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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 04: Medieval Rebuilding and Reconsolidation 600-1450 SUGGESTED DURATION : 12 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address the major events during the Post-Classical Era (600 to 1450) which deal with the rebuilding of political, economic and social systems that collapsed with the fall of the Roman and Han Empires. This unit is primarily a study of redevelopment. Following the collapse of the Classical Empires, societies reformed and rebuilt. Some based on previous institutions, such as with the spread of Christianity or the revival of Confucianism, and some with the introduction of new institutions, such as Islam. Prior to the collapse of the Roman Empire the territory had been divided into western and eastern regions. In the Post-Classical Era the eastern region reconstituted to be the Byzantine Empire and the western region was initially consolidate by Frankish rulers. The demise of the Frankish kingdom left western Europe once again without a centralized government, allowing for the emergence of a manorial system and feudalism. The strongest surviving institution of the Roman Empire was Roman Catholicism which spread as a cultural force throughout western Europe during this period. During this time period Islam originated and spread to be a unifying force throughout much of Southwest Asia and North Africa, while in East Asia the revival of the Chinese dynastic cycle ushered in a period of economic and technological advances. An examination of the Post-Classical Era is important for understanding how the world became divided into western and eastern traditions and the division that arose between Christianity and Islam.

Prior to this Unit

Prior to this unit students learned about the political, economic, and social changes that characterized the expansion of empires during the Classical Era, with an examination of the empires that controlled China, India and the Mediterranean.

During this Unit

During this unit students study about the rebuilding of political, economic and social systems in Europe, Southwest Asia and China that characterized the Post-Classical Era. In this unit students examine how Christian European leaders in the Frankish kingdom and Byzantium worked to reconsolidate European institutions; how feudalism and manorialism developed in Western Europe; how Islam served as a unifying force for a Muslim empire built in Southwest Asia; and how China reconsolidated around Confucian philosophies during the Tang and Song dynasties. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In the next unit students continue to study events of the Post-Classical Era, by examining the increasing contact and interactions between societies across Eurasia and in Africa.

Additional Notes

The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about various religious beliefs, their origins, societal impact, and their interactions; including Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, Confucianism, and Hinduism. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?

Culture serves to unify people.

  • What commonalities binds people together as a group?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

Christianity served as a cultural unifying force across medieval Europe as Frankish and Byzantine rulers attempted to reconsolidate European political unity.

  • How did political reconsolidation attempts by Frankish and Byzantine rulers differ?
  • What was significant about Justinian’s Code?
  • What social role did Christianity play in the lives of Europeans during the Post-classical Era?
  • How was the power of the Roman Catholic Church reflected in medieval Europe?

Cultural Patterns

  • Belief systems
  • Customs/Traditions

Historical Processes

  • Change/Continuity
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

In the absence of centralized government in Western Europe, local institutions emerged including the political system of feudalism for providing protection as well as the economic system of manorialism for meeting basic needs.

  • How did the collapse of the Roman Empire affect the development of feudalism and manorialism?
  • Why did feudalism and manorialism eventually end?
  • What role did manorialism play in the development of feudal society?

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems

Economic Patterns

  • Scarcity/Choices
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

As Islam spread, several ethnic groups were unified into a single empire, yet disputes over leadership resulted in struggles over political succession.

  • Why did an Islamic empire develop and expand so quickly?
  • What cultural and technological legacy was left by the spread of Islam?
  • What “growing pains” of empire did the Islamic Empire face?

Cultural Patterns

  • Belief systems
  • Community

Historical Processes

  • Growth/Decay
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

A revival of the Chinese Dynasty provided for a cultural, economic and technological renaissance in China.

  • What economic and technological innovations facilitated imperial growth in Post-classical China?
  • How did the revival of Confucian teachings affect Chinese society in the Post-classical Era?
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students sometimes believe that all Muslims are Arabs, yet the religion was adopted by a variety of cultural groups including Persians, Turks, Berbers, and South Asians.
  • Students sometime equate feudalism to manorialism.
  • Students may have a misconception about the connection between Roman Catholicism and Christianity.

Unit Vocabulary

feudalism –a form of political organization that is characterized by a relationship between a lord and a vassal where the lord exchanges land for military service from the vassal  
manor –economically self-sufficient estate of land controlled by a lord
fief – parcel of land given to a vassal by a lord
caliphate – the lands comprising the political-religious state of Muslims ruled by a caliph
scholar-gentry –class of Chinese officials who passes civil service exams to work in the bureaucracy
monotheism    worship of one god
schism –a division over a difference of opinion, generally used in the case of split over religious differences
Pope – religious leader of the Roman Catholic Church
Patriarch – a religious leader in the Eastern Orthodox Church

Related Vocabulary

  • manorialism
  • caliph
  • monks
  • arabesque
  • mosque
  • monastery
  • samurai
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.1C

Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following important turning points in world history from 600 to 1450: the spread of major world religions and their impact on Asia, Africa, and Europe and the Mongol invasions and their impact on Europe, China, India, and Southwest Asia.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 600 TO 1450

Including, but not limited to:

Spread of major world religions
Causes

  • Pax Romana and the efficient Roman roads allowed Christian missionaries to travel throughout the Roman Empire safely
  • Urban nature of the Roman Empire created settings where missionaries were able to address large crowds speaking a common language, generally Greek or Latin
  • Christianity was attractive to all social classes within the Roman Empire as the teachings professed the equality of believers
  • Edict of Milan in 312 AD made Christianity a tolerated religion in the Roman Empire ending official persecution
  • Arab soldiers unified by Islam and attracted by the promise of plunder conquered territory from Spain to India across North Africa, Arabia and Anatolia
  • The Sassanid and Byzantine Empires were weak and therefore vulnerable to invasion
  • New converts were made in the conquered territories, especially among those already familiar with monotheism

 Effects

  • Cultural convergence of Roman and Christian traditions created cultural unity
  • Unified a politically decentralized Europe with a common culture and common usage of Latin
  • Conversion of the Germanic tribes spread the religion to northern Europe
  • Roman Catholic Church amassed large amounts of landholdings and emerged as a powerful political force
  • Biblical and classical works were preserved by Christian monks acting as scribes
  • Construction of cathedrals and numerous abbeys throughout Europe often serving as the center of town life
  • Islam served to politically and culturally unify Arabs, Persians, and many other ethnic groups in the territories conquered by the caliph
  • Trade was promoted as merchants in Muslim culture were given high social status.
  • Trade flourished along the Silk Routes and in the Indian Ocean.
  • Cultural diffusion spread knowledge along the trade routes including advances in mathematics, translations of Classical Greek texts, and new medical practices, as well as the construction of mosques, hospitals, schools, orphanages, and libraries across the region
  • Europeans and Muslims fought in the Crusades, yet contact promotes a revival of trade and economic development in Europe
  • Following Muhammad’s death no successor had been provided, so political struggles followed with the Four Rightly-Guided Caliphs and eventually the emergence of the Umayyad caliphate establishing an empire with a highly bureaucratic structure
  • Trade kingdoms with Islamic leaders established in Africa
  • Golden Age in Andalusia Spain

 

NewWH.4 History. The student understands how, after the collapse of classical empires, new political, economic, and social systems evolved and expanded from 600 to 1450. The student is expected to:
NewWH.4A Explain the development of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy as social and political factors in medieval Europe and the Byzantine Empire.

Explain

DEVELOPMENT OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM AND EASTERN ORTHODOXY IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE AND BYZANTINE EMPIRE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Medieval Europe
    • Missionaries spread Christianity converting the Germanic tribes
    • Authority in medieval Europe based on the Church
    • Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III, which shows the close connection between church and state
    • Papal powers included the use of excommunication and interdict to exercise power over kings and nobles
    • Shared beliefs in Christianity bond the people of medieval Europe
    • Church provided stability and security in times of frequent wars
    • Middle  Ages seen as the “Age of Faith”
    • Church creates a system of justice (canon law) to regulate people’s conduct
  • Byzantine Empire
    • Constantine relocates the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium and renames it Constantinople creating a new center for Christian authority in competition with the Bishop of Rome
    • The political division on the Roman Empire in 395 along with differences in language and custom between eastern and western provinces led to two distinct cores of Christianity emerging through Western Catholicism in Rome and Eastern Orthodoxy in Constantinople
    • Justinian constructs the Hagia Sophia along with numerous other grand churches throughout his empire to show the close connection between church and state
    • Missionary saints Cyril and Methodius Christianize Slavs to the north of the empire and develop the Cyrillic language to promote religion to the Slavs
  • Great  Schism (East-West Schism) of 1054 divides the Eastern and Western Churches into Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church with each side sometimes accusing the other of heresy

 

 

NewWH.4B Describe the major characteristics of and the factors contributing to the development of the political/social system of feudalism and the economic system of manorialism.

Describe

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FEUDALISM (POLITICAL AND SOCIAL) AND MANORIALISM (ECONOMIC)

Including, but not limited to:

  • Feudalism – reciprocal military obligations between members of the warrior nobility in Medieval Europe
    • Characteristics – lords grant parcels of land known as fiefs to lesser knights who are known as vassals, who in turn provide military service to the lord. Chivalry and fealty between a lord and the vassal govern behaviors and actions in the relationship
    • Contributing factors – the latifundia, great agricultural estates awarded to powerful Roman officers and worked by peasants or enslaved people, served as a new center of local power after the fall of the Roman Empire left a gap in protection and services to people; invaders overrun communities; people turn to the landowner for their protection
  • Manorialism – smallest economic, social unit revolving around an estate, controlled by a lord, who gives land and protection to his serfs, who in turn give him their services (land = wealth)
    • Characteristics – manors were self-sufficient where serfs raised and produced nearly everything needed for that community. The open field system allowed several families of serfs to farm strips of the same parcel of land. Living conditions for serfs were generally harsh on manors.
    • Contributing factors – based on the latifundia model  in the Roman Empire used to manage rural economies; decline in overland and sea trade after the fall of the Roman empire, as well as threats from invaders also promoted the self-sufficiency of a manor
NewWH.4C Explain the political, economic, and social impact of Islam on Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Explain

 POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL IMPACT OF ISLAM ON EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA

 Including, but not limited to:

Political, Economic, Social Impact of Islam Europe

  • By the 1200s Muslim invaders (Moors) had significant influence in Spain and Portugal during the 8th-10th centuries. The Moors were expelled from Spain in 1492 during the Reconquista.
  • While in Spain, Muslim advances in medicine, science and technology spread to the region and the knowledge from the Greeks and Romans was preserved.
  • In the 13th century the Turks began to consolidate an empire in Anatolia, known as the Ottoman Empire, increasing contact between Muslims and Christians in Eastern Europe.
  • In 1453 the Ottomans took control of Constantinople, ending the final outpost of Byzantine Empire and the last vestige of the Roman Empire.

Political, Economic, Social Impact of Islam on Asia

  • By the early 700s Islam spanned from Spain to India. Created multi-ethnic empire lead by Islamic caliph.
  • Spread Arabic language, facilitated trade across Southwest Asia. 
  • In 1206, Muslim s captured the city of Delhi and consolidated most of northern India under their control. Muslims generals established the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1520). Very few Hindus converted to Islam, mostly only those of lower castes.
  • By 1258 the Mongols invaded the Muslim Empire, but an Islamic state survived in India as the Delhi Sultanate.

Political, Economic, Social Impact of Islam on Africa

  • Islam spread to North Africa in the 7th century and over the next hundred years spread through the Sahara and to sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Islam spread to Africa overland across the Sahara and to the east coast of Africa via the Indian Ocean.
  • Trade across the Sahara was centered on the gold and salt trade while trade from the east coast of Africa centered on the trade of enslaved people.
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, by the 1300s converts to Islam were the nomadic Berbers. In western Sub-Sahara the most powerful was the state of Mali and was founded by Sundiata. Mali’s most famous Muslim ruler was Mansa Musa (1312-1337), who was known throughout the region for his great pilgrimage to Mecca.
NewWH.4G Summarize the major political, economic, and cultural developments in Tang and Song China and their impact on Eastern Asia.

Summarize

MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS IN TANG AND SONG CHINA AND IMPACT ON EASTERN ASIA

Including, but not limited to:

  • Tang China (618 AD-907 AD)
    • Political developments
      • Emperor Taizong extends China’s boundaries north to Manchuria, south to Vietnam, and west to the Aral Sea
      • Empress Wu Zhao extends Chinese influence to the Korean Peninsula
      • Scholar – officials take competitive civil service exams to work in government offices
      • Government census was taken; capital city Chang’an was largest city in the world at the time
    • Economic developments
      • Foreign trade on the Silk Roads grows
      • Arrival of tea from Southeast Asia
      • New inventions – porcelain, mechanical clocks, block printing, gunpowder all increase trade and spread to Japan and Korea
      • Construction of the Grand Canal linked the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers and facilitated the shipment of rice to urban centers
    • Cultural developments
      • Spread of Buddhism through trade networks to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
      • Greater social mobility and movement to cities
      • Decline in the status of women including the beginning of binding the feet of upper class girls
  • Song China (960 AD-1279 AD)
    • Political developments
      • Rule limited to Southern China after Tang losses in Central Asia and Manchuria
    • Economic developments
      • Introduction of a fast-growing rice from Vietnam that led to faster growing population
      • Movable type spreads to Japan and Korea
      • Paper money contributes to a large-scale economy
      • Advances in sailing technology, such as the magnetic compass, lead to the growth of ocean trade
    • Cultural developments
      • New height in Chinese art – natural landscapes and objects drawn with black ink
      • China’s population at 100 million with ten cities having at least 1 million people
NewWH.15 Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
NewWH.15A Locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history.

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Post-Classical Era (600-1450)
    • Byzantine Empire, Constantinople, Black Sea
    • Sahara Desert, Ghana, Mali
    • The Americas – Bering Strait, Mesoamerica, Andes Mountains, Chichen Itza, Tenochtitlan
    • Rise of Islam – Arabia, Mecca, Baghdad, Cairo, Spain, Iberian Peninsula, Jerusalem, Holy Land
    • Mongol Empire – Mongolia, Moscow
    • East Asia – Korea, Japan, Angkor Wat, Beijing, Tang China, Song China, Chang’an, Guangzhou
    • Europe – France, Normandy, Charlemagne’s Empire, England, Hastings, Paris, London, Holy Roman Empire
NewWH.22 Culture. The student understands the history and relevance of major religious and philosophical traditions. The student is expected to:
NewWH.22B

Describe the historical origins, central ideas, and spread of major religious and philosophical traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism.

Describe

HISTORICAL ORIGINS, CENTRAL IDEAS, AND SPREAD OF MAJOR RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL TRADITIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Christianity
  • Islam
NewWH.22C Identify examples of religious influence on various events referenced in the major eras of world history.

Identify

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE

Including, but not limited to:

Post-Classical Era (600-1450)

  • Christianity served as a cultural unifying force in Western Europe, providing Christians with a sense of security and a religious community.
  • At the local level, the church was the religious and social center. People met there for service, social gatherings and festive celebrations.
  • Pope Urban II used the promise of salvation to attract knights to fight in the Crusades.
  • Many had religious motivations for participation in the Crusades.
  • Islam served as a cultural unifying force bringing together many ethnic groups.
  • Islamic merchants facilitated trade, which spread Arabic. In Africa Arabic mixes with Bantu to create Swahili.

 

NewWH.25 Culture. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created. The student is expected to:
NewWH.25A Analyze examples of how art, architecture, literature, music, and drama reflect the history of the cultures in which they are produced; and

Analyze

ART, ARCHITECTURE, LITERATURE, MUSIC, DRAMA REFLECT HISTORY OF CULTURES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Societies produce art, architecture, literature, music, and drama that reflect the cultural values of the society.  For example religious influences are evident in the temples in ancient Greece and South Asia, as well as in the Gothic cathedrals of Europe. Landscape paintings produced by artists in East Asia reflect the ideal of living in harmony and nature, a cultural current of societies living in the region.
  • An analysis of art, architecture, literature, music, and drama should include an examination of the political, religious, intellectual, and economic conditions of the time along with an examination of the universal theme conveyed by the work.

Possible examples for analysis:

  • Islamic poetry reflects the oral heritage of the nomadic Arab tribes, most famous of the Muslim poets is Rumi a 13th century Sufi mystic.
  • Islamic literature produced during the Abbasid Golden Age includes One Thousand and One Nights, a collection of stories from West and South Asia again reflecting the rich oral traditions of this region. Was later translated into English as The Arabian Nights.
  • Noh drama developed in Japan during the 13th century is characterized by musical drama with an emphasis on the interactions of the performers reflects the nature of “eastern societies’’ emphasis on group cooperation.
  • Samurai armor and sword making reflected the influence of feudalism in Japan.
NewWH.26 Science, technology, and society. The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations affected societies prior to 1750. The student is expected to:
NewWH.26A

Identify the origin and diffusion of major ideas in mathematics, science, and technology that occurred in river valley civilizations, classical Greece and Rome, classical India, the Islamic caliphates between 700 and 1200, and China from the Tang to Ming dynasties.

Identify

ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY THAT TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 700 AND 1200

Including, but not limited to:

  • Islamic caliphates
    • Baghdad – House of Wisdom preserves and translates scientific and medical documents into Arabic
    • Astrolabe
    • Algebra
  • Tang to Ming China
    • Porcelain
    • Movable type
    • Gunpowder
    • Mechanical clock
    • Paper money
    • Magnetic compass
    • Chinese junks, large ships some more than 400 feet in length with a capacity to displace up to 1500 tons of water with four large masts
    • Initial fleet of junks included 62 ships that carried nearly 28,000 sailors, merchants, and soldiers
NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewWH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewWH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

NewWH.30 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewWH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
NewWH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
NewWH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewWH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
NewWH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
NewWH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewWH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

NewWH.31 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
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ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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