TO 1450

Including, but not limited to:

Spread of major world religions
Causes

  • Pax Romana and the efficient Roman roads allowed Christian missionaries to travel throughout the Roman Empire safely
  • Urban nature of the Roman Empire created settings where missionaries were able to address large crowds speaking a common language, generally Greek or Latin
  • Christianity was attractive to all social classes within the Roman Empire as the teachings professed the equality of believers
  • Edict of Milan in 312 AD made Christianity a tolerated religion in the Roman Empire ending official persecution
  • Arab soldiers unified by Islam and attracted by the promise of plunder conquered territory from Spain to India across North Africa, Arabia and Anatolia
  • The Sassanid and Byzantine Empires were weak and therefore vulnerable to invasion
  • New converts were made in the conquered territories, especially among those already familiar with monotheism

 Effects

  • Cultural convergence of Roman and Christian traditions created cultural unity
  • Unified a politically decentralized Europe with a common culture and common usage of Latin
  • Conversion of the Germanic tribes spread the religion to northern Europe
  • Roman Catholic Church amassed large amounts of landholdings and emerged as a powerful political force
  • Biblical and classical works were preserved by Christian monks acting as scribes
  • Construction of cathedrals and numerous abbeys throughout Europe often serving as the center of town life
  • Islam served to politically and culturally unify Arabs, Persians, and many other ethnic groups in the territories conquered by the caliph
  • Trade was promoted as merchants in Muslim culture were given high social status.
  • Trade flourished along the Silk Routes and in the Indian Ocean.
  • Cultural diffusion spread knowledge along the trade routes including advances in mathematics, translations of Classical Greek texts, and new medical practices, as well as the construction of mosques, hospitals, schools, orphanages, and libraries across the region
  • Europeans and Muslims fought in the Crusades, yet contact promotes a revival of trade and economic development in Europe
  • Following Muhammad’s death no successor had been provided, so political struggles followed with the Four Rightly-Guided Caliphs and eventually the emergence of the Umayyad caliphate establishing an empire with a highly bureaucratic structure
  • Trade kingdoms with Islamic leaders established in Africa
  • Golden Age in Andalusia Spain

Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe, China, India, and Southwest Asia

Causes

  • Mongols began raiding and trading with settled societies, possibly because of changing environmental conditions on the steppe
  • Mongols adeptness at  mobility and skillful tactics as warriors resulted in huge conquests
  • Mongols were unified under one ruler, Genghis Khan

Effects

  • Created the largest land-based empire across Eurasia which facilitated the spread of products and disease.
  • Facilitated peacefully travel and trade along the Silk Road heralding the Pax Mongolica
  • Conquered Beijing in 1215, placing China under foreign rule for the first time
  • Kublai Khan (of the Yuan dynasty of China) kept Chinese political and economic systems in place, but ended the civil service exams
  • In China, Mongols segregated themselves from Chinese people
  • Destroyed the Muslim heartlands around Baghdad ending the Muslim caliphate; were stopped in Egypt by Mamluks, shifting Arab power to Egypt
  • Mongols converted to Islam and were absorbed into Muslim society in Southwest Asia
  • Russia was made a tribute state resulting in the expansion of serfdom
  • Cultural diffusion was facilitated across the Eurasian continent
  • India stayed protected from Mongol invasions until the late 14th century
  • Marked the final threat of nomadic invasions of settle civilizations
NewWH.4 History. The student understands how, after the collapse of classical empires, new political, economic, and social systems evolved and expanded from 600 to 1450. The student is expected to:
NewWH.4C Explain the political, economic, and social impact of Islam on Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Explain

 POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ISLAM ON EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA

 Including, but not limited to:

Political, Economic, Social Impact of Islam Europe

  • By the 1200s Muslim invaders (Moors) had significant influence in Spain and Portugal during the 8th-10th centuries. The Moors were expelled from Spain in 1492 during the Reconquista.
  • While in Spain, Muslim advances in medicine, science and technology spread to the region and the knowledge from the Greeks and Romans was preserved.
  • In the 13th century the Turks began to consolidate an empire in Anatolia, known as the Ottoman Empire, increasing contact between Muslims and Christians in Eastern Europe.
  • In 1453 the Ottomans took control of Constantinople, ending the final outpost of Byzantine Empire and the last vestige of the Roman Empire.

Political, Economic, Social Impact of Islam on Asia

  • By the early 700s Islam spanned from Spain to India. Created multi-ethnic empire lead by Islamic caliph.
  • Spread Arabic language, facilitated trade across Southwest Asia. 
  • In 1206, Muslim s captured the city of Delhi and consolidated most of northern India under their control. Muslims generals established the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1520). Very few Hindus converted to Islam, mostly only those of lower castes.
  • By 1258 the Mongols invaded the Muslim Empire, but an Islamic state survived in India as the Delhi Sultanate.

Political, Economic, Social Impact of Islam on Africa

  • Islam spread to North Africa in the 7th century and over the next hundred years spread through the Sahara and to sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Islam spread to Africa overland across the Sahara and to the east coast of Africa via the Indian Ocean.
  • Trade across the Sahara was centered on the gold and salt trade while trade from the east coast of Africa centered on the trade of enslaved people.
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, by the 1300s converts to Islam were the nomadic Berbers. In western Sub-Sahara the most powerful was the state of Mali and was founded by Sundiata. Mali’s most famous Muslim ruler was Mansa Musa (1312-1337), who was known throughout the region for his great pilgrimage to Mecca.
NewWH.4D Describe the interactions among Muslim, Christian, and Jewish societies in Europe, Asia, and North Africa.

Describe

INTERACTIONS AMONG MUSLIM, CHRISTIAN, AND JEWISH SOCIETIES IN EUROPE, ASIA, AND NORTH AFRICA

Including, but not limited to:

  • As Islam expanded, "People of the Book" including Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians, were tolerated and allowed to continue practicing provided they obeyed Muslim governmental authority and paid a special "non-Muslim" tax. Converts were accepted into Muslim society.
  • Christians and Jews served as officials, scholars, and bureaucrats in Muslim states.
  • Muslims set up an extensive trade network between Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
  • Muslim scholars in major cities, such as Alexandria, translated and studied the works of the classical Greeks and Romans, thereby preserving the works for future generations in the West.
  • Berbers, who had originally been Christian and Jewish, converted to Islam in the 600s.
  • The conquest of Spain in the 8th century by Muslims resulted in the establishment of the Andalusian Umayyad dynasty lasting from 756-1031 in the region. Andalusia, Spain was home to a significant Jewish and Christian populations. Jews and Christians had some measure of freedom in Andalusia, yet did not have the same social status as Muslims. The three cultures thrived during this period of Muslim rule and the time is often thought of as a “golden age.” Muslim scholars of this time facilitated the spread of classical philosophical ideas and scientific knowledge to other parts of Europe. Christian Spanish nobles reconquered Spain (Reconquista) driving out Muslims by 1492.
  • Muslim invasions of Eastern Europe between the 600s and 900s led to disorder and suffering that forced people to look to local rulers for security; contributing to the rise of feudalism
  • Relationships varied between the Catholic Church and Jews living in Europe, depending on the policies of individual popes
  • A series of wars initiated by the Catholic Church called the Crusades occurred from 1096 – 1291 and brought Christians, Jews, and Muslims into significant conflict. The Crusades originated as an effort to recapture the Holy Land instigated by Pope Urban II. Some crusaders attacked Jewish communities in Europe as well as the city of Byzantium while on the journey to the fighting in the Holy Land. The Crusades were not particularly a military success for the Christians, but did expose Christians to the Muslim trade networks which would fuel the European age of exploration.
NewWH.4E Describe the interactions between Muslim and Hindu societies in South Asia.

Describe

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MUSLIM AND HINDU SOCIETIES IN SOUTH ASIA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Muslim tribes from Central Asia invade northwestern India in the 600s
  • Turkish warlords invade India in 1000 and establish the Delhi Sultanate, where Hindus were treated as conquered people
  • Mughal ruler Akbar establishes a golden age in India
    • Religious freedom for Hindus and non-Muslims
    • Taxation on Hindu pilgrims and on non-Muslims abolished
    • Mingling of Arabic, Persian, and Hindu cultures led to new developments in art and literature and the use of the Urdu language in army camps (mixture of the Hindi language, with Sanskrit, Persian, Turkish, and Arabic words)
  • Shah Jahan – construction of the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife
  • Aurangzeb – expansion of Mughal empire throughout most of the Indian subcontinent
    • His harsh policies against Hindus included bringing back the tax on pilgrimages, banning of Hindu temple construction, destruction of Hindu monuments, and dismissal of Hindus from government positions
  • Sikhs break away and establish a separate state in Punjab
  • The Portuguese turn over Bombay to English troops and merchants, which leads to the beginning of British conquest of India (1661)
NewWH.4F Explain how the Crusades, the Black Death, and the Hundred Years' War contributed to the end of medieval Europe.

Explain

HOW THE CRUSADES, THE BLACK DEATH, AND THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR CONTRIBUTED TO END OF MEDIEVAL EUROPE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Crusades
    • Failure lessened the power of the Pope
    • Casualties weakened the feudal nobility
    • Trade in spices and other goods from Southwest Asia lead to European desire for new trade routes that begins the Era of Exploration
  • Black Death
    • Collapse of manorial system as productivity ends and serfs leave manors in search of work; peasant rebellions grow in response to nobles’ refusal to increase wages
    • Church loses prestige as it is unable to stop the plague through prayer and intervention
  • Hundred Years War
    • Emergence of nationalism and monarchs as national leaders in England and France
    • Instability in England after the Hundred Years War leads to the War of the Roses, which strengthens Parliament since it is called frequently by King Edward III to increase taxes to finance this new war; democracy advanced as Parliament gains greater “power of the purse”
NewWH.4H Explain the evolution and expansion of the slave trade.

Explain

EVOLUTION AND EXPANSION OF THE SLAVE TRADE

Including, but not limited to:

  • During the Classical Era generally prisoners of war were a source for enslaved people. Some enslaved people served in households in Classical Greece and Classical Rome.
  • During the 7th century the slavery trade expanded when Islamic traders trade goods for Africans and transport enslaved people to Southwest Asia
  • During the 600-1450 period, the slavery trade was prominent along the eastern coast of Africa and across the trans-Saharan trade routes
  • Muslim African rulers enslave non-Muslims because Islam prohibited Muslims from enslaving fellow Muslims
  • 4.5 million Africans transported as enslaved people to Southwest Asia between 650 and 1000 AD
NewWH.4I Analyze how the Silk Road and the African gold-salt trade facilitated the spread of ideas and trade.

Analyze

HOW SILK ROAD AND AFRICAN GOLD-SALT TRADE FACILITATED SPREAD OF IDEAS AND TRADE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Silk Road – long-distance trade route from China to Rome; products from the east such as spices and silk transported west, Roman ideas taken to their eastern provinces; Indian and Arabic traders act as middlemen and grow wealthy; promotion of cultural diffusion between regions that come into contact with each other including the spread of Buddhism to China from India
  • African Gold-Salt Trade – Arab and Berber traders took salt from the Sahara to West Africa in exchange for gold; African traders also crossed the Sahara to trade gold for salt in North Africa; cloth and weapons from Mediterranean ports taken to West Africa; powerful rulers in Ghana and Mali regulated the gold trade in West Africa
NewWH.4J Summarize the changes resulting from the Mongol invasions of Russia, China, and the Islamic world.

Summarize

CHANGES RESULTING FROM MONGOL INVASIONS OF RUSSIA, CHINA, AND ISLAMIC WORLD

Including, but not limited to:

  • Genghis Khan’s unification of the nomadic tribes in northeast Asia facilitated the eventually consolidation of a vast Eurasian empire
  • Russia
    • Fall of Kiev (1240)
    • Russian religion and culture permitted to continue as long as high tributes were paid; as a tribute state the practice of serfdom expands
    • Isolation from Western Europe prevents spread of new ideas and inventions
    • Moscow emerges as a major city
    • Ivan III assumes the title of czar and achieves a bloodless standoff at the Ugra River that leads to separation from the Mongols
  • China
    • Northern China conquered by Ögedei (Genghis Khan’s son) in 1234
    • Kublai Khan, completes the capture of southern China
    • China united for the first time in 300 years
    • Mongol control over Asia opens China to foreign contacts and trade (Marco Polo)
  • Islamic world
    • Hulagu (grandson of Genghis Khan) captures Baghdad and has over 10,000 people killed
    • End of Seljuk Turkish rule after the capture of the Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia
    • Poor administration of captured regions leads to dissolution of the Mongol Empire and rise of the Ottoman Turks
NewWH.15 Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
NewWH.15A Locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history.

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Post-Classical Era (600-1450)
    • Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, Black Sea
    • Sahara Desert, Ghana, Mali
    • The Americas – Bering Strait, Mesoamerica, Andes Mountains, Chichen Itza, Tenochtitlan
    • Rise of Islam – Arabia, Mecca, Baghdad, Cairo, Spain, Iberian Peninsula, Jerusalem, Holy Land
    • Mongol Empire – Mongolia, Moscow
    • East Asia – Korea, Japan, Angkor Wat, Beijing, Tang China, Song China, Chang’an, Guangzhou
    • Europe – France, Normandy, Charlemagne’s Empire, England, Hastings, Paris, London, Holy Roman Empire
NewWH.15B

Analyze the influence of human and physical geographic factors on major events in world history such as the development of river valley civilizations, trade in the Indian Ocean, and the opening of the Panama and Suez canals.

Analyze

INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to: 

  • Trade in the Indian Ocean
    • Trade divided into an Arab zone, Indian zone and Chinese zone; thrived for years prior to the arrival of Europeans
    • Arab traders spread Islam to East Africa
    • Arab slavery trade along East African coast; later influences the European slavery trade
    • Piracy (both historic and contemporary)
    • European voyages of exploration bring spices from the East Indies and contribute to the Commercial Revolution in Europe
NewWH.22 Culture. The student understands the history and relevance of major religious and philosophical traditions. The student is expected to:
NewWH.22C Identify examples of religious influence on various events referenced in the major eras of world history.

Identify

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

Including, but not limited to

Post-Classical Era (600-1450)

  • Christianity served as a cultural unifying force in Western Europe, providing Christians with a sense of security and a religious community.
  • At the local level, the church was the religious and social center. People met there for service, social gatherings and festive celebrations.
  • Pope Urban II used the promise of salvation to attract knights to fight in the Crusades.
  • Many had religious motivations for participation in the Crusades.
  • Islam served as a cultural unifying force bringing together many ethnic groups.
  • Islamic merchants facilitated trade, which spread Arabic. In Africa Arabic mixes with Bantu to create Swahili.

 

NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewWH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
NewWH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewWH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

NewWH.30 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewWH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
NewWH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
NewWH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewWH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
NewWH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewWH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

NewWH.31 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
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ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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