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Instructional Focus Document
World History Studies
TITLE : Unit 02: Foundations of Civilization 8000 BC-500 BC SUGGESTED DURATION : 15 days

Unit Overview

Introduction

This unit bundles student expectations that address historical events of the Development of River Valley Civilization period (8000 BC through 500 BC), including the Neolithic Revolution as well as the development of the world’s earliest civilizations which resulted from the establishment of farming and production of surplus agriculture. This unit is primarily a study of transition from Neolithic society to civilizations. An understanding of how historians characterize civilizations explains why some societies throughout history have gained power over other societies and why historical study has concentrated on the story of civilizations.

Prior to this Unit

In Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 students are introduced to the idea that communities have rules to provide order and security. In Grade 3 students learn about how government is established as an institution to establish order, provide security, and manage conflict. In Grades 4 and 7 students learn specifically about the establishment of government in Texas and in Grades 5 and 8 students learned about the establishment of government in the United States. In Grade 6 students studied about limited and unlimited governments and types of governments around the world. Students should come to World History with the conceptual idea that societies or communities are defined by having government.

During this Unit

During this unit, students study about the Neolithic Revolution and how the development of farming led to the establishment of early settled communities. Students also study about the characteristics of civilizations and the early river valley civilizations. Students also learn about the creation of societal institutions in each of the river valley civilizations. Most specifically students learn about early forms of government and laws along with the technological and scientific advances made in the river valley civilizations. Additionally, students continue to develop historical inquiry skills by acquiring information from various sources, identifying multiple viewpoints in sources, and evaluating sources for bias and validity. All social studies skills expectations are included in this unit to support the inquiry process that should be incorporated into classroom instruction and assessment.

After this Unit

In Unit 3 students study about the expansion of civilization during the Classical Era and the continued development of political, economic, and cultural patterns evidenced in the classical empires of Persia, India, and China in Asia as well as the Greek and Roman empires in the Mediterranean region. Further students will begin to study the origins or the classical religions and philosophical traditions, especially monotheism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

Additional Notes

The academic standards adopted by the Texas State Board of Education require students to learn about various religious beliefs, their origins, societal impact, and their interactions; including Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism, Confucianism, and Hinduism. The issues within this standard could be viewed as controversial, and teachers are encouraged to consider the values of their local community and consult locally-adopted instructional materials when developing their instruction for this subject. Content presented within the TEKS Resource System should not be interpreted as the sole source of information, as it is only a sample of information that may be beneficial as the teacher determines what material is applicable and appropriate for use in instruction. Again, teachers are ultimately responsible for the content they present and they are encouraged to consult locally-adopted resources and consider the values of the local community when crafting instruction.


Societies utilize institutions to promote order, security, and stability.

  • How do societies act to ensure the well-being of their people?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The production of surplus agriculture led to the development of permanent settlements.

  • How did the development of agriculture allow for the development of other types of labor?
  • Why is specialized labor fundamental to the growth of complex institutions?
  • How did the management of irrigation lead to the creation of government?

Cultural Patterns

  • Community

Spatial Patterns

  • Human-Environment Interaction
  • Population Distribution
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

River valleys provided favorable physical geography for the development of early civilizations where new political, economic, social, and cultural institutions emerge.

  • What characteristics distinguished early civilizations from “non-civilized” groups?
  • Why did early civilizations create institutions, such as government and religious practices?
  • What belief systems developed in the river valley civilizations?

Cultural Patterns

  • Belief Systems

Political Patterns

  • Governmental Systems
Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

Unit performance tasks are intended to serve as an additional assessment resource, especially for classrooms implementing performance/project based instructional models. Teachers may choose to use performance tasks as one large unit encompassing assessment in conjunction with incorporating the performance assessments as instructional processing activities or as an alternative to administering all of the unit performance assessments. Please consult the Unit Performance Tasks Best Practices resource for a more in-depth guide to implementation of performance tasks as an assessment tool.

Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

  • Students may believe that the Neolithic Revolution was similar to some political revolutions that are often associated with violence.
  • Students may have the misconception that early man existed at the same time as dinosaurs.
  • The concept of a timeline is underdeveloped when differentiating between BC and AD or BCE and CE.
  • Students also have an underdeveloped understanding of centuries, often assuming that, for example, the 18th century coincides with the 1800s.

Unit Vocabulary

  • periodization – dividing time into historical eras for purposes of analysis
  • Neolithic Revolution – prehistorical shift in human activity from hunting and gathering to agriculture resulting in human settlements 
  • civilization – a society characterized by established cities, specialized labor, complex institutions, written records, and advanced technology
  • institution – a long-standing custom, practice, or tradition adopted by a group of people
  • city-state – an independent political unit made up of a city and surrounding land
  • dynasty – a series of rulers from a single family
  • empire – a political unit where large numbers of people and areas of land are controlled by one ruler
  • pictographic script – form of writing based on the use of symbols, including cuneiform and hieroglyphics
  • polytheism –belief in multiple gods

Related Vocabulary

  • irrigation
  • cultural diffusion
  • societies
  • hunter-gatherer
  • Fertile Crescent
  • pastoral nomad
  • agriculture
  • ziggurat
  • pyramid
  • cuneiform
  • hieroglyphics
  • archeologist
  • anthropologist
Unit Assessment Items System Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.


TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
  • A Partial Specificity label indicates that a portion of the specificity not aligned to this unit has been removed.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in world history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.1A Identify major causes and describe the major effects of the following events from 8000 BC to 500 BC: the development of agriculture and the development of the river valley civilizations.

Identify, Describe

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC EVENTS BETWEEN 8000 BC AND 500 BC

Including, but not limited to:

Development of agriculture

  • Known as Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution

Causes

  • Hunting and gathering bands scattered seeds near campsites resulting in the growth of crops
  • Climate changes that created a rise in temperatures resulted in longer growing seasons and drier land.

Effects

  • Shift from food gathering to food producing.
  • Establishment of permanent settlements and eventually the first cities.
  • Writing developed as a method of record keeping related to farming and flooding of the rivers.
  • A need for oversight of irrigation systems led to the development of government.
  • Settled communities created common cultures and were characterized by less social equality in comparison to hunting and gathering societies.
  • Villages were susceptible to attacks from outsiders and susceptible to natural disasters.
  • Close proximity of people facilitated the spread of disease.

 Development of River Valley Civilizations

Causes

  • Spread of agricultural practices and the domestication of animals allowed for more sophisticated and larger settlements to emerge.
  • The first large settled societies emerge where there was access to fresh water, along the Tigris/Euphrates, the Nile, the Indus and the Huang He rivers. 
  • Periodic flooding of the rivers provided rich fertile soil for sustaining agricultural surplus and increasing populations.

Effects

  • Civilization emerged with common political, economic, and cultural patterns.
  • Surplus agricultural output allowed some not to farm and new specialization of labor emerged.
  • Social divisions became more pronounced as ownership of land became a determinant of wealth.
  • Organized religions developed, first distinguished as mostly polytheist
  • Advances were made in mathematics, time keeping, metal working and monumental building
  • Law codes were introduced
NewWH.2 History. The student understands how early civilizations developed from 8000 BC to 500 BC. The student is expected to:
NewWH.2A Summarize the impact of the development of farming (Neolithic Revolution) on the creation of river valley civilizations.

Summarize

IMPACT OF FARMING ON CREATION OF RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Jericho in the modern-day West Bank territories controlled by the Palestinian Authority, Jarmo in modern-day Iraq, and Çatal Hüyük in modern-day Turkey are some of the oldest established Neolithic agricultural communities; originally      inhabited 9,000 years ago or even older

Development of river valley civilizations:

  • Four early major river valley civilizations developed
    • Tigris and Euphrates
    • Nile
    • Indus
    • Huang He Rivers
  • Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent (3500 BC-1600 BC)
    • Settlement on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers around 4500 BC
    • Sumerians arrive in 3500 BC and begin irrigation
    • Sumerian city – states established around 3000 BC and initially controlled by temple priests
    • Polytheistic religion – Ziggurat (temple) center of each city-state
    • Scientific achievements – wheel, sail, plow, bronze, cuneiform
    • Babylonian Empire reaches its peak under Hammurabi (1792 BC-1750 BC), who established a written, uniform code of laws (Hammurabi’s Code).
    • Babylonian Empire ended around 1500 BC and other civilizations in this area, Assyrians, Phoenicians, and Hebrews, adopted ideas first developed by early Sumerians.
  • Egypt (3000 BC-2000 BC)
    • Earliest settlement along the Nile River began in 5000 BC
    • Irrigation along the Nile led to Egypt being known as “The Gift of the Nile.” Flooding was on a regular yearly cycle.
    • Ruled by pharaohs who were considered god-kings; theocracy established as form of government
    • Polytheistic religion
    • Religious features – pyramids built as tombs for pharaohs; belief in the afterlife; mummification of the dead to prevent bodies from decaying
    • Stratified society – royal family followed by upper class (priests and nobles), followed by middle class (merchants and artisans), and then the lower class (peasant farmers and unskilled laborers); slavery later became a source of labor
    • Writing system – hieroglyphics; writing done on papyrus
    • Scientific achievements – written numbers, geometry, stone columns, calendar for flooding cycle, advanced medicine
    • Empire declines as other civilizations invade Egypt after 1200 BC
  • Indus River Valley Civilizations (2500 BC-1700 BC)
    • First major cities include Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa that were developed on grid systems and had sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems
    • These early cities declined around 1750 BC due to a possible change in the course of the Indus River
    • Indo-European people known as Aryans settle in the Indus Valley around 1500 BC
    • Caste system developed under Aryans to separate Aryan from non-Aryan
  • Chinese River Valley Civilizations (3950 BC-1000 BC)
    • Huang He (Yellow) River Valley
    • Shang Dynasty (2000 BC) – division of classes; importance of family
    • Writing system where each symbol represents an idea
    • Technology and science – bronze-working, silk
NewWH.2B Identify the characteristics of civilization.

Identify

CHARACTERISTICS OF CIVILIZATION

Including, but not limited to:

  • Key features of civilization
    • Advanced cities
    • Specialized workers
    • Complex institutions – government, religion, economics
    • Record keeping – cuneiform in Sumerian cities, hieroglyphics in Egypt
    • Advanced technology – pottery, metalwork, beginning of Bronze Age in Sumer in 3000 BC
NewWH.15 Geography. The student understands the impact of geographic factors on major historic events and processes. The student is expected to:
NewWH.15A Locate places and regions of historical significance directly related to major eras and turning points in world history.

Locate

PLACES, REGIONS OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO MAJOR ERAS AND TURNING POINTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Development of River Valley Civilizations (8000BC-500BC)
    • Mesopotamia, Fertile Crescent, Nile River Valley, Indus Valley, Huang-He River Valley
NewWH.15B

Analyze the influence of human and physical geographic factors on major events in world history such as the development of river valley civilizations, trade in the Indian Ocean, and the opening of the Panama and Suez canals.

Analyze

INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Development of river valley civilizations
    • Human geographic factors – irrigation allowed for the production of agricultural surplus; overland trade routes were established facilitating economic development
    • Physical geographic factors – fertile soil in river valleys allowed for production of agricultural surplus; access to water facilitated transportation and irrigation; mountains in China and India offered protection; cataracts on the Nile protected Egypt from southern invasions; lack of physical barriers in Mesopotamia resulted  in recurring invasions of the region 
NewWH.15C Interpret maps, charts, and graphs to explain how geography has influenced people and events in the past.

Interpret

MAPS, CHARTS, GRAPHS

Explain

HOW GEOGRAPHY INFLUENCED PEOPLE AND EVENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Physical geographic features greatly influence settlement patterns as population tend to concentrate in regions with favorable climates, access to water, and arable land. Examples include the patterns exhibited by the River Valley Civilizations, and the pattern of city-states settlements in Ancient Greece.
  • Physical geographic features may also provide protection from invasion or facilitate multiple invasions.
  • Access to transportation routes facilitates trade and cultural diffusion.
NewWH.16 Economics. The student understands the impact of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions and globalization on humanity. The student is expected to:
NewWH.16A Identify important changes in human life caused by the Neolithic Revolution.

Identify

IMPORTANT CHANGES CAUSED BY THE NEOLITHIC

Including, but not limited to:

  • Establishment of settlements which led to civilized societies
  • Production of surplus agricultural products allowed for specialized labor and led to the creation of an economy in settled societies
  • Settlements need rules and law to maintain order to facilitate peaceful trade and to manage large irrigation projects
  • Threats of external invaders made it necessary to have leaders who could provide security
  • Finances were maintained by imposing taxes or tributes on residents
NewWH.18 Government. The student understands the characteristics of major political systems throughout history. The student is expected to:
NewWH.18A Identify the characteristics of monarchies and theocracies as forms of government in early civilizations.

Identify

CHARACTERISTICS OF MONARCHIES AND THEOCRACIES IN EARLY CIVILIZATIONS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Monarchies – military leaders who commanded soldiers displace priests as rulers; power passed on to their sons, who in turn passed it on to their sons; this leads to formation of early dynasties in river valley civilizations (e.g., Sumerian city-states)
  • Theocracies – rulers were divine leaders who were seen as god-kings (e.g., pharaohs in Egypt; stood at the center of both religion and the government and its army)
NewWH.19 Government. The student understands how contemporary political systems have developed from earlier systems of government. The student is expected to:
NewWH.19B

Identify the impact of political and legal ideas contained in the following documents: Hammurabi's Code, the Jewish Ten Commandments, Justinian's Code of Laws, Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

Identify

IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL IDEAS FROM HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Hammurabi's Code
    • Political impact – by deriving a single code of laws from the body of custom of his day, Hammurabi made law something objective, and less personal and, therefore, more stable and predictable
    • Legal impact – the notion of a separate judiciary, as part of overall government (this is a hallmark of modern democratic governments, the world over)
  • Jewish Ten Commandments
    • Moses the Lawgiver
    • High standard of moral conduct
    • Covenant between God and the Hebrew people – God’s protection in exchange for keeping God’s commandments
NewWH.23 Culture. The student understands the roles of women, children, and families in different historical cultures. The student is expected to:
NewWH.23A Describe the changing roles of women, children, and families during major eras of world history.

Describe

ROLES OF WOMEN, CHILDREN, FAMILIES IN WORLD HISTORY

Including, but not limited to:
River Valley Civilizations (8000BC-500BC)

  • Specialization of labor allowed for paid labor for men; women became the primary caregivers to children and educators of children which was unpaid.
  • Families, including children, shared labor in agricultural settings.
NewWH.26 Science, technology, and society. The student understands how major scientific and mathematical discoveries and technological innovations affected societies prior to 1750. The student is expected to:
NewWH.26A

Identify the origin and diffusion of major ideas in mathematics, science, and technology that occurred in river valley civilizations, classical Greece and Rome, classical India, the Islamic caliphates between 700 and 1200, and China from the Tang to Ming dynasties.

Identify

ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY THAT TOOK PLACE BETWEEN 700 AND 1200

Including, but not limited to:

  • River Valley Civilizations (Pre 700s)
    • Mesopotamia
    • Plow
    • Pottery
    • Bronze
    • Wheel
    • Arch
    • Sail
    • Cuneiform writing
    • Number system based on 60 and 360 degree circles
    • Phoenicians – alphabet
    • Egypt
    • Mummification of the dead
    • Pyramids
    • Hieroglyphics
    • Papyrus
    • Calendar system based on Nile’s flood cycle
    • Medical advancements in surgery and for repairing broken bones
    • Indus River Valley
    • Sewer and plumbing systems in Mohenjo-Daro
    • Planned city systems
    • Huang He River Valley
    • Writing system based on symbols
    • Silk
    • Coined money
    • Ironworks
    • Great Wall of China
NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28E Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions, and developing connections between historical events over time.

Analyze

INFORMATION BY

Including, but not limited to:

  • Sequencing refers to the practice of arranging items in a specific order. Most commonly in social studies this is done with events either sequenced by absolute chronology or exact date of by relative chronology or placing events in chronological order without necessarily identifying exact dates
  • Categorizing refers to the practice of placing items in particular groups.
  • Identifying cause-and-effect relationships is a common skill applied in historical analysis to examine change over time.
  • Comparing and contrasting refers to examination of similarities and differences.
  • Finding the main idea is a literacy skill applied to the examination most often of textual and visual sources.
  • Summarizing is a literacy skill utilized to condense information to a concise version.
  • Making generalizations and predictions is facilitated by the examination of patterns. Generalizations are general statements that should be based on the evidence presented by patterns so predictions can be made based on that pattern.
  • Drawing inferences and conclusions results from examining evidence and articulating interpretations of that evidence.
NewWH.30 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
NewWH.30A Use social studies terminology correctly.

Use

SOCIAL STUDIES TERMINOLOGY CORRECTLY

NewWH.30B Use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism.

Use

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Including, but not limited to:

  • Correct grammar and punctuation
  • Accurate spelling
  • Clear diction and sentence structure
  • Proper citations to avoid plagiarism
NewWH.30C Interpret and create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.

Interpret, Create

WRITTEN, ORAL, AND VISUAL PRESENTATIONS OF SOCIAL STUDIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPING TEKS

TEKS that need continued practice, improvement, and refinement, but do not necessarily need to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

  • Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
  • Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
  • Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

  • Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
NewWH.28 Social studies skills. The student understands how historians use historiography to interpret the past and applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
NewWH.28A Identify methods used by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, and geographers to analyze evidence.

Identify

METHODS USED BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS TO ANALYZE EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Archaeologists (artifacts, fossils, excavations, etc.)
  • Anthropologists (fieldwork, analysis of written records, DNA, etc.)
  • Historians (primary sources, secondary sources, oral history, etc.)
  • Geographers (GIS, satellite images, different types of maps, etc.)
NewWH.28B Explain how historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, and point of view to interpret historical events.

Explain

HOW HISTORIANS ANALYZE SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Frame of reference refers to the life experiences of the author of a source.
  • Historical context refers to the time period in which the author lives, or when the document was produced.
  • Point of view refers to the historical perspective, claim, or attitude an individual expresses in a document.
  • Historians analyze sources for frame of reference, historical context, to understand how those factors have influenced the point of view of the author.
NewWH.28C Analyze primary and secondary sources to determine frame of reference, historical context, and point of view.

Analyze

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Maps
  • Graphs
  • Speeches
  • Political cartoons/broadsides
  • Artifacts
  • Diaries
  • Newspapers/articles
  • Historical documents
NewWH.28D Evaluate the validity of a source based on bias, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author.

Evaluate

VALIDITY OF A SOURCE BASED ON

Including, but not limited to:

  • Bias refers to a favoritism towards one way of thinking. All individuals exhibit bias, of which they may or may not be consciously aware.
  • Corroboration with other sources provides information about what aspects of the source are similar to or different from other sources.
  • Information about the author is needed to evaluate the credibility and expertise of the author as well as to examine how historical context or life experiences has influenced the perspective of the author.
NewWH.28F Construct a thesis on a social studies issue or event supported by evidence.

Construct

THESIS ON A SOCIAL STUDIES ISSUE OR EVENT SUPPORTED BY EVIDENCE

Including, but not limited to:

  • Thesis statement refers to main claim or argument made in an essay. Many times historical interpretations are presented as a thesis. Historical interpretations of issues or events should be supported by evidence.
NewWH.29 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic skills and tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
NewWH.29A Create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts to demonstrate the relationship between geography and the historical development of a region or nation.

Create

THEMATIC MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS

NewWH.29B Analyze and compare geographic distributions and patterns in world history shown on maps, graphs, charts, and models.

Analyze, Compare

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS AND PATTERNS ON MAPS, GRAPHS, CHARTS, MODELS

NewWH.31 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to:
NewWH.31A Use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.

PROBLEM-SOLVING AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES

Including, but not limited to:

  • Identify a problem
  • Gather information
  • List and consider options
  • Consider advantages and disadvantages
  • Choose and implement a solution
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS), as required by 19 Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 74, Subchapter A, §74.4, outline English language proficiency level descriptors and student expectations for English language learners (ELLs). School districts are required to implement ELPS as an integral part of each subject in the required curriculum.

School districts shall provide instruction in the knowledge and skills of the foundation and enrichment curriculum in a manner that is linguistically accommodated commensurate with the student’s levels of English language proficiency to ensure that the student learns the knowledge and skills in the required curriculum.


School districts shall provide content-based instruction including the cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills in subsection (c) of the ELPS in a manner that is linguistically accommodated to help the student acquire English language proficiency.

http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.4 


Choose appropriate ELPS to support instruction.

ELPS# Subsection C: Cross-curricular second language acquisition essential knowledge and skills.
Click here to collapse or expand this section.
ELPS.c.1 The ELL uses language learning strategies to develop an awareness of his or her own learning processes in all content areas. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.1A use prior knowledge and experiences to understand meanings in English
ELPS.c.1B monitor oral and written language production and employ self-corrective techniques or other resources
ELPS.c.1C use strategic learning techniques such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing, contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.1D speak using learning strategies such as requesting assistance, employing non-verbal cues, and using synonyms and circumlocution (conveying ideas by defining or describing when exact English words are not known)
ELPS.c.1E internalize new basic and academic language by using and reusing it in meaningful ways in speaking and writing activities that build concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.1F use accessible language and learn new and essential language in the process
ELPS.c.1G demonstrate an increasing ability to distinguish between formal and informal English and an increasing knowledge of when to use each one commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.1H develop and expand repertoire of learning strategies such as reasoning inductively or deductively, looking for patterns in language, and analyzing sayings and expressions commensurate with grade-level learning expectations.
ELPS.c.2 The ELL listens to a variety of speakers including teachers, peers, and electronic media to gain an increasing level of comprehension of newly acquired language in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in listening. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.2A distinguish sounds and intonation patterns of English with increasing ease
ELPS.c.2B recognize elements of the English sound system in newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters
ELPS.c.2C learn new language structures, expressions, and basic and academic vocabulary heard during classroom instruction and interactions
ELPS.c.2D monitor understanding of spoken language during classroom instruction and interactions and seek clarification as needed
ELPS.c.2E use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language
ELPS.c.2F listen to and derive meaning from a variety of media such as audio tape, video, DVD, and CD ROM to build and reinforce concept and language attainment
ELPS.c.2G understand the general meaning, main points, and important details of spoken language ranging from situations in which topics, language, and contexts are familiar to unfamiliar
ELPS.c.2H understand implicit ideas and information in increasingly complex spoken language commensurate with grade-level learning expectations
ELPS.c.2I demonstrate listening comprehension of increasingly complex spoken English by following directions, retelling or summarizing spoken messages, responding to questions and requests, collaborating with peers, and taking notes commensurate with content and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.3 The ELL speaks in a variety of modes for a variety of purposes with an awareness of different language registers (formal/informal) using vocabulary with increasing fluency and accuracy in language arts and all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in speaking. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.3A practice producing sounds of newly acquired vocabulary such as long and short vowels, silent letters, and consonant clusters to pronounce English words in a manner that is increasingly comprehensible
ELPS.c.3B expand and internalize initial English vocabulary by learning and using high-frequency English words necessary for identifying and describing people, places, and objects, by retelling simple stories and basic information represented or supported by pictures, and by learning and using routine language needed for classroom communication
ELPS.c.3C speak using a variety of grammatical structures, sentence lengths, sentence types, and connecting words with increasing accuracy and ease as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3D speak using grade-level content area vocabulary in context to internalize new English words and build academic language proficiency
ELPS.c.3E share information in cooperative learning interactions
ELPS.c.3F ask and give information ranging from using a very limited bank of high-frequency, high-need, concrete vocabulary, including key words and expressions needed for basic communication in academic and social contexts, to using abstract and content-based vocabulary during extended speaking assignments
ELPS.c.3G express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics
ELPS.c.3H narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.3I adapt spoken language appropriately for formal and informal purposes
ELPS.c.3J respond orally to information presented in a wide variety of print, electronic, audio, and visual media to build and reinforce concept and language attainment.
ELPS.c.4 The ELL reads a variety of texts for a variety of purposes with an increasing level of comprehension in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in reading. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across the foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations apply to text read aloud for students not yet at the stage of decoding written text. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.4A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language and decode (sound out) words using a combination of skills such as recognizing sound-letter relationships and identifying cognates, affixes, roots, and base words
ELPS.c.4B recognize directionality of English reading such as left to right and top to bottom
ELPS.c.4C develop basic sight vocabulary, derive meaning of environmental print, and comprehend English vocabulary and language structures used routinely in written classroom materials
ELPS.c.4D use prereading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pretaught topic-related vocabulary and other prereading activities to enhance comprehension of written text
ELPS.c.4E read linguistically accommodated content area material with a decreasing need for linguistic accommodations as more English is learned
ELPS.c.4F use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging language
ELPS.c.4G demonstrate comprehension of increasingly complex English by participating in shared reading, retelling or summarizing material, responding to questions, and taking notes commensurate with content area and grade level needs
ELPS.c.4H read silently with increasing ease and comprehension for longer periods
ELPS.c.4I demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing basic reading skills such as demonstrating understanding of supporting ideas and details in text and graphic sources, summarizing text, and distinguishing main ideas from details commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4J demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing inferential skills such as predicting, making connections between ideas, drawing inferences and conclusions from text and graphic sources, and finding supporting text evidence commensurate with content area needs
ELPS.c.4K demonstrate English comprehension and expand reading skills by employing analytical skills such as evaluating written information and performing critical analyses commensurate with content area and grade-level needs.
ELPS.c.5 The ELL writes in a variety of forms with increasing accuracy to effectively address a specific purpose and audience in all content areas. ELLs may be at the beginning, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high stage of English language acquisition in writing. In order for the ELL to meet grade-level learning expectations across foundation and enrichment curriculum, all instruction delivered in English must be linguistically accommodated (communicated, sequenced, and scaffolded) commensurate with the student's level of English language proficiency. For Kindergarten and Grade 1, certain of these student expectations do not apply until the student has reached the stage of generating original written text using a standard writing system. The student is expected to:
ELPS.c.5A learn relationships between sounds and letters of the English language to represent sounds when writing in English
ELPS.c.5B write using newly acquired basic vocabulary and content-based grade-level vocabulary
ELPS.c.5C spell familiar English words with increasing accuracy, and employ English spelling patterns and rules with increasing accuracy as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5D edit writing for standard grammar and usage, including subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and appropriate verb tenses commensurate with grade-level expectations as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5E employ increasingly complex grammatical structures in content area writing commensurate with grade-level expectations, such as:
ELPS.c.5F write using a variety of grade-appropriate sentence lengths, patterns, and connecting words to combine phrases, clauses, and sentences in increasingly accurate ways as more English is acquired
ELPS.c.5G narrate, describe, and explain with increasing specificity and detail to fulfill content area writing needs as more English is acquired.
Last Updated 06/19/2019
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