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 Instructional Focus DocumentPrecalculus
 TITLE : Unit 06: Sequences, Series, and Binomial Expansion SUGGESTED DURATION : 10 days

Unit Overview

Introduction
This unit bundles student expectations that address representing arithmetic and geometric sequences and series in various formats and using these representations to solve mathematical and real-world problems. Additionally, the Binomial Theorem is also applied for expanding binomials raised to a positive integer. Concepts are incorporated into both mathematical and real-world problem situations. According to the Texas Education Agency, mathematical process standards including application, tools and techniques, communication, representations, relationships, and justifications should be integrated (when applicable) with content knowledge and skills so that students are prepared to use mathematics in everyday life, society, and the workplace.

Prior to this Unit
In Algebra I Unit 10, students identified terms of arithmetic and geometric sequences and wrote formulas for the nth term of arithmetic and geometric sequences. In Algebra I Units 01 – 04, students studied linear expressions, functions, and equations. In Algebra I Units 02 and 09 and in Algebra II Units 01 and 09 – 11, students investigated exponential functions and equations in depth. Additionally, in Algebra I Units 01 and 06, students rewrote polynomial expressions of degree one and degree two in equivalent forms using the distributive property, and in Algebra II Unit 4, students multiplied polynomials. In Geometry Unit 10, students used combinations to solve contextual problems.

During this Unit
Students represent arithmetic sequences using recursive and explicit formulas and use these representations to calculate the nth term of an arithmetic sequence. Students represent arithmetic series using sigma notation and calculate the nth term of the series. Students calculate nth partial sums and other finite sums written in sigma notation in mathematical and real-world problems. Students represent geometric sequences using recursive and explicit formulas and use these representations to calculate the nth term of a geometric sequence. Students represent geometric series using sigma notation and calculate the nth term of a geometric series. Students calculate nth partial sums of a geometric series and the sum of an infinite geometric series when it exists. Students expand expressions of the form (a + b)n by hand for small, positive, integral values of n and make connections between the coefficients of these expansions, Pascal’s triangle, and combinations. Students apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (a + b)n in powers of a and b for a positive integer n, where a and b are any numbers, including solving real-world problems.

After this Unit
In subsequent courses in mathematics, students will apply concepts of sequences, series, and binomial expansions as they arise in problem situations.

Function analysis serves as the foundation for college readiness. Analysis of sequences as functions whose domain is the set of whole numbers is emphasized in the Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS): II. Algebraic Reasoning B1, C1; V. Probabilistic Reasoning B1; VII. Functions B2; VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning; IX. Communication and Representation; X. Connections.

Research
According to a 2007 report, published by the Mathematical Association of America, a “fundamental experience” for students entering college mathematics courses is to address problems in real-world situations by creating and interpreting mathematical models. Functions provide a way to quantitatively study the relationships and change in numerous real-world phenomena; this, coupled with the applicability of functions to many mathematical topics, make functions one of the most important topics in high school mathematics (Cooney, Beckmann, & Lloyd, 2010). In Texas, the importance of these skills is emphasized in the TxCCRS, which calls for students to be able to understand and analyze features of a function to model real-world situations. According to Cooney, Beckmann, & Lloyd (2010), “The concept of function is intentionally broad and flexible, allowing it to apply to a wide range of situations” (p. 7). Specifically, sequences represent a form of non-traditional functions: arithmetic sequences can be thought of as linear functions with a domain of the natural numbers, while geometric sequences can be thought of as exponential functions with a domain of the natural numbers. Research suggests that the reasoning we use to analyze sequences is similar to the reasoning we use to analyze continuous functions (Cooney, Beckmann, & Lloyd, 2010). Additionally, research argues that students need both a strong conceptual understanding of functions, as well as procedural fluency; as such, good instruction must include “a conceptual understanding of function, the ability to represent a function in a variety of ways, and fluency in moving among multiple representations of functions” (National Research Council, 2005, p. 353). The Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000) from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) notes the necessity for high school students to generalize patterns using explicitly defined and recursively defined functions and to use symbolic expressions, including iterative and recursive forms, to represent relationships arising from various contexts.

Cooney, T., Beckmann, S., & Lloyd, G. (2010). Developing essential understanding of functions for teaching mathematics in grades 9-12. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.
Katz, Victor J. (Ed.). (2007). Algebra: Gateway to a technological future. Mathematical Association of America.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc.
National Research Council. (2005). How students learn: Mathematics in the classroom. M.S. Donovan & J.D. Bransford (Eds.). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Texas Education Agency & Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Texas college and career readiness standards. Retrieved from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us/index.cfm?objectid=E21AB9B0-2633-11E8-BC500050560100A9

 Quantitative relationships model problem situations efficiently and can be used to make generalizations, predictions, and critical judgements in everyday life. What patterns exist within different types of quantitative relationships and where are they found in everyday life? Why is the ability to model quantitative relationships in a variety of ways essential to solving problems in everyday life? Numeracy requires the ability to work flexibly with quantities in order to recognize, reason, and solve situations of varying contexts in everyday life, society, and the work place. How is numeracy like literacy? What are some examples of numeracy in everyday life, society, and the work place? How does context influence understanding of a quantity? Why is the ability to work flexibly with quantities essential to developing the foundations of numeracy? Understanding and generalizing operational relationships leads to more sophisticated representations and solution strategies in order to investigate or solve problem situations in everyday life. What relationships exist within and between mathematical operations? How does generalizing operational relationships lead to developing more flexible, efficient representations and/or solution strategies? Why is understanding the problem solving process an essential part of learning and working mathematically?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)
• Different families of functions, each with their own unique characteristics, can be used to model problem situations to make predictions and critical judgments.
• Arithmetic sequences can be thought of as linear functions whose domains are the positive integers.
• Geometric sequences can be thought of as exponential functions whose domains are the positive integers.
• What kinds of mathematical and real-world situations can be modeled by …
• arithmetic sequences?
• geometric sequences?
• What patterns of covariation are associated with …
• arithmetic sequences?
• geometric sequences?
• What relationships exist between arithmetic sequences and linear functions?
• What relationships exist between geometric sequences and exponential functions?
• Equations can be written, transformed, and solved using various methods to make critical judgments, with different methods being more efficient or informative depending on the structure of the equation.
• How can equations be used to represent relationships between quantities?
• Why must solutions be justified in terms of problem situations?
• How does the given information and/or representation influence the selection of an efficient method for writing formulas for arithmetic sequences and geometric sequences?
• How are properties and operational understandings used to transform formulas for arithmetic sequences and geometric sequences?
• What methods can be used to write formulas for …
• arithmetic series?
• geometric series?
• The ability to represent quantities in various forms develops the understanding of equivalence and allows for working flexibly with algebraic expressions in order to communicate and reason about quantities.
• How can expressions be used to represent situations?
• What mathematical conventions are used when representing expressions? Why?
• How can it be determined if two expressions are equivalent?
• How are properties and operational understandings used to generate equivalent expressions?
• Why can it be useful to simplify expressions?
• How does the structure of the expression influence the selection of an efficient method for simplifying expressions that represent sums and series?
• Algebraic Reasoning
• Relations and Functions
• Arithmetic sequences
• Geometric sequences
• Formulas
• Expressions and Equations
• Finite sums
• Arithmetic series
• Geometric series
• Patterns, Operations, and Properties
• Associated Mathematical Processes
• Application
• Problem Solving Model
• Tools and Techniques
• Communication
• Representations
• Relationships
• Justification
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

 Numeracy requires the ability to work flexibly with quantities in order to recognize, reason, and solve situations of varying contexts in everyday life, society, and the work place. How is numeracy like literacy? What are some examples of numeracy in everyday life, society, and the work place? How does context influence understanding of a quantity? Why is the ability to work flexibly with quantities essential to developing the foundations of numeracy? Understanding and generalizing operational relationships leads to more sophisticated representations and solution strategies in order to investigate or solve problem situations in everyday life. What relationships exist within and between mathematical operations? How does generalizing operational relationships lead to developing more flexible, efficient representations and/or solution strategies? Why is understanding the problem solving process an essential part of learning and working mathematically?
Unit Understandings
and Questions
Overarching Concepts
and Unit Concepts
Performance Assessment(s)

The ability to represent quantities in various forms develops the understanding of equivalence and allows for working flexibly with algebraic expressions in order to communicate and reason about quantities.

• How can expressions be used to represent situations?
• What mathematical conventions are used when representing expressions? Why?
• How can it be determined if two expressions are equivalent?
• How are properties and operational understandings used to generate equivalent expressions?
• Why can it be useful to simplify expressions?
• How does the structure of the expression influence the selection of an efficient method for simplifying a binomial expansion expression?
• Algebraic Reasoning
• Expressions
• Binomial Theorem
• Patterns, Operations, and Properties
• Associated Mathematical Processes
• Application
• Problem Solving Model
• Tools and Techniques
• Communication
• Representations
• Relationships
• Justification
 Assessment information provided within the TEKS Resource System are examples that may, or may not, be used by your child’s teacher. In accordance with section 26.006 (2) of the Texas Education Code, "A parent is entitled to review each test administered to the parent’s child after the test is administered." For more information regarding assessments administered to your child, please visit with your child’s teacher.

MISCONCEPTIONS / UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS

Misconceptions:

• Some students may think that there is no distinction between the term in a sequence (an)and its position in the sequence (n), particularly when using the related formulas. For example, the fifth term in a sequence (a5) is not necessarily a five (even though n = 5). For students, this can be particularly troublesome in the notation for recursively defined sequences, such as .
• Some students may represent a sequence with a recursive rule without defining the first term. The recursive formula can describe an infinite number of arithmetic sequences. To describe a specific arithmetic sequence, students must also indicate the value of a term in the sequence, such as a1.
• Some students may overlook the lower bound when computing a sum written in sigma notation. The summation (3n – 4) will have a different sum than the summation (3n – 4).
• Some students may think they do not need parentheses in the summation notation when the formula includes addition and subtraction. The summation (3n – 4) will have a different sum than 3n – 4. In the second summation, the sum is found using the formula 3n and 4 is subtracted from the final summation.
• Some students may choose an incorrect r value when computing nCr for the coefficient of the (r + 1) term in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n. For example, when determining the coefficient of the third term in the binomial expansion of (a + b)7, students should calculate the combination 7C2, not 7C3.
• Some students may make sign errors when they apply the Binomial Theorem to expansions of the form (a – b)n. Students should interpret these expressions as (a + (–b))n.

Underdeveloped Concepts:

• Some students may think that the first term in a sequence is always denoted as a1. Some conventions denote the first term as a0. In such a sequence, a4 would really be the fifth term in the sequence.

Unit Vocabulary

• Arithmetic sequences – sequence formed by adding or subtracting the same value to calculate each subsequent term
• Arithmetic series – the sum of an arithmetic sequence
• Convergent geometric series – series in which the partial sum approaches a given number or a limit as the term number increases
• Domain of a sequence – set of natural numbers; 1, 2, 3, ...
• Geometric sequences – sequence formed by multiplying or dividing by the same value to calculate each subsequent term
• Geometric series – the sum of a geometric sequence
• Range of a sequence – terms in the sequence calculated by the sequence rule
• Recursive process – calculation of a term in a sequence by the application of a rule to the previous term in the sequence
• Sequence – a list of numbers or a collection of objects written in a specific order that follow a particular pattern. Sequences can be viewed as functions whose domains are the positive integers.
• Series – the sum of the terms of a sequence

Related Vocabulary:

 Binomial expansion Binomial Theorem Combination Common difference Common ratio Divergent Explicit formula Explicit formula Exponential function Factorial Fibonacci sequence Index Infinite sum Linear function Lower bound Partial sum Pascal’s triangle Recursive formula Sigma notation Sum Summation Upper bound
Unit Assessment Items System Resources Other Resources

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Unit Assessment Items that have been published by your district may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources tab. Assessment items may also be found using the Assessment Center if your district has granted access to that tool.

System Resources may be accessed through Search All Components in the District Resources Tab.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board – Texas College and Career Readiness Standards

Texas Education Agency – Mathematics Curriculum

Texas Education Agency – STAAR Mathematics Resources

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Revised Mathematics TEKS: Vertical Alignment Charts

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Mathematics TEKS: Supporting Information

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Interactive Mathematics Glossary

Texas Education Agency Texas Gateway – Resources Aligned to Precalculus Mathematics TEKS

Texas Instruments – Graphing Calculator Tutorials

TAUGHT DIRECTLY TEKS

TEKS intended to be explicitly taught in this unit.

TEKS/SE Legend:

• Knowledge and Skills Statements (TEKS) identified by TEA are in italicized, bolded, black text.
• Student Expectations (TEKS) identified by TEA are in bolded, black text.
• Portions of the Student Expectations (TEKS) that are not included in this unit but are taught in previous or future units are indicated by a strike-through.

Specificity Legend:

• Supporting information / clarifications (specificity) written by TEKS Resource System are in blue text.
• Unit-specific clarifications are in italicized, blue text.
• Information from Texas Education Agency (TEA), Texas College and Career Readiness Standards (TxCCRS), Texas Response to Curriculum Focal Points (TxRCFP) is labeled.
TEKS# SE# TEKS SPECIFICITY
P.1 Mathematical process standards. The student uses mathematical processes to acquire and demonstrate mathematical understanding. The student is expected to:
P.1A Apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.

Apply

MATHEMATICS TO PROBLEMS ARISING IN EVERYDAY LIFE, SOCIETY, AND THE WORKPLACE
Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical problem situations within and between disciplines
• Everyday life
• Society
• Workplace

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• X. Connections
P.1B Use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution.

Use

A PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL THAT INCORPORATES ANALYZING GIVEN INFORMATION, FORMULATING A PLAN OR STRATEGY, DETERMINING A SOLUTION, JUSTIFYING THE SOLUTION, AND EVALUATING THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS AND THE REASONABLENESS OF THE SOLUTION
Including, but not limited to:

• Problem-solving model
• Analyze given information
• Formulate a plan or strategy
• Determine a solution
• Justify the solution
• Evaluate the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
P.1C Select tools, including real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology as appropriate, and techniques, including mental math, estimation, and number sense as appropriate, to solve problems.

Select

TOOLS, INCLUDING REAL OBJECTS, MANIPULATIVES, PAPER AND PENCIL, AND TECHNOLOGY AS APPROPRIATE, AND TECHNIQUES, INCLUDING MENTAL MATH, ESTIMATION, AND NUMBER SENSE AS APPROPRIATE, TO SOLVE PROBLEMS
Including, but not limited to:

• Appropriate selection of tool(s) and techniques to apply in order to solve problems
• Tools
• Real objects
• Manipulatives
• Paper and pencil
• Technology
• Techniques
• Mental math
• Estimation
• Number sense

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
P.1D Communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations, including symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language as appropriate.

Communicate

MATHEMATICAL IDEAS, REASONING, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS USING MULTIPLE REPRESENTATIONS, INCLUDING SYMBOLS, DIAGRAMS, GRAPHS, AND LANGUAGE AS APPROPRIATE
Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications
• Multiple representations, as appropriate
• Symbols
• Diagrams
• Graphs
• Language

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• IX. Communication and Representation
P.1E Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.

Create, Use

REPRESENTATIONS TO ORGANIZE, RECORD, AND COMMUNICATE MATHEMATICAL IDEAS
Including, but not limited to:

• Representations of mathematical ideas
• Organize
• Record
• Communicate
• Evaluation of the effectiveness of representations to ensure clarity of mathematical ideas being communicated
• Appropriate mathematical vocabulary and phrasing when communicating mathematical ideas

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• IX. Communication and Representation
P.1F Analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas.

Analyze

MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS TO CONNECT AND COMMUNICATE MATHEMATICAL IDEAS
Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical relationships
• Connect and communicate mathematical ideas
• Conjectures and generalizations from sets of examples and non-examples, patterns, etc.
• Current knowledge to new learning

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• X. Connections
P.1G Display, explain, and justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication.

Display, Explain, Justify

MATHEMATICAL IDEAS AND ARGUMENTS USING PRECISE MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE IN WRITTEN OR ORAL COMMUNICATION

Including, but not limited to:

• Mathematical ideas and arguments
• Validation of conclusions
• Displays to make work visible to others
• Diagrams, visual aids, written work, etc.
• Explanations and justifications
• Precise mathematical language in written or oral communication

Note(s):

• The mathematical process standards may be applied to all content standards as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• IX. Communication and Representation
P.5 Algebraic reasoning. The student uses process standards in mathematics to evaluate expressions, describe patterns, formulate models, and solve equations and inequalities using properties, procedures, or algorithms. The student is expected to:
P.5A Evaluate finite sums and geometric series, when possible, written in sigma notation.

Evaluate

FINITE SUMS AND GEOMETRIC SERIES, WHEN POSSIBLE, WRITTEN IN SIGMA NOTATION

Including, but not limited to:

• Series – the sum of the terms of a sequence
• Sigma notation, (3n + 5), to represent a series
• Terms and symbols
• Summation symbol (sigma), ∑
• Formula, 3n + 5
• Index (variable), n
• Lower bound of domain, n = 1
• Upper bound of domain, n = 10
• Processes to determine the sum
• Determination of the sum from a list of all terms
• Application of sum formulas for arithmetic and geometric series
• Formulas to evaluate the sum of a series
• Arithmetic series
• Summation formula: Sn = (a1 + an)
• Variables
• n = the number of terms in the series
• a1 = the first term in the series
• an = the last (or nth) term in the series
• Sn = the finite sum of the first n terms in the series
• Geometric series
• Summation formulas
• Sn = • S = • Variables
• n = the number of terms in the series
• a1 = the first term in the series
• r = the common ratio of the terms in the series
• Sn = the nth partial sum of the first n terms in the series
• S= the sum of all the terms in an infinite geometric series (with |r| < 1)
• Solve real-world problems involving finite arithmetic and finite geometric series

Note(s):

• Algebra I wrote linear equations for relationships based on a table of values.
• Algebra I wrote exponential equations of the form y = abx for relationships based on a table of values.
• Algebra I wrote representations for arithmetic and geometric sequences and found terms in arithmetic and geometric sequences.
• Precalculus applies skills from writing linear equations in the context of arithmetic sequences by relating the terms in the sequence to the explicit and recursive formulas based on the common difference.
• Precalculus applies skills from writing exponential equations in the context of geometric sequences by relating the terms in the sequence to the explicit and recursive formulas based on the common ratio.
• Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• II. Algebraic Reasoning
• B1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to combine, transform, and evaluate expressions (e.g., polynomials, radicals, rational expressions).
• C1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to solve equations, inequalities, and systems of linear equations.
• VII. Functions
• B2 – Algebraically construct and analyze new functions.
• VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
• IX. Communication and Representation
• X. Connections
P.5B Represent arithmetic sequences and geometric sequences using recursive formulas.

Represent

ARITHMETIC SEQUENCES AND GEOMETRIC SEQUENCES USING RECURSIVE FORMULAS

Including, but not limited to:

• Sequence – a list of numbers or a collection of objects written in a specific order that follow a particular pattern. Sequences can be viewed as functions whose domains are the positive integers.
• Domain of a sequence – set of natural numbers; 1, 2, 3, ...
• The domain of a sequence represents the position, n, of the term.
• Range of a sequence – terms in the sequence calculated by the sequence rule
• The range of a sequence represents the value of the term at the nth position.
• The range is the actual listed number in a sequence.
• Although a0 can be given or determined, it is not part of the sequence.
• Arithmetic sequences – sequence formed by adding or subtracting the same value to calculate each subsequent term
• Ex: 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, ... Three is added to the previous term to caculate each subsequent term.
• Ex: 7, 3, –1, –5, ... Four is subtracted from the previous term to calculate each subsequent term.
• Common difference between consecutive terms
• Notation to represent the terms and common difference of an arithmetic sequence
• First term: a1
• Second term: a2
• nth term: an
• Common difference: d
• Recursive notation
• Recursive process – calculation of a term in a sequence by the application of a rule to the previous term in the sequence
• Arithmetic
• an = an–1 + d, where one term of the sequence is given
• an+1 = an + d, where one term of the sequence is given
• f(n) = f(n – 1) + d, where one term of the sequence is given
• f(n + 1) = f(n) + d, where one term of the sequence is given
• Use of technology and the recursive formula to determine a sequence
• Explicit notation for an arithmetic sequence
• an = a1 + d(n – 1)
• Geometric sequences – sequence formed by multiplying or dividing by the same value to calculate each subsequent term
• Ex: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, ... The previous term is multiplied by two in order to calculate each subsequent term.
• Ex: 81, 27, 9, 3, 1, , ... Three is divided into the previous term to calculate each subsequent term or one-third is multiplied to calculate each subsequent term.
• Common ratio between consecutive terms
• Notation to represent the terms and common ratio of a geometric sequence
• First term: a1
• Second term: a2
• nth term: an
• Common ratio: r
• Recursive notation
• Recursive process – calculation of a term in a sequence by the application of a rule to the previous term in the sequence
• Geometric
• an = ran–1, where one term of the sequence is given
• an+1 = r • an, where one term of the sequence is given
• f(n) = rf(n – 1), where one term of the sequence is given
• f(n + 1) = rf(n), where one term of the sequence is given
• One term in the sequence must be given in order to find the preceding and/or subsequent terms in the sequence
• Use of technology and the recursive formula to determine a sequence
• Explicit notation for a geometric sequence
• an = a1rn–1

Note(s):

• Algebra I wrote linear equations for relationships based on a table of values.
• Algebra I determined terms in arithmetic and geometric sequences.
• Algebra I wrote exponential equations of the form y = abx for relationships based on a table of values.
• Algebra I wrote representations for arithmetic and geometric sequences and found terms in arithmetic and geometric sequences.
• Precalculus applies skills from writing linear equations in the context of arithmetic sequences by relating the terms in the sequence to the explicit and recursive formulas based on the common difference.
• Precalculus applies skills from writing exponential equations in the context of geometric sequences by relating the terms in the sequence to the explicit and recursive formulas based on the common ratio.
• Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• II. Algebraic Reasoning
• B1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to combine, transform, and evaluate expressions (e.g., polynomials, radicals, rational expressions).
• C1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to solve equations, inequalities, and systems of linear equations.
• VII. Functions
• B2 – Algebraically construct and analyze new functions
• VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
• IX. Communication and Representation
• X. Connections
P.5C Calculate the nth term and the nth partial sum of an arithmetic series in mathematical and real-world problems.

Calculate

THE nth TERM AND THE nth PARTIAL SUM OF AN ARITHMETIC SERIES IN MATHEMATICAL AND REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS

Including, but not limited to:

• Arithmetic series – the sum of an arithmetic sequence
• Finding the nth term
• Recursive process – calculation of a term in a sequence by the application of a rule to the previous term in the sequence
• Given the first term and recursive formula, an = an–1 + d
• Determination of the common difference
• Repeated addition of the common difference
• Use of technology and the recursive formula to determine a sequence
• Explicit formula process
• Formula to find any term in an arithmetic sequence:an = a1 + d(n – 1)
• n = number of the term in the sequence
• an = the nth term
• a1 = the first term
• d = common difference
• Finding the nth partial sum
• Sequence of terms
• Terms of sequence in order
• Calculation of the sum of the sequence of terms
• Formula to find nth partial sum of an arithmetic series
• Sn = (a + an)
• n = number of terms in the series
• an = the nth term
• a1 = the first term
• Sn = the nth partial sum (or the sum of the first n terms)

Note(s):

• Algebra I wrote linear equations for relationships based on a table of values.
• Algebra I determined terms in arithmetic and geometric sequences.
• Precalculus applies skills from writing linear equations in the context of arithmetic sequences by relating the terms in the sequence to the explicit and recursive formulas, based on the common difference.
• Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• II. Algebraic Reasoning
• B1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to combine, transform, and evaluate expressions (e.g., polynomials, radicals, rational expressions).
• C1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to solve equations, inequalities, and systems of linear equations.
• VII. Functions
• B2 – Algebraically construct and analyze new functions.
• VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
• IX. Communication and Representation
• X. Connections
P.5D Represent arithmetic series and geometric series using sigma notation.

Represent

ARITHMETIC SERIES AND GEOMETRIC SERIES USING SIGMA NOTATION

Including, but not limited to:

• Arithmetic series – the sum of an arithmetic sequence
• Geometric series – the sum of a geometric sequence
• Sigma notation, (3n + 5), to represent a series
• Terms and symbols
• Summation symbol (sigma), ∑
• Formula, 3n + 5
• Index (variable), n
• Lower bound of domain, n = 1
• Upper bound of domain, n = 10
• Process to determine the sum
• Determination of the sum from a list of all terms
• Application of sum formulas for arithmetic and geometric series
• Writing a series in sigma notation
• Type of sequence
• Arithmetic (consecutive terms have a common difference)
• Geometric (consecutive terms have a common ratio)
• Other types of sequences (e.g., Fibonacci, etc.)
• Explicit formula
• Arithmetic: an = a1 + d(n – 1)
• Geometric: an = a1(r)n–1
• Using sigma notation with the correct upper and lower bounds
• Formulas to evaluate the sum of a series
• Arithmetic series
• Sn = (a1 + an)
• Variables
• n = the number of terms in the series
• a1 = the first term in the series
• an = the last (or nth) term in the series
• Sn = the finite sum of the first n terms in the series
• Geometric series
• Sn = • Variables
• n = the number of terms in the series
• a1 = the first term in the series
• r = the common ratio of the terms in the series
• Sn = the nth partial sum of the first n terms in the series
• Infinite geometric series
• S = • Variables
• a1 = the first term in the series
• r = the common ratio of the terms in the series
• S = the sum of all the terms in an infinite geometric series (with |r| < 1)

Note(s):

• Algebra I wrote exponential equations of the form y = abx for relationships based on a table of values.
• Precalculus applies skills from writing linear equations in the context of arithmetic sequences by relating the terms in the sequence to the explicit and recursive formulas based on the common difference.
• Precalculus applies skills from writing exponential equations in the context of geometric sequences by relating the terms in the sequence to the explicit and recursive formulas based on the common ratio.
• Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• II. Algebraic Reasoning
• B1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to combine, transform, and evaluate expressions (e.g., polynomials, radicals, rational expressions).
• C1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to solve equations, inequalities, and systems of linear equations.
• VII. Functions
• B2 – Algebraically construct and analyze new functions.
• VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
• IX. Communication and Representation
• X. Connections
P.5E Calculate the nth term of a geometric series, the nth partial sum of a geometric series, and sum of an infinite geometric series when it exists.

Calculate

THE nth TERM OF A GEOMETRIC SERIES, THE nth PARTIAL SUM OF A GEOMETRIC SERIES, AND SUM OF AN INFINITE GEOMETRIC SERIES WHEN IT EXISTS

Including, but not limited to:

• Geometric series – the sum of a geometric sequence
• Finding the nth term of a geometric series
• Recursive process – calculation of a term in a sequence by the application of a rule to the previous term in the sequence
• Given the first term and recursive formula, an = (an–1) • r
• Determination of the common ratio
• Repeated multiplication with the common ratio
• Use of technology and the recursive formula to determine a sequence
• Ex: For the geometric sequence 8, 4, 2, 1, …, the seventh term (a7) can be found by multiplying the fourth term (a4 = 1) by the common ratio (r = 0.5) three more times. (1 • 0.5 • 0.5 • 0.5 = 0.125)
• Explicit formula process
• Formula to find the nth term in a geometric sequence: an = a1•(r)n-1
• n = number of the term in the sequence
• an = the nth term
• a1 = the first term
• r = common ratio
• Finding the nth partial sum of a geometric series
• Writing out the terms
• Sequence of terms
• Terms of sequence in order
• Calculation of the sum of the sequence of terms
• Formula to find nth partial sum of a geometric series: Sn = • n = number of terms in the series
• r = common ratio
• a1 = the first term
• Sn = the nth partial sum (or the sum of the first n terms)
• Finding the sum of an infinite geometric series (when it exists)
• Identifying when an infinite geometric series converges
• Investigating whether a geometric series is divergent or convergent
• Convergent geometric series – series in which the partial sum approaches a given number or a limit as the term number increases
• For an infinite geometric series to converge, |r| must be less than 1.
• Formula for the sum of an infinite geometric series: S = • r = common ratio
• a1 = the first term
• S = the sum of the terms

Note(s):

• Algebra I wrote exponential equations of the form y = abx for relationships based on a table of values.
• Precalculus applies skills from writing exponential equations in the context of geometric sequences by relating the terms in the sequence to the explicit and recursive formulas, based on the common ratio.
• Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• II. Algebraic Reasoning
• B1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to combine, transform, and evaluate expressions (e.g., polynomials, radicals, rational expressions).
• C1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to solve equations, inequalities, and systems of linear equations.
• VII. Functions
• B2 – Algebraically construct and analyze new functions.
• VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
• IX. Communication and Representation
• X. Connections
P.5F Apply the Binomial Theorem for the expansion of (a + b)n in powers of a and b for a positive integer n, where a and b are any numbers.

Apply

THE BINOMIAL THEOREM FOR THE EXPANSION OF (b)n IN POWERS OF AND FOR A POSITIVE INTEGER n, WHERE AND ARE ANY NUMBERS

Including, but not limited to:

• Development of rules for binomial expansion
• Expansion of expressions of the form (a + b)n algebraically (by hand) for small values of n(n ≤ 4)
• Connection of coefficients to Pascal’s Triangle
• Representation of coefficients using the symbols involving factorials
• Factorials
• n! = (n)(n – 1)(n – 2)∙ ∙ ∙ 3 • 2 • 1
• Binomial coefficients are represented by combinations.
• , where n and r are whole numbers with nr
• Other notations for combinations
• C(n, r)
• nCr
• General formula to find terms in a binomial expansion
• Formula: • Solving real-world problems involving binomial expansion

Note(s):

• Algebra I rewrote polynomial expressions of degree one and degree two in equivalent forms using the distributive property.
• Geometry used combinations to solve problems.
• Algebra II multiplied polynomials.
• Precalculus applies all of these skills to expand binomials to whole number powers.
• Various mathematical process standards will be applied to this student expectation as appropriate.
• TxCCRS:
• II. Algebraic Reasoning
• B1 – Recognize and use algebraic (field) properties, concepts, procedures, and algorithms to combine, transform, and evaluate expressions (e.g., polynomials, radicals, rational expressions).
• V. Probabilistic Reasoning
• B1 – Compute and interpret the probability of an event and its complement.
• VIII. Problem Solving and Reasoning
• IX. Communication and Representation
• X. Connections 